Makkala Belavanige Mattu Arogya Rakshane Child Health & Development
Heredity <ul><li>Developmental Psychology: The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity (Nature): Transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to their children through genes </li></ul><ul><li>DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid): Molecular structure, shaped like a double helix that contains coded genetic information </li></ul>
Genes <ul><li>Genes: Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant: The gene’s feature will appear each time the gene is present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recessive: The gene’s feature will appear only if it is paired with another recessive gene </li></ul></ul>
Fig. 3.2 (Top left) Linked molecules (organic bases) make up the “rungs” on DNA’s twisted “molecular ladder.” The order of these molecules serves as a code for genetic information. The code provides a genetic blueprint that is unique for each individual (except identical twins). The drawing shows only a small section of a DNA strand. An entire strand of DNA is composed of billions of smaller molecules. (Bottom left) The nucleus of each cell in the body contains chromosomes made up of tightly wound coils of DNA. (Don’t be misled by the drawing: Chromosomes are microscopic in size and the chemical molecules that make up DNA are even smaller.)
Fig. 3.3 Gene patterns for children of brown-eyed parents, where each parent has one brown-eye gene and one blue-eye gene. Since the brown-eye gene is dominant, 1 child in 4 will be blue-eyed. Thus, there is a significant chance that two brown-eyed parents will have a blue-eyed child.
Temperament and Environment <ul><li>Temperament: The physical “core” of personality; includes sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, and typical mood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy Children: 40 %; relaxed and agreeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult Children: 10 %; moody, intense, easily angered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow-to-Warm-Up Children: 15 %; restrained, unexpressive, shy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining Children: Do not fit into any specific category </li></ul></ul>
Environment <ul><li>Environment (“Nurture”): All external conditions that affect a person and perhaps his/her development </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive Periods: A period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences; also, a time when certain events must occur for normal development to take place </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital Problem: A problem or defect that occurs during prenatal development; “birth defect” </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Disorder: Problem caused by inherited characteristics from parents; e.g., cystic fibrosis </li></ul>
Teratogens <ul><li>Anything capable of causing birth defects (e.g., narcotics, radiation, cigarette smoke, lead, and cocaine) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): Caused by repeated heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Infants: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have low birth weight, a small head, body defects, and facial malformations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack Cupid’s Bow, the bow-shaped portion of the upper lip (look in the mirror to see) </li></ul></ul></ul>
How to Minimize Prenatal Risks <ul><li>Maintain good nutrition during pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Learn relaxation and stress reduction techniques to ease transition to motherhood </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid teratogens and other harmful substances </li></ul><ul><li>Get adequate exercise during pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain general education about pregnancy and childbirth </li></ul>
Childbirth <ul><li>Medicated Birth: Traditional; mother is assisted by physician and given drugs for pain </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared Childbirth: Parents learn specific behavioral techniques to manage pain and facilitate labor. Lamaze method is most famous </li></ul>
Deprivation and Enrichment <ul><li>Deprivation: Lack of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, or love </li></ul><ul><li>Enrichment: When an environment is deliberately made more complex and intellectually stimulating and emotionally supportive </li></ul>
The Mozart Effect: Real or Nonsense? <ul><li>Rauscher & Shaw (1998) claimed that after college students listened to Mozart they scored higher on a spatial reasoning test </li></ul><ul><li>Original experiment done with adults; tells us nothing about infants </li></ul><ul><li>What effect would listening to other styles of music have? </li></ul><ul><li>Most researchers unable to duplicate the effect </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Those who listened to Mozart were just more alert or in a better mood </li></ul>
Newborns (Neonates) and Their Reflexes <ul><li>Grasping Reflex: If an object is placed in the infant’s palm, she’ll grasp it automatically (all reflexes are automatic responses; i.e., they come from nature, not nurture) </li></ul><ul><li>Rooting Reflex: Lightly touch the infant’s cheek and he’ll turn toward the object and attempt to nurse; helps infant find nipple or food </li></ul><ul><li>Sucking Reflex: Touch an object or nipple to the infant’s mouth and she’ll make rhythmic sucking movements </li></ul><ul><li>Moro Reflex: If a baby’s position is abruptly changed or if he is startled by a loud noise, he will make a hugging motion </li></ul>
Fig. 3.5 Infant imitation. In the top row of photos, Andrew Meltzoff makes facial gestures at an infant. The bottom row records the infant’s responses. Videotapes of Meltzoff and of tested infants helped ensure objectivity. (Photos courtesy of Andrew N. Meltzoff.)
Fig. 3.7 Motor development. Most infants follow an orderly pattern of motor development. Although the order in which children progress is similar, there are large individual differences in the ages at which each ability appears. The ages listed are averages for American children. It is not unusual for many of the skills to appear 1 or 2 months earlier than average or several months later (Frankenberg & Dodds, 1967; Harris & Liebert, 1991). Parents should not be alarmed if a child’s behavior differs some from the average.
Maturation <ul><li>Definition: Physical growth and development of the body, brain, and nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Increased muscular control occurs in patterns; order of maturation is almost universal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cephalocaudal: From head to toe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximodistal: From center of the body to the extremities </li></ul></ul>
Emotional and Social Development <ul><li>Basic Emotions: Anger, fear, joy; appear to be unlearned </li></ul><ul><li>Social Smile: Smiling elicited by social stimuli; not exclusive to seeing parents </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Awareness: Awareness of oneself as a person; can be tested by having infants look in a mirror and see if they recognize themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Social Referencing: Observing other people to get information or guidance </li></ul>
Fig. 3.9 The traditional view of infancy holds that emotions are rapidly differentiated from an initial capacity for excitement. (After K.M.B. Bridges, 1932. From “Emotional Development in Early Infancy.” Reprinted by permission of the Society for Research in Child Development.)
Fig. 3.10 Infants display many of the same emotional expressions as adults do. Carroll Izard believes such expressions show that distinct emotions appear within the first months of life. Other theorists argue that specific emotions come into focus more gradually, as an infant’s nervous system matures. Either way, parents can expect to see a full range of basic emotions by the end of a baby’s first year. Over the first 2 years, children become increasingly active in initiating emotional exchanges with parents (Grolnick, Cosgrove, & Bridges, 1996).
Imprinting (Lorenz) <ul><li>Definition: Rapid, relatively permanent type of learning that occurs during a limited time period early in life </li></ul><ul><li>Lorenz (an ethologist) studied natural behavior patterns of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Hatched baby geese in an incubator; when geese were born, first moving object they saw was Lorenz </li></ul><ul><li>They followed him around and acted as though he were their mother! </li></ul>
Mary Ainsworth and Attachment <ul><li>Separation Anxiety: Crying and signs of fear when a child is left alone or is with a stranger; generally appears around 8-12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of Attachment (Ainsworth) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure: Stable and positive emotional bond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecure-Avoidant: Anxious emotional bond; tendency to avoid reunion with parent or caregiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecure-Ambivalent: Anxious emotional bond; desire to be with parent or caregiver and some resistance to being reunited with Mom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contact Comfort (Harlow): Pleasant and reassuring feeling babies get from touching something warm and soft, especially their mother </li></ul>
Fig. 3.17 Children under age 7 intuitively assume that a volume of liquid increases when it is poured from a short, wide container into a taller, thinner one. This boy thinks the tall container holds more than the short one. Actually each holds the same amount of liquid. Children make such judgments based on the height of the liquid, not its volume.