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Plant sheets jan2013

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  • 1. Creeping Rye Grass – Leymus triticoides (formerly Elymus triticoides)(LIE (LAY)-mus trih-tih-coe-EE-deez)Family: Poaceae (Grass Family)Native to: Western N. America, including CA (except desert). Found in many plant communities, oftenin moist, saline areas including sand dunes, saline meadows, river flats.Growth characteristics: cool season, sod-forming grass mature height: 1-3 ft. (un-mowed) mature width:variable. Forms large clonal clumps (sod) by spreading rhizomes. Stems upright, hollow. Green insummer. Looks like cross between Bermuda Grass and Saltgrass.Blooms/fruits: blooms in spring; small inconspicuous green flowers on taller stems.Uses in the garden: Best native grass for seasonally wet swales, streambeds, washes. Makes a finemowed lawn. OK under trees – not deep shade. Excellent for bank stabilization and weed suppression.Easy, tough & adaptable. Good-looking. Cultivars ‘Rio’ and ‘Yolo’ are suited for S. CA. ‘Gray Dawn’has gray foliage, fast growth.Sensible substitute for: non-native rye grasses (Arizona & Canada Ryes).Attracts: insects, birds (cover & seeds), Skipper butterfliesRequirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun to partial shade; fine under oaks, cottonwoods, sycamoresSoil Any texture if well-drained; tolerates alkaline soilsWater Likes some summer water but tolerates drought; tolerates seasonal floodingFertilizer Low/none neededOtherManagement: Can mow every 3-4 weeks in growing season (mow high). Will look like Bermuda Grassif mowed. Remember that it can be invasive, particularly with summer watering. Easiest if startedfrom pugs, if available. See grower’s advice for seeding rates.Propagation: from seed: low vigor – seed heavily from divisions: very easy in spring. Largerdivisions can be replanted in ground; grow smaller divisions up to size in pots.Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 2-5, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 20, 21, 25, 28 12/6/10 © Project SOUND
  • 2. Seashore Bentgrass/Thin Grass – Agrostis pallens (ag-ROSS-tiss PAL-lenz)Family: Poaceae (Grass Family)Native to: Much of CA; common in coastal strand, foothill woodland, valley grassland, chaparral, Openmeadows and conifer forests.Growth characteristics: perennial grass mature height: 1-2 ft. mature width: 1-3 ft.Cool-season rhizomatous (sod-forming) grass with fine, delicate-looking blades. Moderate growthrate. Plants are summer dormant with no summer water. Can be used as a lawn substitute.Blooms/fruits: Blooms in summer (June-Aug). Flower/seed heads as much as 2 ft taller thanleaves, showy. Dramatic when bunched – a pale pink-gold that seems to float over the leaves.Uses in the garden: Useful as a mowed native lawn in sun or part shade. Also attractive as anornamental grass with other native grasses and wildflowers. Tends to prefer moist areas but willsimply go dormant in dry conditions. Fine texture – nice looking grass with delicate flowers.Sensible substitute for: Non-native lawn and ornamental grasses.Attracts: Birds eat seeds.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun to part-shade; better flowering with more sunSoil Any well-drained; especially good in sandy or rocky soilsWater Wide range; Zone 1-2 for summer dormant, Zone 2-3 to keep it greenFertilizer None; does best in nutrient-poor soilsOtherManagement: Low maintenance once established; Can mow/clip several times during growingseason, 4-6” high. If grown as an ornamental grass can mow/clip in late fall to promote growth.Propagation: from seed: yes; in pots or prepared beds fall to spring by root cuttings/divisions: yesPlant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 2, 4, 10, 13, 14, 16, 20 11/24/10 © Project SOUND
  • 3. * Red Fescue – Festuca rubra (fes-TOO-cuh ROO-bruh )Family: Poaceae (Grass Family)Native to: Much of Northern Hemisphere, where rain is sufficient. In California, north coast andfoothills; in grasslands and forests below 8000 ft.Growth characteristics: spreading perennial grass mature height: 1-2 ft. mature width: 2-6 ft.Cool-season, sod-forming perennial grass that spreads via under-ground rhizomes and stolons. Somenatural variants spread more than others. Nice medium green color; medium-fine texture. Can bemowed (will spread to form a conventional lawn) or left un-mowed. Un-mowed, it forms a mounded,lawn-like grass groundcover.Blooms/fruits: Blooms in spring-summer; usually April-May in our area. Flowers are typical forFescue grasses: simple, wind-pollinated flowers on taller stems. Not the showiest of native grassesin terms of flowers – but pretty in a natural garden.Uses in the garden: Most often used as a lawn grass – mowed or not. More drought tolerant thanconventional lawn grasses in our area. Green year-round with a little summer water. Does well onslopes; often used for erosion control. Fine under trees. Can be combined with sedges andwildflowers for a natural meadow. Several cultivars are widely available including Festuca rubra‘Molate’ which is garden tolerant and makes a nice ‘lumpy lawn’ and ‘Jughandle’ and ‘Patrick’s Point’which are smaller and more silver-green in color.Sensible substitute for: Non-native grass lawns and groundcovers.Attracts: Good bird and insect habitat grass: provides cover, nesting materials and seeds for food.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sum (with summer water); part-shade (morning sun) best in hot gardensSoil Most local soilsWater Occasional to regular summer water; Water Zones 2 to 3Fertilizer Occasional light fertilizer if mowedOtherManagement: Quite easy to grow from seed. If mowed, mow to 2-3 inches as needed duringspring/summer. May need to be clipped, cut with a string trimmer or mowed occasionally torejuvenate.Propagation: from seed: sow seed in winter or grow your own plugs from seed.Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 16 1/2/13 * California native, but not native to western Los Angeles County © Project SOUND
  • 4. * Idaho Fescue – Festuca idahoensis (fes-TOO-kuh eye-duh-hoe-EN-sis)Family: Poaceae (Grass Family)Native to: Common western grass; widely distributed in northwestern Northern America. In CA,foothills of the northern Sierras, central and northern Coastal Ranges; dry, open or shady places oftenopening in woodlands.Growth characteristics: perennial bunchgrass mature height: 1 ft. mature width: 1-2 ft.Cool-season perennial bunchgrass with fine, blue-green foliage. Evergreen with some summer water.May behave more like a slow-growing sod-former in optimal conditions. Very attractive.Blooms/fruits: Blooms in late spring/early summer. Flowers on tall stems above the foliage. Flowerssmall, but seed heads very showy, particularly when massed.Uses in the garden: Usually used as an ornamental grass grown primarily for its foliage. Great groundcover for erosion control, including on slopes. Can be used as a native meadow and even as a mowedlawn. Tolerates some foot traffic. Good ground cover under trees, in orchards. Cultivars: ‘TomalesBay’ (small; blue); ‘Stony Creek’ (Blue); ‘Siskiyou Blue’ (dense foliage; blue); ‘Warren Peak’ (taller;silver-green leaves; light flower stems).Sensible substitute for: Non-native fescues and other invasive ornamental grasses.Attracts: Bird habitat: provides nesting materials and seeds. Larval food for Skipper butterflies.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Best in part-shade (dappled shade ideal); full sun only in cool gardens.Soil Any well-drained soil, but does particularly well in sandy soils; any local pH.Water Very adaptable once established. Zone 1-2 (will turn golden) to Zone 2-3 (to keep it green in summer); quite drought tolerant.Fertilizer Quite tolerant; needs none/rare light fertilizerOtherManagement: Easy to manage once established. Plant from seed or pugs (probably better). Plantdensely (8-10 in. apart) for good cover. Can mow several times during growing season to 4 inchestall. If left un-mowed, rake lightly with rake in fall to remove dead leaves as needed.Propagation: from seed: may need cold treatment by divisions: easyPlant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 16, 21 1/31/11 * California native, but not native to western Los Angeles County © Project SOUND
  • 5. California Hedgenettle/Wood Mint – Stachys bullata (STAY-kis bull-AY-ta)Family: Laminaceae (Mint Family)Native to: Coastal CA from San Francisco to Orange Co.; dryish slopes (near coast) and partially-shaded canyons in chaparral and coastal sage scrub, coast live oak riparian forest & woodland,sycamore riparian woodland.Growth characteristics: spreading perennial mature height: 1-4 ft. mature width: 2-3 ft. Darkgreen, fuzzy leaves are triangular to oval, toothed. Stem square (typical of Mints) and hairy. Plantsstrongly scented. Spreads by rhizomes.Blooms/fruits: Flowers are small, pink to lavender-red, with white markings on the lower lips (looklike a mint flower; in whorls around stem). Blooms Mar-May or later.Uses in the garden: Most shady areas of garden. Cultivated beds or for a fragrance garden (pleasantlemon scent when rubbed). Excellent cut flowers. Use in woodland or perennial gardens. Spreads, sois useful groundcover for north- and east-facing slopes, under trees and near shaded rock walls.Sensible substitute for: Non-native mints, low herbaceous groundcovers.Attracts: Excellent hummingbird, bee habitat; other birds eat seeds.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Part-shade; full sun only on immediate coastSoil Any well-drained soil; any local pHWater does better with moderate water, and tolerates seasonal floodingFertilizer Organic mulches usefulOtherManagement: Easy to grow. Does spread, but not aggressively. Remove unwanted stems.Propagation: from seed: yes in fall/winter by cuttings: easy (treat like other mints)Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1-3, 7, 8, 11,12, 14, 20 12/15/10 © Project SOUND
  • 6. Hummingbird Sage – Salvia spathacea (SAL-vee-uh spath-ay-SEE-uh)Family: Lamiaceae (Mint family)Native to: Central Washington through Southern California. Grows in open or shady places in coastalhills/valleys, coastal oak woodland, coastal scrub and chaparral.Growth characteristics: herbaceous perennial mature height: 1-3 ft mature width: patch: 1-5+ ft.Short colonial groundcover that spreads by underground stems (rhizomes). Leaves are large, arrow-shaped and bright to dark green (darken with age). Leaves are wrinkled and fuzzy. Foliage veryfragrant – somewhat minty but a scent unique to this species.Blooms/fruits: Blooms from early Spring to Fall. Flower stalks rise above leaves from early spring tofall. Flower heads are large, conspicuous and brightly colored. Flowers are brilliant magenta.Uses in the garden: Great in aroma and butterfly gardens. As its name implies, it routinely attractshummingbirds. Stalks make nice cut flowers. Works well as a ground cover on hillsides, coastal bluffsand under trees. Can be grown in containers and planters. Plants are drought tolerant so good choicefor water-wise gardens. Delicious tot or iced tea can be made from the leaves.Sensible substitute for: non-native ornamental mints.Attracts: hummingbirds (pollinators); butterflies; seed-eating birds; ground feeding birds.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun (along coast), partial shade to shade.Soil Likes well drained soils, but will tolerate clayWater Once or twice a month; let dry out between wateringsFertilizer Prefers somewhat rich organic soil; amend with mulch, compostOther Tolerates salt-sprayManagement: prune back almost to the ground in fall to remove old flower stalks; can give a lightpruning in late summer if looking ragged.Propagation: from seed: bag seed heads to catch seeds, shake dry seeds into paper bag. Keepdry/cool. Plant fall or spring in pot or garden soil. By rhizome divisions: easy. By semi-softwoodcuttings: root in water (no hormones needed) in glass jar. Plant in pots when roots emerge.Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1-3, 8, 9, 11-14, 19, 20, 24, 25 12/20/10 © Project SOUND
  • 7. * Creeping Sage – Salvia sonomensis (SAL-vee-uh so-no-MEN-sus)Family: Lamiaceae (Mint Family)Native to: Foothills and mountains of central & N. CA and in San Diego Co.; dry, rocky slopes orunderstory of chaparral, oak woodland, yellow-pine forest below 6500 ft.Growth characteristics: creeping woody shrub mature height: 1-2 ft. mature width: 4-10+ ft.Attractive, low-growing (sometimes almost mat-like) sage. Leaves are grayish-green, elliptical leaves,woolly underneath and puckered above. Foliage looks/smells like a Mediterranean herb.Blooms/fruits: Blooms mid-spring into fall. Flowers are usually blue-violet, small and typical forSalvias. Flowers are clustered in ball-like whorls on leafless stems above the foliage. Very showy.Uses in the garden: Makes a wonderful groundcover in a Mediterranean style garden. Good choice fora slope or growing up to a pathway, where its fragrance will be appreciated. Lovely with manzanita,monkey flowers and monardella in a water-wise garden. Good groundcover under larger shrubs;dramatic cascading over a wall. Cultivar John Farmar-Bowers has white flowers. ‘Mrs Beard’ and‘Dara’s Choice’ sages are hybrids between Salvia sonomensis & Salvia mellifera and may be more hardyin S. CA gardens.Sensible substitute for: Non-native woody groundcovers, herbs.Attracts: Excellent hummingbird plant. Other birds will eat the seeds.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Best in light to part-shade in our area.Soil Needs good drainage; not for alkali soils (pH > 8.0).Water Occasional deep water once established (Zone 1-2 best).FertilizerOtherManagement: Prune back to 6-10 inches (4/6 nodes) above hardwood after flowering to keep it tidyand youthful looking.Propagation: from seed: cold-moist 3 mo. by cuttings:semi-softwood or hardwood in spring or fallPlant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 8, 11, 13, 20 10/29/10 * CA native plant but not native to Western L.A. county © Project SOUND
  • 8. * Pacific Aster – Symphyotrichum chilense var. chilense (sim-fee-oh-TREE-cum chee-LENS)Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower Family)Native to: Coastal N. America from Santa Barbara Co. to British Columbia; Grasslands, salt marshes,coastal dunes/bluffs, coastal grasslands/scrub, open disturbed habitats in evergreen and Pacific coastconiferous forest.Growth characteristics: herbaceous perennial mature height: 1-2 ft. mature width: spreadingHerbaceous perennial with thin, delicate-looking (almost insignificant) foliage. Cultivars are morerobust (see below). Drought deciduous – dies back completely in dry summer months. Spreadsvigorously via rhizomes.Blooms/fruits: Blooms in summer (may be as long as July-Sept. with summer water). Flowers arevery attractive small ‘daisy-type’ heads. Ray flowers most often light purple, but may range from whiteto pink, deeper purple; disk flowers are yellow. Very showy plant in bloom.Uses in the garden: Usually used in mixed beds with other native grasses, shrubs and wildflowers.Excellent choice for slopes, Cottage Garden or native prairie/grassland. A must for habitat gardens;would do well in large pots/planters. Several excellent cultivars available: Point St. George – low-growing with more robust foliage; ‘Purple Haze’ – darker purple flowers & more robust foliage.Sensible substitute for: Non-native Asters.Attracts: Excellent all-round habitat plant. Native bees, butterflies and other insects love the nectar.Seed-eating birds like towhees & sparrows eat the seeds.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun to moderate shade.Soil Just about any texture – sand to clay; any local pH.Water Very adaptable. Can take regular water (Zone 3) but will spread aggressively. Best in Zone 2-3 or 2 (occasional water); withhold water in late summer/fall.Fertilizer None.OtherManagement: Plant where it can be contained – will spread. Cut back late fall if it doesn’t die back.Propagation: from seed: fresh seed in summer/fall by cuttings/divisions: easyPlant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1- 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 24 2/13/11 * CA native plant but not native to Western L.A. county © Project SOUND
  • 9. California Goldenrod – Solidago californica (sol-i-DAY-go ka-li-FOR-ni-ka)Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower Family)Native to: Much of west coast of N. America, including CA (mostly W. of Sierras); dry or moist areas,either in the open or in shaded woods, from coastal sage scrub to yellow pine forest. Also cleared ordisturbed places.Growth characteristics: creeping perennial mature height: 1-3 ft. mature width: 1-3 ft.Robust herbaceous perennial that spreads by rhizomes. Dies back to ground in winter in colder areas.Stems and leaves are dark green to gray-green colored and densely fuzzy. Quick growing. Formslarge colonies in moist environments – less so in summer dry conditions.Blooms/fruits: Blooms summer/fall, usually July-Oct. along coast. Showy clusters of small, yellowflowers on wand-like flowering stalks. Seeds wind-spread.Uses in the garden: Truly a striking accent plant in the wild or in garden. Provides welcome fall color.Does well in pots and planters, where it can be contained. Great for slopes, meadows.Sensible substitute for: Non-native perennial yellow asters, chrysanthemums.Attracts: Excellent habitat plant for many species. Butterflies, bees and other insects collect nectarfrom the flowers. Seed-eating birds and insects eat seeds. Plants also provide cover.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun to light shadeSoil Any, including poorly-draining claysWater Tolerates winter flooding. Very drought tolerant, but blooms better with occasional summer water. Regular summer water encourages rapid growth.Fertilizer None neededOtherManagement: Easy to grow. Spreads via rhizomes, but easily controlled by removing unwantedstems during winter dormant period or planting in contained environment.Propagation: from seed: challenging; use fresh seed; slow germination by divisions: easyPlant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 20, 21, 25 12/13/10 © Project SOUND
  • 10. Western Yarrow – Achillea millefolium (ah-KILL-ee-uh mill-eh-FOH-lee-um)Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower Family)Native to: Much of North America, all of CA. Found in meadows & pastures, coastal strand &grasslands, stream banks, sand dunes, alkali sinks. Tends to grow on poor soils.Growth characteristics: Herbaceous perennial mature height: 1-2 ft. mature width: 1 ft.Upright perennial with bright green feathery (fern-like) leaves. Spreads rapidly from spreading roots.Blooms/fruits: Small flowers in flat heads, spring-summer. Flowers usually white – may be light pink-purple.Uses in the garden: In beds, cottage gardens, meadows, prairies – mixes well with other flowers,grasses. For cut flowers. Makes surprisingly tough, enduring ground cover or lawn substitute & can bemowed. Young leaves edible in salads. Used medicinally & as dye plant. Flowers, foliage scented.Sensible substitute for: non-native ground covers and YarrowsAttracts: many beneficial insects, including butterflies, bees. Repels other insects.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Prefers full sun, esp. near coast; tolerates partial shadeSoil Any well-drained, including clays; tolerates alkaliWater Established plants very drought tolerant – and remain green longer than grasses; tolerates both moist and dry conditionsFertilizer None needed; tolerates low potassiumOtherManagement: invasive potential, particularly with summer water. Can mow as needed with rotarymower on high setting.Propagation: from seed: easy & quick, fall by divisions: easy, spring or fall, either to ground or pots.Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, most others (try locally collected seed) 11/23/10 © Project SOUND
  • 11. Catalina Perfume/Evergreen Currant – Ribes viburnifolium (RIE-bees vi-bur-ni-FO-lee-um)Family: Grossulariaceae (Gooseberry Family)Native to: Peninsular Ranges (sw San Diego Co.) & Santa Catalina Island; in canyons and arroyos,usually in partial shade near the coast.Growth characteristics: spreading evergreen shrub mature height:1-3 ft. mature width: to 12 ft.Evergreen shrub/sub-shrub with arching slender branches that root where they touch ground. Leavesare dark green, rounded and waxy with a spicy fragrance after a rain. Very attractive.Blooms/fruits: Blooms rarely in shade. Clusters of small, star-like maroon flowers from Feb-Apr.Flowers are scented. Fruits are small orange berries (rare).Uses in the garden: A favorite groundcover plant for dry shade. Does great under native oaks,sycamore & cottonwood. Nice addition to a fragrance garden. Good for erosion control on hillsides &slopes. Nice cascading over walls, in planters. Works well as fire-retardant groundcover. Fruits areedible. Cultivar: Spooners Mesa - San Diego Evergreen Currant.Sensible substitute for: Non-native evergreen groundcover plants.Attracts: Nectar source for bees, butterflies, hummingbirds.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Light to medium shade is best in all but the coolest gardens.Soil Any well-drained soil; not for highly alkali soils.Water Zones 1-2 to 2 or 2-3; fine with a wide range of watering conditions.Fertilizer None needed; likes nutrient-poor soilsOther Not salt-tolerantManagement: Tip-prune to encourage fullness. Old plants can be pruned with string-trimmer torejuvenate. Usually very pest free except for Spider Mites. Plants can harbor a stage of white pineblister rust, so they should not be grown near pine trees.Propagation: from seed: fresh seed in fall by cuttings or layering: hard or semi-soft woodPlant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 8, 9, 13, 14, 20, 24, 25 12/13/10 © Project SOUND
  • 12. Western Blue-eyed Grass – Sisyrinchium bellum (sis-er-RINK-ee-um BELL-um)Family: Iridaceae (Iris Family)Native to: Coastal CA from San Luis Obispo to Baja; Open, generally moist, grassy areas, woodlands.Growth characteristics: clumping perennial mature height: 4-16 in. mature width: 4-16 in.Clumping perennial with narrow linear leaves (grasslike, hence the common name). Summer dormantin nature. Spreads by creeping rhizomes, so the colony enlarges each year.Blooms/fruits: Flowers showy, purple and yellow, lily-like on stems above foliage. The contrastingyellow center leads the bee into the flower. Blooms Feb to summer (depends on local conditions) withlong blooming period.Uses in the garden: Many uses in garden. Does well in many situations including rock garden,meadows, borders. Nice in front of mixed borders, in containers and for filling in around plantings ofshrubs and trees. Plant with other wildflowers such as California Poppy, Blue Flax and Clarkia.Sensible substitute for: Non-native bulbs, dwarf irises, small lilies.Attracts: Excellent bee habitat. Provides seeds for seed-eating birds.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Part-shade usually best; full sun OK along coastSoil Any well-drained texture; any local pHWater Best if given summer dormancy. This allows for reseeding, but leaves turn brown. Can irrigate lightly (twice a month in summer) to keep leaves green.Fertilizer Low needs; may benefit from organic mulchesOtherManagement: Easy. In gardens with summer water will behave like an annual. Reseeds andspreads by rhizomes in nature and garden, but not invasive if watered sparingly.Propagation: from seed: yes in spring by divisions: yes, dormant plants are easy to divide(like Iris) or by re-potting plantlets that grow along the stems.Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1-3, 5, 8-11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 20, 21, 24, 26 12/17/10 © Project SOUND
  • 13. Blue Dicks/Wild Hyacynth – Dichelostemma capitatum(dick (dike)-el-AH-stem-uh cap-ih-TAY-tum)Family: Liliaceae (Liily Family); perhaps better in Themidaceae (new family)Native to: most of CA; coastal strand, vernal pools, coastal salt marsh edges, openings in grasslands,woodlands, dry ridges and hillsides. Common after disturbances (fire).Growth characteristics: Perennial from corm mature height: 1-3 ft. mature width: 1-2 ftTwisted, fleshy stem with 2 linear leaves in winter/spring. Dormant in summer. Produces corms andcormlets in leaf axils. In nature, small and large mammals eat large corms and spread the cormletsand seeds.Blooms/fruits: Flowers purple/blue in clusters of 6-15 in spring (Mar-May).Uses in the garden: cultivated beds; along walls; in rock gardens. Looks nice with other bulbs andyellow-flowering plants. Good for west- and south-facing walls. Good in pots and in vernal pools/watergardens or vernal meadows. Corms & flowers are edible.Sensible substitute for: non-native spring-blooming blue bulbs and Dwarf Agapanthus.Attracts: Butterflies, hummingbirds. Small mammals love the corms.Requirements:Element RequirementSun Full sun (best) to partial shadeSoil Any well-drained soilWater Winter only; must have dry summer periodFertilizer None neededOther Prefers well-drained soil; protect corms from animal predationManagement: Best if growing bed is disturbed periodically. Replant smaller cormlets.Propagation: from seed: best planted in fall in well-drained soil. Can plant in garden or pots. Keeppotted plants in partial shade during hot months. From corms: in fall, in place (larger) or in pots.Grow small corms/cormlets 1-2 years before planting out. Protect from animal predation.Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 2, 10, 13, 14, 16, 18 11/26/10 © Project SOUND

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