Iluminação de Escritórios

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  • 1. PHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF NEW LIGHTING SYSTEMS TU Ilmenau (Ilmenau University of Technology) Study, subject area: lighting technology Zumtobel Lighting & Siteco Excerpt Zumtobel Lighting Junghans; Sejkora; Petschulat Siteco Hr. Sabla 21.06.2006 1
  • 2. TU Ilmenau Study BASIC SUBSTANCE OF STUDY Contrast is an appropriate criterion for describing the quality criteria for new requirements in modern offices: Differences in brightness and brightness levels influence adaptation and hence contrast sensitivity People use contrast to recognise visual details Contrast describes the underlying conditions in the office 1. Differences in brightness in the room Brightness distribution in proportion and on walls, ceiling, floor Room brightness distribution in relation to visual task 2. Contrast rendition in order to identify visual task Contrast perception on screens Contrast perception at visual task (irritation caused by reflected glare, e.g. on paper, as a function of luminance of light source and its arrangement) Modern lighting technologies such as waveguides, microprism systems and Mellow Light/secondary systems address these issues comprehensively 2 ILMENAU STUDIE · 9. März 2006 EXTRAKT ZUR ILMENAU STUDIE · 21.06.2006 © ZUMTOBEL LIGHTING GMBH
  • 3. TU Ilmenau Study CONTRAST RATIOS – WHAT IS CONTRAST? Contrast perception People perceive contrasts, i.e. differences in brightness or contrast improve visual performance and visual comfort Specifically: higher or lower contrast Ergonomic lighting for spatial perception/a sense of well-being and trouble-free activity must provide the Example of inadequate optotype contrast and poor CRF value following contrast ratios - Room - low contrast, i.e. balanced differences in brightness on surfaces that enclose room - Workplace - high optotype contrast without distracting reflections that reduce contrast, i.e. high CRF value - Monitors – high optotype contrast without distracting reflections that reduce contrast, regardless of inclination and alignment relative to luminaire Example of good optotype contrast and good CRF value 3 ILMENAU STUDIE · 9. März 2006 EXTRAKT ZUR ILMENAU STUDIE · 21.06.2006 © ZUMTOBEL LIGHTING GMBH
  • 4. TU Ilmenau Study ROOM CONTRAST RATIO 15 cd/m² 17 % Room Brightness distribution in room has a 17 decisive influence on users’ level of cd/m² adaptation and subjective sense of 20 % well-being 23 cd/m² 27 % 15 cd/m² The more balanced the contrast ratios 17 % of the lighting installation in a room, the greater the preference expressed 34 by user groups cd/m² 39 % Care must be taken to ensure gentle 36 cd/m² transitions in brightness 41 % 51 cd/m² 59 % 17 cd/m² 20 % 4 ILMENAU STUDIE · 9. März 2006 EXTRAKT ZUR ILMENAU STUDIE · 21.06.2006 © ZUMTOBEL LIGHTING GMBH
  • 5. TU Ilmenau Study RATING ACCORDING TO USERS’ SUBJECTIVE SENSE OF WELLBEING • Waveguide systems 1.) Balanced ID ratio, bright ceiling and bright walls, optic appears bright and is low-glare • Microprism systems, indirect/direct Balanced ID ratio, bright ceiling and bright walls, optic appears bright and is low-glare 2.) • Secondary systems Extremely wide-angle light distribution with plenty of brightness on the wall and ceiling brightening • Microprism systems, direct Bright appearance, no brightening of 3.) ceiling • Louvre systems Brightness is provided exclusively in the task area, there is hardly any direct illumination of room peripheries 5 ILMENAU STUDIE · 9. März 2006 EXTRAKT ZUR ILMENAU STUDIE · 21.06.2006 © ZUMTOBEL LIGHTING GMBH
  • 6. TU Ilmenau Study TASK AREA CONTRAST RATIO • Task area High contrast rendition, i.e. high CRF value, is indispensable for ensuring trouble-free optotype recognition Arranging luminaires with direct light distribution above the visual task and the associated reflections adversely affect this criterion Modern lighting systems with a well-graded direct/indirect ratio and diffusers that direct light in order to reduce direct luminance are one possible solution 6 ILMENAU STUDIE · 9. März 2006 EXTRAKT ZUR ILMENAU STUDIE · 21.06.2006 © ZUMTOBEL LIGHTING GMBH
  • 7. TU Ilmenau Study RATING ACCORDING TO CONTRAST IN TASK AREA Waveguide systems 1.) • Laterally injected light • Large indirect component and balanced brightness between optic of luminaire and ceiling 2.) Microprism systems, indirect/direct • Fully shielded light source • Balanced indirect/direct ratio Secondary systems 3.) • Completely covered light source • Balanced differences in brightness between surface of luminaire and ceiling area in immediate vicinity of luminaire 4.) Microprism systems, direct • Completely covered light source, otherwise direct light only 5.) Louvre systems • Depending on arrangement, exposed light source results in greater contrast reduction in task area 7 ILMENAU STUDIE · 9. März 2006 EXTRAKT ZUR ILMENAU STUDIE · 21.06.2006 © ZUMTOBEL LIGHTING GMBH
  • 8. TU Ilmenau Study SCREEN CONTRAST RATIO Angular viewing Screen Contrast rendition on screens is an additional criterion that provides a conventional description of glare control in accordance with existing published standards Various screen technologies, inclination angles and layouts make geometrical glare control more difficult/make Inclination and type of screen adequate contrast rendition on the as determining factors screen necessary Modern screens offer improved display quality and are therefore less sensitive to reflections Modern screens achieve optimum contrast rendition even in case of critical layouts and inclination angles Various contrast rendition situations in case of inclined screen and different lighting situations 8 ILMENAU STUDIE · 9. März 2006 EXTRAKT ZUR ILMENAU STUDIE · 21.06.2006 © ZUMTOBEL LIGHTING GMBH
  • 9. TU Ilmenau Study RATING ACCORDING TO CONTRAST ON SCREEN Waveguide systems Completely covered light source, luminaire provides glare 1.) control for light radiated at shallow and steep angles. Surroundings reflected on monitor have low brightness contrast Large indirect component 2.) Microprism systems, indirect/direct • Fully shielded light source, luminaire provides glare control for light radiated at shallow and steep angles. Surroundings reflected on monitor have low brightness contrast 50%/50% indirect/direct ratio 3.) Secondary systems Fully shielded light source, luminaire provides glare control for light radiated at shallow and steep angles. Light exit surface has balanced brightness 4.) Microprism systems, indirect/direct Fully shielded light source, luminaire provides glare control for light radiated at shallow and steep angles. Light exit surface has balanced brightness Louvre systems Exposed visible light source excels in critical layouts Good glare control for steeply inclined screens where screens are arranged between luminaires 9 ILMENAU STUDIE · 9. März 2006 EXTRAKT ZUR ILMENAU STUDIE · 21.06.2006 © ZUMTOBEL LIGHTING GMBH
  • 10. TU Ilmenau Study ALL CRITERIA TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION TOGETHER 4 individual criteria 4 Arrangements 3 Screen types / 5 Lighting Contrast on screen inclination angles Systems CRF at workplace •CRT upright •Light Fields ID UGR value •TFT upright •AERO •TFT inclined •Mellow Light IV Em at monitor level •Light Fields Direct •Louvre gut highly suitable geeignet mit suitable with restrictions Einschränkung geeignet bedingt geeignet suitable to limited extent 10 ILMENAU STUDIE · 9. März 2006 EXTRAKT ZUR ILMENAU STUDIE · 21.06.2006 © ZUMTOBEL LIGHTING GMBH
  • 11. TU Ilmenau Study Recommended luminaire applications depending on lighting situation (taking all criteria into account) VERGLEICH MODERNER LICHTSYSTEME STUDIE ILMENAU GEWICHTUNG 4 Light Fields ID AERO Mildes Licht IV Light Fields Direkt Raster CRT 1,7 1,8 1,6 1,4 1,2 Blickrichtung quer zu den Leuchten TFT steil 2,1 2,4 2,0 2,0 1,5 Beleuchtungssituationen TFT flach 1,8 2,2 1,7 1,7 1,1 CRT 1,7 1,9 1,3 1,5 1,4 Blickrichtung paralell zu den Leuchten TFT steil 2,1 2,4 2,0 2,0 1,8 TFT flach 1,9 2,1 1,9 1,6 1,5 CRT 1,8 1,9 1,5 1,7 1,2 Blickrichtung diagonal zu den Leuchten TFT steil 2,2 2,4 2,0 2,1 1,5 TFT flach 1,9 2,2 2,0 1,7 1,2 CRT 1,5 1,7 1,5 1,3 1,0 AP Ausrichtung unter den Leuchten TFT steil 2,0 2,3 1,9 1,9 1,4 TFT flach 1,6 2,1 1,5 1,4 0,8 Mittelwert 1,9 2,1 1,7 1,7 1,3 gut geeignet gemäss Kriterien UGR, CRF und Reflexe, Bel.Stärke Monitor mit Einschränkung geeignet gemäss Kriterien UGR, CRF und Reflexe bedingt geeignet gemäss Kriterien UGR, CRF und Reflexe Summing up, for offices where a completely user-selectable layout is a requirement, results are as follows for a) Reflections, b) UGR, c) CRF and d) EMmonitor: - Waveguides are highly suitable for all layouts and all types of screens - Microprism systems ID and secondary systems for all layouts and TFT screens - Microprism systems (direct) for all layouts and steeply inclined TFT screens - Louvres are only suitable for parallel layouts and steeply inclined screens 11 ILMENAU STUDIE · 9. März 2006 EXTRAKT ZUR ILMENAU STUDIE · 21.06.2006 © ZUMTOBEL LIGHTING GMBH