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meha dingoooooooooooooooo

  1. 2. <ul><li>The Era before Radio </li></ul><ul><li>The communication was very slow before Radio. </li></ul><ul><li>When Christopher Columbus discovered America, the Queen Isabella received message after five months </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>In 1792, France had started ‘Sign Lights’ </li></ul><ul><li>With this system they can reach around 4800 km. </li></ul><ul><li>With the help of 190 rely station, 400 horses & 80 riders they can cover 3100 km area of America. Within 10 days they can send post from east to west end. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Pony Express was the fastest communication style in America at that time </li></ul><ul><li>It was limited to America only. </li></ul><ul><li>So the new communication pattern was in need to start. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>In 1823, Samuel Morse invented Telegraph. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also known as Morse Code </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraph became so much popular at that time </li></ul><ul><li>Wire was used for communication in telegraph. </li></ul><ul><li>It was its limitation to limit the communication </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>After some experiments he was able to send his waves up to 14 km. </li></ul><ul><li>The image shown here is the tower from where Marconi started wireless communication </li></ul>
  6. 7. Electro Magnetic Waves <ul><li>In 1894, Italy reach family’s son Guglielmo Marconi had started experiments of wire less communication. </li></ul><ul><li>His first experiment in Briton was at the top of the General Post office Building. His waves were traveled 275 meters. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Jhon Fleming started </li></ul><ul><li>John Fleming who was at Imperial College London, had started experiments for making this waves more powerful & more clear. For this he had invented a Vacuum Tube. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Canadian scientist Dr. Lee De Forest made it more effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Forest broadcasted his speech form radio on 31 st Dec. 1906. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1908 Dr. Forest Broadcasted a recorded music form the top Eiffel Tower, which was heard up to 500 miles. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>When wireless communication started at that time people were using this informally, if some ships had installed instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1910 US Congress passed a law under which every passenger ship must be using Radio Equipment and a trained Radio Operator. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>David Sarnoff who received message of Titanic and rescued people, later on he had contributed a lot in the field of Development of Broadcasting. </li></ul><ul><li>Titanic sink in 1912. </li></ul><ul><li>At that time, becuase of the radio 700 lives were rescued </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>In World War US Government had taken charges from all wireless stations as it is the most powerful communication weapon </li></ul><ul><li>Government asked all companies to research & invent a instrument which can be use as a wireless telephone. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>“ Walkie- Talkie” is the first transmitter/ receiver that helped human talk with the walk </li></ul><ul><li>The name was given by Motorola SCR-300. </li></ul><ul><li>It was manufactured by Galvin Manufacturing company. </li></ul><ul><li>It was very much used </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>In 1897 wireless telegraph & signal co. ltd. was started. </li></ul><ul><li>It was the first electronic communication company . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1919 when The Radio Corporation of America established at that time all rights of American Marconi co. ltd. was purchased by RCA. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Broadcasting was introduced in India by amateur radio clubs in Calcutta, Bombay, Madras and Lahore, though even before the clubs launched their venture. </li></ul><ul><li>The Times of India records that a broadcast was transmitted from the roof of its building on August 20, 1921. </li></ul><ul><li>The first license granted for transmitting a broadcast was given on February 23, 1922. </li></ul><ul><li>The Radio Club of Calcutta was perhaps the first amateur radio club to start functioning in Nov-1924. </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>The Government run broadcasting set up was called the India State Broadcasting Service (ISBS). </li></ul><ul><li>Fielden was its first Controller. </li></ul><ul><li>Interestingly, ISBS was set up under the Department of Industries and Labour. </li></ul><ul><li>Fielden brought All India Radio – a name thought up by him and then ISBS was turned into AIR in June 1936 </li></ul>
  16. 20. <ul><li>The leaders of ‘Quit India’ movement had no access to either radio or the press. </li></ul><ul><li>All India Radio was British property </li></ul><ul><li>So that young Congress freedom fighters launched their short-lived congress Radio on September 3 1942 on 41.78 meter ‘from somewhere in India. </li></ul><ul><li>The broadcasts continue from October 15 to 17 to raise the transmitter's power </li></ul><ul><li>Then young fighters were arrested and it was stopped. </li></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><li>After Independence, AIR started stations located at Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lacknow and Tiruchirapplli, Mysore, Travancore, Hyderabad and Aurangabad </li></ul><ul><li>There were only 1 8 transmitters which increased upto 25 in couple of years. </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of the commercial channel ‘Vividh Bharti’ in October 1957 increased the interest and popularity of radio. </li></ul>
  18. 23. Total All India Radio Stations & other quality <ul><li>AIR today has a network of 232 broadcasting centres with 149 medium frequency(MW), 54 high frequency (SW) and 171 FM transmitters. </li></ul><ul><li>The coverage is 91.79% of the area , serving 99.14% of the people in the largest democracy of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>AIR covers 24 Languages and 146 dialects in home services. In External services, it covers 27 languages; 17 national and 10 foreign languages.  </li></ul>
  19. 25. <ul><li>FM broadcasts were introduced in Madras in 1977 and later at Jalandhar in 1992, but it was only in 1993 when slots came to be leased to private companies. </li></ul><ul><li>On August 15, 1993 a Frequency Modulation (FM) Channel was launched in Bombay, with nine hours of radio which sloats was leased to private producers like Times FM, radiostar and Radio Midday. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides sponsored hit parades and count-downs, the FM programmes include chat shows, news bulletins, contests, quizzes and plays. </li></ul>
  20. 27. 91.1 - Radio City 91.9 - Radio Indigo 92.7 - Big FM 93.5 - S FM 94.3 - Radio One 98.3 - Radio Mirchi 101.3 - FM Rainbow 102.9 - Vivdh Bharati 104 - Fever FM 105.6 - Gyaan Vaani
  21. 28. <ul><li>Current allocation process </li></ul><ul><li>In FM Phase II some 338 frequencies were offered of which about 237 were sold. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also accepted that the that the next phase will give the news sloats to the FM. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance and South Asia FM (Sun group) bid for most of the 91 cities. </li></ul><ul><li>they were allowed only 15% of the total allocated frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Between them, they have had to surrender over 40 licenses. </li></ul>
  22. 29. <ul><li>Advertising Scenario </li></ul><ul><li>India's new private FM channels could also change the advertising scenario. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, radio accounts for 7% to 8% of advertiser expenditures around the world. In India, it is less than 2% at present. </li></ul><ul><li>FDI allotment in Radio is 20 percent. </li></ul>
  23. 30. <ul><li>Mumbai and Delhi reached 34 per cent each from 8 and 19 per cent, respectively, in 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>In Delhi as well as in Mumbai, 30 per cent of women listen to FM radio. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 36 per cent men in Mumbai tune into FM channels while 38 per cent in Delhi. </li></ul><ul><li>In Mumbai, 80 per cent of listening happens at home whereas in Delhi it is 72 per cent. </li></ul><ul><li>Delhi, which has a higher ownership of cars (13 per cent) and car radios (82 per cent) , also has a higher incidence of in-car listenership (seven per cent) as compared to Mumbai where only two per cent of listening happens in the car. </li></ul>
  24. 31. Assignment Given by : Prepared By :