Lester rowntree talk gardening sheets


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plant information sheets for plants covered in May 2014 gardening talk - "Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden'

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Lester rowntree talk gardening sheets

  1. 1. *Lewis’ monkeyflower – Mimulus lewisii (MIM-yoo-luss lew-ISS-ee-eye) Family: Phrymaceae / Scrophulariaceae (Monkeyflower Family) Native to: Rocky Mountains from UT and CO to western Canada and Sierra Nevadas ; wet places like seeps, riparian zones and moist meadows at elevations between 4,000-10,000 ft in Yellow Pine Forest, Red Fir Forest, Lodgepole Forest, Subalpine Forest. Growth characteristics: herbaceous perennial mature height: 2-3 ft. mature width: 2-3 ft. Perennial wildflower that forms dense clumps in wet mountain soils. Spreads via rhizomes. The lance-shaped light green leaves clasp the stem and often have irregularly toothed margins. Foliage is covered with hairs and often sticky. Foliage dies back in cold winter temperatures. Blooms/fruits: Blooms in late spring or summer - May/June to July. Flowers large (to 1 inch) very showy and unique. Penstemon-like flowers are rose-pink to dark magenta, marked with maroon blotches and dark lines in the yellow throat. Flowers more like Diplacus species. Uses in the garden: Probably best used in seasonally damp areas in mountain gardens. Can be grown in the shallow ends of ponds/naturalist pools, at base of fountains, or in moist/bog containers. Lovely color – try as substitute for Mimulus cardinalis in moist spots in the garden. Sensible substitute for: Non-native monkeyflowers. Attracts: Excellent hummingbird habitat: provides nectar and seeds for seed-eating birds. Pollen attracts primary pollinators (bees). Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Part-shade best in our area. Soil Most soils; likes slightly acidic conditions (pH 5.0-7.0) Water Regular water/damp soil (Water Zone 3); tolerates seasonal flooding. Fertilizer Likes rich soils; fine with some fertilizer. Other Leaf mulch in winter would work well. Management: Deadhead to prolong bloom season. Prune back to 3” after bloom is done. This is probably a difficult plant to grow in our climate. Propagation: from seed: may require cold/moist treatment by divisions: yes; spring Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 13, 30, 46 4/29/14 © Project SOUND * not native to western Los Angeles County, but a CA native
  2. 2. Scarlet Monkeyflower – Mimulus cardinalis (MIM-yoo-luss kar-din-AL-iss) Family: Phrymaceae / Scrophulariaceae (Mimulus family) Native to: Much of California; partially shaded stream banks and seeps in local foothills and mountains from coastal sage scrub to montane coniferous forest . Growth characteristics: herbaceous perennial mature height: 1-3 ft. mature width: 1-3 ft. Freely-branched, erect to spreading perennial from a rhizome, with sharp-toothed, sticky leaves. Plant is completely dormant in fall/winter. Moderately fast-growth. Lives 3-10 years (usually 5). Blooms/fruits: Blooms Apr.-Oct. Blooms are showy, tubular scarlet flowers, sometimes with yellow markings. Flowers resemble large snapdragon flowers. Hummingbird pollinated. Uses in the garden: Bright spots in summer flower beds. Good as an edging along walks. Does great around ponds or other wet places (for example, under a birdbath, near lawns, etc.). Good for re-vegetation because of it’s sprawling growth and tendency to re-seed vigorously. Horticultural cultivars include: ‘Red Dragon’, 'Santa Cruz Island Gold’ and ‘Yellow’. Sensible substitute for: Non-native summer-blooming perennials; snapdragons. Attracts: Excellent hummingbird habitat. Common Checkerspot and Buckeye butterfly caterpillars feed on the foliage. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Best in partial shade; will take anything from full sun to almost full shade Soil Any texture; wide pH range (4-9) so fine for both acid & alkali soils Water Likes moist soil, tolerates some seasonal flooding. Even OK in ponds (plant in containers; pot can be covered by several inches of water) Fertilizer Medium; can supply with low doses or regular or organic fertilizer, humus Other Management: Spreads by rhizomes and seed; can form large colonies in wet areas. Severely prune after flowering to prevent weedy appearance. Pruning promotes new growth and a heavy second flowering. Propagation: from seed: easy, in prepared beds or pots by divisions, layering: easy in summer Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 6, 8, 10-14, 16, 19-21, 24 12/9/10 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. *Tricolor monkeyflower – Mimulus tricolor (MIM-you-lus TRY-color) Family: Phrymaceae (Monkeyflower Family) Native to: OR and northern CA; edges of vernal pools in Coastal Ranges and Great Central Valley. Growth characteristics: annual wildflower mature height: < 1 ft. mature width: < 1 Tiny (usually 4-6 inches tall) annual wildflower. Leaves opposite, lance-shaped and slightly hairy. Foliage usually in tufts, clammy to touch. Blooms/fruits: Blooms in spring – Mar-May. Flowers are striking – with typical monkeyflower shape. The wide mouth is deep pink in color with a white and yellow blotched throat and a large maroon spot at the base of each lobe. One of the prettiest CA native monkeyflowers. Uses in the garden: Mostly used in moist settings- around a pond/pool or in a rain garden or swale. Would make a lovely container plant or in a bog container. Consider for winter damp areas of the garden, around bird drinkers, areas that get overspray, anywhere that Mimulus guttatus does well. Sensible substitute for: Non-native monkeyflowers. Attracts: Good insect pollinator habitat. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun best; light shade probably ok. Soil Most; in nature, sandy soils; any local pH. Water Needs moist conditions in winter/spring until flowering ceases; then decrease water for good seed production. Fertilizer Not needed. Other Gravel mulch should work well. No bark/ship mulch. Management: Easy if plenty of winter rain – other-wise irrigate. Collect seed or let plants self- seed. Will likely self-seed if happy. Propagation: from seed: likely easy with no pretreatment required. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 48 4/27/14 © Project SOUND * not native to western Los Angeles County, but a CA native
  4. 4. Seep (Common) Monkeyflower – Mimulus guttatus (MIM-yoo-luss guh-TAY-tus) Family: Phrymaceae (Monkeyflower Family) – formerly Scrophulareaceae (Figwort Family) Native to: Much of western U.S. from Canada to N. Mexico; moist to wet soils of springs, seeps, marshes, meadows, and stream banks. Growth characteristics: herb. perennial/annual mature height: 1-3 ft. mature width: 1-3 ft. Short lived perennials, usually grown as annuals. Plant dies back entirely in summer. Leaves are bright green, simple, oval and often toothed. Blooms/fruits: Blooms Mar-Aug. The bright yellow flowers start in the spring and last through the fall if constant moisture is present. The flowers are typical of monkeyflowers – look like yellow snapdragons with bright red spots. Very showy plant with adequate water. Uses in the garden: Moist places in the garden are best. Useful along the edges of ponds or the fountains, and under the birdbath. Use with Juncus spp. (rushes) and Carex spp. (sedges). Leaves can be eaten but seeds are poisonous. Sensible substitute for: Non-native snapdragons and other flowering plants of damp places. Attracts: Excellent insect habitat, providing nectar for hummingbirds, bees, butterflies. Also larval food for caterpillars. Also good bird habitat: provides cover and seeds for food. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun (with water) to part-shade Soil Any texture, including heavy clays; any local pH Water Needs damp soil to summer flowering; can even grow in pots in shallow water in pools and ponds Fertilizer Benefits from moderate fertilizer and/or organic mulch Other Management: Self-seeds and spreads by rhizomes (roots) so may become weedy in damp areas. Probably benefits from a dry period in late summer/early fall. Remove unwanted seedlings. Propagation: from seed: easy; best to sow in place in fall, but can start in pots. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1-3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 16, 24 12/10/10 © Project SOUND
  5. 5. *Sulfur-flowered buckwheat – Eriogonum umbellatum (air-ee-OG-oh-num um-bell-LAY-tum) Family: Polygonaceae (Buckwheat Family) Native to: Western North America from British Columbia to California, including the San Gabriel Mtns and Mojave Desert; dry, open, often rocky places from sea level to alpine (to 12,000 ft). Growth characteristics: perennial/sub-shrub mature height: 1-3 ft. mature width: 1-3 ft. Spreading sub-shrub whose characteristics vary greatly among its many varieties and sub-species. Theodore Payne Foundation sells var. munzii which is 1 ft tall and spreads to 2-3 ft wide. Stems are half-woody (like most shrubby local buckwheats). Leaves are rounded, evergreen with some water, usually hairy when young. Leaves primarily basal but not entirely so. Slow to moderate growth – may live 20+ years. Blooms/fruits: Blooms in late spring/summer, June to July/August. Flowers are a bright sulfur yellow (lemon yellow). While individual flowers are small, they are densely clustered on stalks; flowers appear to float above the foliage. Very attractive in bloom, particularly when massed. Uses in the garden: Another attractive buckwheat for water-wise gardens. Fine for hot, dry conditions, containers. Combine with other buckwheats for contrasting color; use with natural associates like Yarrow, Goldenrods, warm-season native grasses for habitat. Native Californians used leaf tea for colds/stomach aches & poultice/dried leaf powder for rheumatism, burns, skin pain. Sensible substitute for: Non-native buckwheats, small non-native water-wise shrubs. Attracts: Excellent habitat plant: provides nectar for bees (including native), butterflies and other pollinators. Provides cover and seeds (food) for seed-eating birds, small animals. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Sun to very light shade. Soil Most, although prefers rocky; any local pH. Water Very occasional (Water Zone 1-2); var. munzii can take Zone 2 Fertilizer Not needed Other Inorganic mulch or very thin (1 inch) organic mulch when establishing. Management: Pretty low maintenance plant. Doesn’t like hot, humid conditions. Cut off dead flower heads in fall, when birds have eaten the seeds. Propagation: from seed: may need 60 day cold/moist treatment by cuttings: ?? Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 8, 11, 13, 14, 16, 20, 24, 46 4/29/14 * not native to western Los Angeles County, but a CA native © Project SOUND
  6. 6. * Yellow Bush Penstemon – Keckiella antirrhinoides (kek-ee-EL-luh an-tee-ri-NO-i-dees) Family: Scrophulariaceae (Figwort Family) Native to: Foothills of S. CA interior mountain ranges to N. Baja (locally in the San Gabriel mtns); Dry often rocky slopes to 4000', oak woodland, desert scrub, chaparral. Growth characteristics: woody shrub/sub-shrub mature height: 3-8 ft. mature width: 3-6 ft. Dense woody shrub/sub-shrub with a woody base and herbaceous branch tips. Mounded shape. Drought-deciduous – will lose all leaves in dry periods. Leaves are small, narrow and densely crowded on the branches – superficially reminiscent of Deer Vetch (Lotus scoparius). Blooms/fruits: Blooms in spring – Mar-May and even into summer with judicious water. Bright yellow snapdragon-like flowers are truly showy – your neighbors will be envious! Plant is literally covered in 1-inch blooms. Wonderful sweet scent. Fruit is dry capsule with many small seeds. Uses in the garden: Makes a wonderful specimen plant in spring/summer. Pair with Salvias for a blue-yellow garden. Remember that this plant loses all its leaves in dry periods – plant with evergreen species, grasses or give a little summer water to keep it green. Excellent choice for habitat gardens, hummingbird gardens, scented gardens. Great for hot gardens. Sensible substitute for: Non-native yellow-flowering perennials & shrubs like Scotch Broom. Attracts: Excellent habitat plant. Nectar attracts butterflies, hummingbirds, bees. Birds use plant for cover and eat the seeds. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun (coast) to light shade. Soil Well-drained – sandy or rocky best. Any local pH. Water Very drought tolerant, but best with a little summer water (Zone 1-2 or 2) in gardens. Spray leaves to remove summer dust. Taper off water in fall. Fertilizer Not needed. Other Tolerates heat. Management: Prune back heavily to shape in fall (dormant season). Propagation: from seed: fresh seed – no treatment by cuttings: semi-softwood, layering Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 8, 10, 13, 14, 16, 22, 24 3/9/10 * CA native plant but not native to Western L.A. county © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Grape Soda Lupine – Lupinus excubitus var. hallii (loo-PIE-nus eks-KEW-bi-tus HALL-ee-eye) Family: Fabaceae (Pea Family) Native to: S. California foothills including Palos Verdes, Catalina Isl., San Gabriels & San Bernardino Mtns. E. to NV; found most often in sandy or gravelly soils in sagebrush scrub, but also in chaparral. Growth characteristics: perennial sub-shrub mature height: 2-3 ft. mature width: 2-3 ft. Smaller-sized evergreen lupine with mounded form. Leaves are typical palmate-shaped lupine leaves, larger than most local lupines, and silvery-gray colored. The velvety texture is attractive. Note: all parts, but particularly the pods & seeds, of all lupine species are toxic if eaten. Blooms/fruits: Blooms in mid-spring, usually Apr-May in our area. Flowers range in color from medium purple to a more magenta-purple and have a scent reminiscent of grape soda (hence the common name). Many flowers held on stalks above the foliage. Very showy in bloom! Uses in the garden: Most lupines are used as accent plants, particularly with other native shrubs and perennials. This species would look great with it’s natural partners like CA Bricklebush (Brickellia californica),.Sticky Monkeyflower (Diplacus aurantiacus), Sour Berry (Rhus trilobata) and native bunch grasses like Coast Melic Grass (Melica imperfecta). Would work fine on dry hillsides and slopes. Place it where you can enjoy the scented flowers! Sensible substitute for: Non-native bush lupines. Attracts: Excellent habitat plant. Bees, butterflies & even moths will visit the flowers & seed- eating birds will devour the seeds. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun. Soil Needs a well-drained soil, preferably sandy. Any local pH. Water Zone 1 after first year – no supplemental water (or only 1-2 times per summer) Fertilizer none Other Management: Protect young plants from slugs, snails and caterpillars (which can destroy a plant). Plants may be short-lived in the garden, but may produce seedlings. Propagation: from seed: best with fresh seeds; hot water treat stored seeds. Consider planting in place, or transfer out when quite small by cuttings: ? Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 8, 10, 13 1/19/09 © Project SOUND
  8. 8. * California Evening Primrose – Oenothera californica (ee-no-THEER-a ka-li-FOR-ni-ka) Family: Onagraceae (Evening Primrose Family) Native to: Southwestern U.S. from central Ca to Baja; sandy/gravelly areas, dunes, desert scrub to pinyon/juniper or ponderosa-pine woodlands. Growth characteristics: herbaceous perennial mature height: 1 ft. mature width: 2-5+ ft. Herbaceous perennial with slender rootstock. Spreads via root laterals, seed. Leaves medium- green, initially in basal rosette. Stalks initially upright, then reclining to almost vine-like. Stress deciduous – can die back during summer drought. Blooms/fruits: Blooms in spring – usually Apr-May in our area. Flowers are large, pink-white and sweetly fragrant. Plant is very showy in bloom, blends in otherwise. Uses in the garden: Most useful in mixed beds with other natives – grasses, shrubs, perennials and annual wildflowers. Good choice for parking strip. Nice in pots or planters placed where you can enjoy the fragrant flowers. Good border plant or as naturalistic groundcover with grasses. White flowers mix well with other flowering natives. Sensible substitute for: Non-native Primroses, white-flowered perennials. Attracts: Excellent butterfly & moth habitat – good nectar source. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun to part-sun (in hot gardens). Soil Any well-drained – rocky & sandy are great; any local pH including alkali. Water Drought tolerant, but more blooms with a little water; Zone 2 probably optimal. Fertilizer Not needed. Other Management: Cut back dead stems in fall/winter, leaving about 4 inches. Easy – just weed around it. Will spread, but not aggressive in garden setting. Propagation: from seed: probably easy in spring by cuttings: divisions in late winter Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 10, 13, 16, 20 4/29/14 * CA native plant but not native to Western L.A. county © Project SOUND
  9. 9. White Mariposa Lily – Calochortus albus (kal-uh-KOR-tus AL-bus) Family: Liliaceae (Lily Family) Native to: California endemic – foothills of Sierras and Coastal Ranges; Shaded to open woodlands, rocky places in brush, chaparral, foothill woodland, yellow pine forest below 6000'. Growth characteristics: perennial from bulb mature height: 1-2 ft. mature width: < 1 ft. Native bulb-forming perennial with narrow, grass-like leaves. Dies back to bulb in summer. Blooms/fruits: Blooms mid-spring (Apr-May). Flowers are white with a blush of pink. Petals overlap to form an open globe. Very showy and distinctive when massed. Mature bulbs may have 20-25 blooms in a good year. One of our more unusual Mariposas. Uses in the garden: Best used with Zone 1 native grasses, annual wildflowers and other bulbs/corms. Lovely choice for containers. Good for any summer-dry area (must have summer dry conditions). Does well in light shade under trees and east side of walls. Native Californians roasted and ate the bulbs. Sensible substitute for: Non-native spring/summer bulbs. Attracts: Excellent habitat plant. Nectar attracts butterflies, hummingbirds and other insects. Birds eat the seeds. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Part-shade is best; full sun only in very cool gardens near coast. Soil Well-drained; well-drained clays are best. Any local pH is fine. Water Needs good winter/spring water (rain best); no water after it blooms Fertilizer None Other Management: Protect bulbs from gophers & other rodents. Needs complete summer dry (Zone 1). Easier than most Mariposa species, as long as treated as Zone 1. Propagation: from seed: in prepared bed in fall by cuttings: bulb offsets Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 8, 13, 18, 20, 43 4/29/14 © Project SOUND