20130114 CLT - Economic Dimensions to Indigenous Access to IT
Update on Economic Indicators for ATSI community https://sites.google.com/site/crauchlethesis/documents/MDCD2012presentation%20outline.pptx?attredirects=0&d=1 Student: Christopher Rauchle Supervisor: Stephen Cassidy Snum: 41958209
Population RecapOverall nearly 550,000 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were counted in the 2011 Census, which is an increase of 21 per cent from 2006,” said Ms Nankervis. “The publication shows children aged under 15 years make up 36 per cent of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, compared with 19 per cent of the non-Indigenous population. 2012 figures17
Economic data – household incomeThe top three data points for Indigenous household incomes are $400, $600 and $1500 a week. Other households are $1500, $3000+ and $400.Although Indigenous households earning more than $150K/year ($3000+) are not as numerous as other households earning that amount there are more than 11 thousand of themThe question is, is there a correlation 21 between household income and internet use/type
Internet Type by Household Income Majority elect to have DSL No clear selection based on household income (small drop off in mobile broadband for income >$120K) “There was a large increase in the number of Aboriginal andTorres Strait Islander households that had access to an internet connection at 63 per cent, compared to 40 per cent in 2006. 19
Internet Type by RemotenessSatellite use is very high in remote areas (although up to 60K people in major cities have to get their Internet and TV through it due to signal issues)As expected, mobile broadband is still useful in remote areas because it can reach more than 40K from the base station. NBN‟s LTE promises to extend this to 100km at a speed of 12- 100mbps per household7Cable is hamstrung by the fact that no new cable is being deployed and it stopped at just over 1m of the 6.7m6 households with internet (there are 8.5m households in Australia up from 7.9m in 2006
Census Data – Education level• There is a large cohort moving through Primary and Secondary education. They will soon arrive in the workforce and tertiary education where they are currently underrepresented.• A stable home life and good nutrition are essential for a good education. The closing the gap report says that there has been no improvement in Indigenous Health measures Type of educational Indigenous status “In the 2011 Census, we saw that 37 institution attending Indigenous Non-Indigenous not stated Total per cent of Aboriginal and Torres Pre-school 13,975.00 314,574.00 4,294.00 332,843.00 Strait Islander people aged 15 years Infants/Primary 81,554.00 1,649,610.00 24,044.00 1,755,208.00 Secondary 50,985.00 1,268,343.00 16,716.00 1,336,044.00 and over have completed Year 12 or Technical or Further Educational 13,211.00 455,925.00 4,472.00 473,608.00 higher qualifications, up from 30 University or other Tertiary Institution: 0,127.00 1 916,462.00 5,936.00 932,525.00 per cent in 2006.19 Institution not stated 50,408.00 634,801.00 826,483.00 1,511,692.00 Total 223,925.00 5,395,916.00 883,739.00 6,503,580.00
Economic Data – Financial HardshipDisposable income in Indigenous households is still below average with only half (as opposed to 85% of other Indigenous Non- Indigenous persons(a) households) claiming they could raise persons(b) $2K in a week (the ABS‟s measure of Whether household members could raise $2000 in an emergency(c) % % a whether a household is in financial Could raise $2,000 within a week 46.4 85.3 hardship or not.) Could not raise $2,000 within a week 47.2 12.9 Not stated 6.5 1.8 Total 100 100 Total persons aged 18 years and over (000) 290.9 15 192.9 (a) Data from the 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey. (b) Data from the 2006 General Social Survey. (c) Ability to raise $2,000 for something important w ithin a w eek. See the Glossary. Note: The 2008 NATSISS population in this table varies to that show n in the summary tables. Therefore, these estimates w ill differ from other estimates presented.
2011 Indigenous Households – HomelessnessHOMELESS PERSONS, Selected characteristics–2006 and 2011 Internet assisted networking is difficult 2006 2011 no. % no. % if you are homeless (could meanIndigenous status severely overcrowded, constantly Indigenous 25,950 29 26,744 25 changing address etc…not simply Non-Indigenous 57,324 64 70,085 67 living on the street) Not stated 6,454 7 8,408 8 Indigenous population is severelyTotal hom eless persons 89,728 100 105,237 100 overrepresented in the estimate (more than 10 times their population rate) but they are dropping as a proportion while non-Indigenous is rising The Homeless do use social networking.13 There are free services on Telstra that allow them to access a version of facebook called facebook zero linked to some riots in FNQ
Health Issues Indigenous life expectancy• Indigenous food security and traditional high protein diet was overturned by provision of rationed diet from central stores after relocation programs between 1900 and 1960s resulting in higher incidence of preventable diseases such as diabetes and heart disease• It is unreasonable for an Aboriginal man to expect to live to 65 at this rate (the rate has not improved for decades) but Population expected to live to age 65 it is for other Indigenous people. Read more: http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/health/aboriginal-life-expectancy#ixzz2Hr0SiQgg (Nigerians have a higher life expectancy than Indigenous Australians.)• Consequently, death and funerals feature in Indigenous society at present.
Census Data - OccupationI16 LABOUR FORCE STATUSBY AGE BY SEX FOR Number Percentage Commentary The entire indigenous workforce ofINDIGENOUS PERSONSEmployed: 147,708 83% Much of the around 180k is smaller than the top Indigenous labour two employers in Australia (Coles and force is employedUnemployed 30,460 17% But the Woolworths have about 94k staff Unemployment rate is much each) higher than the 5% The participation rate is similar to the for the total pop entire Australian Population but theTotal labour force 178,168 51% And only half the people who can unemployment rate is far higher than work are the current national average of 5% participatingNot in the labour force 155,885 44% Reflecting the fact Labour Force Australia, Total Percent that they are November 2012 either out of, Employed persons 11,529,400 54% havent yet entered the labour Unemployed persons 647,800 3% force (children) or Unemployment rate (%) 5.3% not participatingLabour force status not stated 17,228 5% Participation rate (%) 65%Total 351,281 64% And only a bit more than half of the pop can work Total Indigenous 548,370 Total Other 19,900,766 ABS stats17 Total Pop 21,507,719
Likelihood of Jail/Criminal RecordIncarceration is worsening: the national rate of Aboriginal juvenile incarceration has risen to a startling rate of 31 times the non-indigenous rateIn 2008 it was 27 times.In 1994, young Aboriginal people were 17 times more likely than non-Aboriginal juveniles to be incarcerated.12
Device Access• Since my last talk the cost of devices has plummeted.• Original people‟s computer in India – the Akash, was an underpowered faulty flop but the Akash II has been pronounced a success. (subsidised cost of $30 it comes with $2/month internet access in India)• Cheapest Monthly access in Australia Kogan‟s cheapest tablet is currently $120 and the Akash hovers at the $10 mark 2 ranges from $75-$105 if purchased by the public10• One Laptop Per Child have shelved plans for their new tablets but that‟s okay because there are several sub $100 Android tablets available now. The goal of a $30 tablet without government subsidy is within reach.
Network Access deteriorates the more people use itIssues with Metro 3G/4G
Remote Internet Access NBN Satellite• Had an intention to work with a community at Papunya and provide higher grade of Internet and survey the users experience• 1000ms pings contributing to a 90% packet loss• Upload/download limits of 10Gb/month• Disrupted by poor weather/smoke/cloud (Ku band is the same frequency as water)• Many applications that require close handshaking (encrypted banking, vpn, streaming video) do not work
Remote Internet Access - ADSL updatePapunya – used to have Satellite only in the library. Kept alive by the State Library of SA, 200Mb per person per month. Very slow, very unreliable, very scarce resource.ADSL came to Papunya in September 2012. Now people bring Wi-Fi phones and tablets and sit outside to use the free Wi- Fi.Businesses now have Wi-Fi and there is talk of an internet café.However, Indigenous Australians have been put onto the cheapest customer service mode, the Internet, in areas that are not suited to it.
Free ATM access2010 enquiry discovered some people were spending up to 20 of their income on ATM fees5 - Fees were abolished in May 2012 on 73 Remote communities…these fees still exist for people in non-remote communitiesShopkeepers sometimes require customers to use their ATMs rather than eftpos. Balance checking can sometimes be 20% of a person‟s costs for the month (no other means of checking electronic transactions – mobile banking or using the public phone not an option) with the fees being charged up to $10/transaction with no other way to retrieve Centrelink payments.9
Income QuarantiningFor those individuals or areas that the Dept. of Human Services has ruled at risk, Centrelink payments are made to a Cashcard operated service called BasicsCard. There are people using BasicsCard in my area. It‟s like a Income management isn‟t working22 Coles voucher that cannot be used to buy alcohol, tobacco Owner of a Logan Supermarket showing income quarantining with BASICS card
Remote Community Access - PornographyPornography restrictions brought in included games and computer based media. Interesting to note that the 11k fine is six times the amount that many people said they could not raise in an emergency – meaning jail and a criminal record for possessionNow being extended to non-Indigenous people due to Stronger Futures Act of 2011 – non-Indigenous people in a Prescribed Area are now also subject to Anti-Pornography controls.
Indigenous Social NetworksNational Centre Indigenous Excellence is developing a social network2 however research indicates that an isolated social network may not be as valuable to Australian Indigenous people as an open one.“It is known that entrepreneurs obtain resources from social networks…these take on different forms ranging from financial capital, industry information and advice, to emotional support and other pertinent general knowledge.”11 Indigenous Community Volunteer program20
Indigenous Social Networks Comparison to other countries: Denmark, Hawaii, Australia Denmark Hawaii AustraliaIndigenous 89.6% 19.85% 2.5%View of Indigenous Professionalism more Part of society Takes you away fromnetwork important societyCultural Integration Mainstream Well integrated in cities In order to relate to and majority population professional network must leave social networkNetwork dynamics Dynamic „coloured network‟ Dependence on racial dynamic acceptanceBusiness relations Many Business Relations Many and V. personal Dependent; power business relations imbalance
Rise of the Indigenous Middle ClassThe 53rd Boyer Lectures were presented by Professor Marcia Langton AM, Chair of Australian Indigenous Studies at The University of MelbourneThe Quiet Revolution: Indigenous People and the Resources Boom• Rio Tinto employed four Indigenous workers in 2000 (two were gardeners) but grew to 1,500 today (the largest employer of Indigenous workers in Australia with a 31,854 strong workforce15)• Indigenous males suffer from criminal records that exclude them from jobs (often these are for offenses such as swearing, drinking in public etc. that might attract a warning for other people) so an easier path for the household to employment is through its women• “Between 1994 and 2008, indigenous employment increased from about 30% of indigenous people of working age to about half of that population set in the national workforce. Much of this growth was in the private sector.”8
Rise of the Indigenous Middle Class• Aboriginal people had established businesses on the Australian frontiers during colonial times• Aborigines were stripped of their property by the State. It was illegal for Aboriginal people to own property and to engage in business.16• Most Aboriginal populations are Remote and Regional, exactly where the mining boom is taking place. This boom shows no sign of ending and in this tight labour market the ready supply of Indigenous workers will provide both royalties and employment for many.
Conclusions• The demographic trend going through is that a large cohort are about to be tertiary educated and or employed for the first time.• There is little drop off in fertility and no change in mobility meaning this population will need to rely on mining, health and education• Social networking strategies should focus on including networks from non-Indigenous people to strengthen the connections (increase the radius) of Indigenous networks.• Indigenous people are working their way to income and education parity with the rest of the population but health and housing makes this difficult.• Internet access is rising rapidly and with the provision of technologies that allow longer distance mobile connectivity, basic internet access should be provided to this population within the next decade.
References1: http://www.siliconrepublic.com/business/item/30281-cisco-buys-cloud-networking2: http://www.ncie.org.au/images/stories/supporters/MediaRelease_CoE_Sefiani.pdfBanks recognise the value of Indigenous dollar 27/5/12 http://www.afr.com/f/free/markets/capital/cfo/banks_recognise_value_of_indigenous_R8plJ20KmjumoHuYlGhdfM3: Logan is set to trial a site for income management via the new BasicsCard http://www.couriermail.com.au/questnews/logan/logan-is-set-to-trial-a-site-for-income-management-via-the-new-basicscard/story-fn8m0u8i-12264181451695: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-05-25/remote-aboriginal-atm-fees-to-be-abolished/40331086: Number of Internet connected households, ABS series 81460DO001_201011 Household Use of Information Technology, Australia, 2010-117: http://www.itnews.com.au/News/259237,nbn-co-eyes-faster-wireless-speeds-over-lte.aspx8: Marcia Langton, boyer lectures – lecture 1 http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/boyerlectures/boyers-ep1/4305610#_ftn19: Remote ATMs charge $10/withdrawal, http://youtu.be/Do0C6p6DTIM ABC news on YouTube10: Datawind is manufacturing the Akash 2 as the Ubislate http://www.ubislate.com/11: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: An International Journal – Networking and culture in entrepreneurship, Kim Klyver & Dennis Foley12: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/indigenous/black-sentences-soar-as-juvenile-jails-become-a-storing-house/story-fn9hm1pm-122654788934013: 20490DO001_2011 Census of Population and Housing: Estimating homelessness, 2011 http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/2049.02011?OpenDocument14 The homeless use Facebook?! Similarities of social network use between college students and homeless young adults, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.07.01915: Recruiting trends at Australias biggest employers, Business Review Weekly, http://newsletter.mycareer.com.au/general/nov2006/job- update/section/thomson.aspx16:Marcia Langton, LECTURE 5 - COUNTING OUR VICTORIES: THE END OF GARVEY-ISM AND THE SOFT BIGOTRY OF LOW EXPECTATIONhttp://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/boyerlectures/2012-boyer-lectures-245/4427682#transcript17: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/6202.018: Population pyramid from ABS stats, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/2076.0Main%20Features1102011?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=2076.0&issue=2011&num= &view=19: The changing face of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/2076.0Media%20Release12011?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=2076.0&issue=2011&num=& view=20: facebook group, indigenous community Volunteers, https://www.facebook.com/IndigenousCommunityVolunteers21: ABS 2006 stats on workforce composition, http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/cashome.nsf/4a256353001af3ed4b2562bb00121564/65317b8f86968271ca25758b0011e956!OpenDocument22:Income management doesn‟t work, http://www.crikey.com.au/2010/05/17/income-management-isnt-working-and-macklins-twisting-the-truth/