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  • 1. An Experience-Centered Design approach to learning in Museums through Emotional experiences, and Thematic Digital Navigation for mobile technologies (working title)Chloe Walker96090131M. DesignCandidature AssessmentUTS
  • 2. .
  • 3. OUTLINE 1. The Museum 1.1. The Dialogical Museum 1.2. Museums & Learning 2. Emotion 2.1. Emotion as a meta-Experience 2.2. Emotion as a meta-Experience 2.3. Emotional Experiences motivate 2.3.1. Emotional Goals Motivate 2.3.2. Think Holistically 3. Flow - the Psychology of Optimal Experience Model for Transformational Experience 4. Process-Led Research 4.1. Mapping the Field 4.2. Example: “Power” 4.3. Experience-centered Methodology.
  • 4. 1. The Museum
  • 5. 1.1. The dialogical Museum
  • 6. Visitors Students Teachers Scholars Museum staff63% wished to search a collection. Museum Audience Segments (Krachunya & Hastings 2002)
  • 7. Interested Observer (Stroller) Prefers a networked structure which can be navigated by association Playful Discoverer (Stories & Games) Mainly wants a narrative that’s linear, with a little interaction Encyclopedists (Hierarchy) Prefer facts and figures organized in a hierarchical structureTopology of Museum User Attitudes (Janet H. Murray 2000)
  • 8. Interested Observer (Stroller) Prefers a networked structure which can be navigated by association Playful Discoverer (Stories & Games) Mainly wants a narrative that’s linear, with a little interaction Encyclopedists (Hierarchy) Prefer facts and figures organized in a hierarchical structureTopology of Museum User Attitudes (Janet H. Murray 2000)
  • 9. Interested Observer (Stroller) Prefers a networked structure which can be navigated by association Playful Discoverer (Stories & Games) Mainly wants a narrative that’s linear, with a little interaction Encyclopedists (Hierarchy) Prefer facts and figures organized in a hierarchical structureTopology of Museum User Attitudes (Janet H. Murray 2000)
  • 10. Interested Observer (Stroller) Prefers a networked structure which can be navigated by association Playful Discoverer (Stories & Games) Mainly wants a narrative that’s linear, with a little interactionA B Encyclopedists (Hierarchy) Prefer facts and figures organized in a hierarchical structure Topology of Museum User Attitudes (Janet H. Murray 2000)
  • 11. Interested Observer (Stroller) Prefers a networked structure which can be navigated by association Playful Discoverer (Stories & Games) Mainly wants a narrative that’s linear, with a little interaction Encyclopedists (Hierarchy) Prefer facts and figures organized in a hierarchical structureTopology of Museum User Attitudes (Janet H. Murray 2000)
  • 12. Interested Observer (Stroller) Prefers a networked structure which can be navigated by association Playful Discoverer (Stories & Games) Mainly wants a narrative that’s linear, with a little interactionA B Encyclopedists C (Hierarchy) Prefer facts and figures organized in a D hierarchical structure Topology of Museum User Attitudes (Janet H. Murray 2000)
  • 13. Interested Observer (Stroller) Prefers a networked structure which can be navigated by association Playful Discoverer (Stories & Games) Mainly wants a narrative that’s linear, with a little interaction Encyclopedists (Hierarchy) Prefer facts and figures organized in a hierarchical structureTopology of Museum User Attitudes (Janet H. Murray 2000)
  • 14. 1.2. Museums & Learning
  • 15. Skills Application Ability to perform actions Information Exchange Facts and constructs that can potentially be integrated into a context Self Expression Including beliefs and creativity Knowledge Construction Integration of previous learning with new knowledge Social Interaction Communication, localization, orientation, mutual observation - reciprocal action in exchanging or challenging ideasThese Processes help construct meaning between the individual and the objects within Museums Museum Learning Activities
  • 16. Traditionally the museum is differentiated in it’s relationships between the Visitor and the Object
  • 17. but the boundaries are shifting between the real and the virtual
  • 18. we AR in MoMA by Sander Veenhof & Mark Skwarek (Oct 2010)
  • 19. An experience that occurs between asubject and an object is largely an Aesthetic experience Aesthetic Experience
  • 20. Continuous Engagement/Sense making Appropriating AnticipatingRecounting Connecting Reflecting Interpreting Processes of a Aesthetic Experience
  • 21. A Dialogical Ontology for an Aesthetic Experience Centers of Value with multiple perspectives and voices Self Technology Setting Others Objects{ { Actions Designed Utterances Things ...are never finite because they are in constant dialogue with the centers of value Diagram based onWright & McCarthy (2010) Experience-centered Design: Designers, Users, and Communities in Dialogue. Morgan and Claypool Publishers
  • 22. and no experience is ever the same...
  • 23. “uniqueness and irreducibility of experience”McCarthy & Wright (2004) Technology as Experience, Cambridge, USA, MIT Press
  • 24. 2. Emotion
  • 25. Self2.1. Emotion
  • 26. Happyhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/ladymissmarquise/3758224705/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  • 27. Angryhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/dave_apple/342355899/
  • 28. Sadhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/petithiboux/88243577/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  • 29. Relaxedhttp://publicphoto.org/view-image.php?u=http://publicphoto.org/pics/2010/02/man-relaxing-in-the-grass_8954-1024x766.jpg&i=1024%20x%20766&t=Man%20Relaxing-1024%20x%20766
  • 30. Dissatisfiedhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/hoosadork/5257219177/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  • 31. Emotions Arousal Activated Upset Happy Stressed Elated Nervous Excited Tense Alert Valence Valence Unpleasant Pleasant Fatigued Calm Bored Relaxed Depressed Serene Sad Contented Arousal Deactivated Valence + Arousal
  • 32. Arousal Activatedmeasurement of felt arousal (low/high) Bio Mapping by Christian Nold 2006
  • 33. Valence Unpleasantmeasurement of felt valence (positive/negative) Key Table by Bill Gaver
  • 34. Emotion & Cognition Arousal Activated Negative Affect Tense Body Detail Oriented Thinking Valence Valence Unpleasant Pleasant Positive Affect Relaxed Body Open Creative thinking Arousal Deactivated Valence + Arousal
  • 35. Positive Affect Neutral Affect Negative Affect Calm & Pleasant Interested Unpleasant & StressfulLow level of presence mid level of presence high level of presence Each room evoked a different emotional response measurement of Felt Presence (day dreaming/anxiety) SF Exploratorium - Paradiso & Pergatory by Waterworth, Waterworth, Riva 2001
  • 36. 2.2. Emotion as a meta-experience.
  • 37. “Emotional meta-experience is the construction of acoherent narrative, interpreting, packaging, and labeling the episode —thereby integrating this episode with general knowledge” Russell, J, A, (2003) Core Effect and the Psychological construction of Emotion. Psychological review, 110, 145-172 Emotional meta-experience
  • 38. Aaah...http://www.flickr.com/photos/hoosadork/5257219177/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  • 39. AAAAAAHHHHH!!!!!!!!!!
  • 40. felt arousal felt valence sensation of running sound of the bear etc... low level experiences Emotional meta-experience (Russell 2003)
  • 41. Emotion = fear{ meta-experiencefelt arousal felt valence sensation of running low level experiences sound of the bear etc... Emotional meta-experience (Russell 2003)
  • 42. running away from a bear motivated action Emotion = fear{ meta-experiencefelt arousal felt valence sensation of running low level experiences sound of the bear etc... Emotional meta-experience (Russell 2003)
  • 43. felt arousal felt valence sensation of running smell of Bacon etc... low level experiences Emotional meta-experience (Russell 2003)
  • 44. Emotion = joy{ meta-experiencefelt arousal felt valence sensation of running low level experiences smell of Bacon Emotional meta-experience (Russell 2003) etc...
  • 45. running to breakfast motivated action Emotion = joy{ meta-experiencefelt arousal felt valence sensation of running low level experiences smell of Bacon Emotional meta-experience (Russell 2003) etc...
  • 46. 2.3. How can Emotion help Learning?
  • 47. 2.3.1. Emotional Goals Motivate
  • 48. Motivation SOCIAL Int A L UR r in T INDI C UL Valu VIDU es, Em otion A L sic s, Fe elings CO Ex NT EX T HIS tr TOR Y i ns icIntrinsic motivation is self-initiated. Extrinsic motivation comes after external pressure
  • 49. { be autonomous be competent be related be self-actualization be secure Why? be goals be wealthy be influential be physically thriving be self-esteemed be pleasured Top-ten psychological needsSheldon, K. M. et al (2001)What is satisfying about satisfying events? Testing 10 candidate psychological needs. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology
  • 50. Emotion is closely linked to action and motivation How? What? Why? motor goals do goals be goals Experience ProductWorld Self a 3 level hierarchy of goals. (Activity Theory) Relates the actor’s self to the world through activity. (Kaptelinin and Nardi 2006)
  • 51. 2.3.2. think holistically
  • 52. Holistic Sensual Emotional Spatio-Temporal Compositional4 threads of experience (McCarthy & Wright 2010 - based on Dewey 1938)
  • 53. “...its emotional power shifts from the epiphanyof its ending to the individual gestures thatconstruct its play session -- gestures (pushing,shaking, that must necessarily be enacted inorder to reach that finale.” Ian Bogost “Train” - Brenda Braithwaite 2010 Teaches difficult subjects (e.g. The Holocaust) through Gameplay
  • 54. 3. Flow
  • 55. 3.1. Flow: the Psychology of “Optimal experience” when we choose an experience for it’s own sake
  • 56. The Flow State
  • 57. Optimal Experience is a state of Deep Enjoyment
  • 58. Attributes
  • 59. Antecedents
  • 60. Challenge/Skill Balance
  • 61. A mid level of stress produces Optimal Performance
  • 62. Arousal Neutral AnxietyValence ValenceUnpleasant Pleasant Average Average Arousal Neutral Boredom the narrative progression from Nervous, to Curious, to Excited to Pleasantly Surpised
  • 63. Continuous Engagement/Sense making Appropriating AnticipatingRecounting Connecting Reflecting Interpreting Processes of a Aesthetic Experience
  • 64. Continuous Engagement/Sense making Contented Appropriating Anticipating NervousAlert Recounting Connecting Excited Sad Reflecting Interpreting Surprised Processes of a Aesthetic Experience
  • 65. Model For Transformational Experience
  • 66. Model: Learning through Experience Holistic threads Reflection-in-action transformation (value shift) Spatio-Temporal Compositional sharing and learningConscious of selfin relation to the world { Emotional appropriation - reflective sense making judgements to pre-identification reflection { interpret, compare to find similarities with past experienceConscious (of here and now)Mostly Unconscious Tacit knowledge flow state Sensual pre-reflectionUnconscious Model based on Wright & McCarthy, Csikszentmihalyi, Waterworth and Schön.
  • 67. Model: Learning through Experience Holistic threads Reflection-in-action transformation (value shift) Spatio-Temporal Compositional sharing and learningConscious of selfin relation to the world { Emotional appropriation - reflective sense making judgements to pre-identification reflection { interpret, compare to find similarities with past experienceConscious (of here and now)Mostly Unconscious Tacit knowledge flow state Sensual pre-reflectionUnconscious Model based on Wright & McCarthy, Csikszentmihalyi, Waterworth and Schön.
  • 68. Model: Learning through Experience Holistic threads Reflection-in-action transformation (value shift) Spatio-Temporal Compositional sharing and learningConscious of selfin relation to the world { Emotional appropriation - reflective sense making judgements to pre-identification reflection { interpret, compare to find similarities with past experienceConscious (of here and now)Mostly Unconscious Tacit knowledge flow state Sensual pre-reflectionUnconscious Model based on Wright & McCarthy, Csikszentmihalyi, Waterworth and Schön.
  • 69. lets take a break...
  • 70. 4. Process-led Research
  • 71. 4.1. Mapping the field
  • 72. Reflection-in-action
  • 73. Example.4.2. “Power”
  • 74. “Po wer ” “Ha rmo ny” “the Min d” Sele ct a Them Compositional e reflection { Emotional interpret, compare to find similarities withSpatio-Temporal past experience Sensual Aesthetically Evocative Interface(Shake to select red, stroke to select blue, blow to select yellow, or simply press a color)
  • 75. “Po Sele wer ct an e ” leme Compositional nt reflection { Emotional interpret, compare to find similarities withSpatio-Temporal past experience Sensual Aesthetically Evocative Interface(Shake to select red, stroke to select blue, blow to select yellow, or simply press a color)
  • 76. Compositional reflection { Emotional interpret, compare to find similarities withSpatio-Temporal past experience Sensual Red journey selected
  • 77. sense making { appropriation - reflective judgements to pre-identification I us ed t ow ond er wh Compositional y th reflection ere we { Emotional interpret, compare to find similarities withSpatio-Temporal past experience Sensual Narrative - Scene 1
  • 78. Compositional Emotional sharing and learningSpatio-Temporal Sensual compare with friends
  • 79. Compositional reflection { Emotional interpret, compare to find similarities withSpatio-Temporal past experience Sensual follow the path
  • 80. Compositional Emotional sense making { appropriation - Spatio-Temporal reflective judgements to pre-identification Sensualsuggested narrative path through art (maybe most popular, related content, personal preference)
  • 81. Compositional Emotional sense making { appropriation - Spatio-Temporal reflective judgements to pre-identification Sensualsuggested narrative path through art (maybe most popular, related content, personal preference)
  • 82. Compositional Emotional sharing and learningSpatio-Temporal Sensual Playing Audio (could be video, slideshow, music, quiz, survey)
  • 83. Compositional Emotional sharing and learningSpatio-Temporal Sensual Layers turned on
  • 84. Compositional Emotional sharing and learningSpatio-Temporal Sensual Music Selected (timer running out, share button available)
  • 85. Compositional Emotional sharing and learningSpatio-Temporal Sensual Shared (Duration Extended, other shared items available to you)
  • 86. pre senc eo f8 lay ers Compositional Emotional sharing and learningSpatio-Temporal Sensual Sharing has given you deeper content, more access
  • 87. Compositional Emotional sense making { appropriation -Spatio-Temporal reflective judgements to pre-identification Sensual you could view them on the Map View
  • 88. I lef t ho me and I tra vele d arou Narrative - Scene 2
  • 89. Compositional Emotional sense making { appropriation -Spatio-Temporal reflective judgements to pre-identification Sensual continue on your journey, then when at a node, change paths.
  • 90. Compositional Emotional sense making { appropriation -Spatio-Temporal reflective judgements to pre-identification Sensual to access the alternate, gentler path, stroke the screen.
  • 91. Compositional Emotional sense making { appropriation -Spatio-Temporal reflective judgements to pre-identification Sensual To go back to the red, more intense path, shake the phone. (blowing on it would take you to the yellow gentle path)
  • 92. Compositional Emotional sense making { appropriation -Spatio-Temporal reflective judgements to pre-identification Sensual To go back to the red, more intense path, shake the phone. (blowing on it would take you to the yellow gentle path)
  • 93. ...and so on.
  • 94. 4.3. Experience-Centered Methodology
  • 95. Design for an individual “Empathy” Focus
  • 96. Blossom by Jayne Wallace (for Ana)
  • 97. ParticipantCultural probes Stories Immersion Design Individual System Designer My Proposed Process
  • 98. 4.4. Declaration of New Knowledge
  • 99. Research through design Research into design Research for design
  • 100. Holistic focus (Emotion, Sensation, Spatio-temporal, Compositional) + Memory = Meaning Meaning + Learning = Transformation Transformational experience + design = Transformational design
  • 101. Thank you