Terms and ideas
Society is the     Sociology is the study oflargest form ofgroup               people in groups                     Soci...
CultureTo understand asociety we must firstunderstand itsculture
Where does culture comefrom?  Culture is handed down to us          through the process of          socialization.       ...
Culture has a materialbasis We use material “things” to support ourselves  and survive Culture is limited by our ability...
Culture has anon-materialbasis Knowledge   Ideas   Skills Organized into   Philosophies   Beliefs   Customs   Inst...
Different cultures meet thesame needs differently Cultural Universals   Every culture must provide a set of routine beha...
The “Universals”age-grading                                hygiene                postnatal care                        et...
The same culture often meets thesame need differently atdifferent times and placesCultural                 Resources Matt...
Culture changeCulture Lag               The rate of change can beSometimes culture         very slow or very fast… orchan...
LanguageSapir-WhorfHypothesisThe words that a cultureuses transmit more thancommunication, theytransmit the values, whatis...
Dominant IdeologyCultural        Two views                  Conflict Theorybeliefs that                    This term is...
Dominant Ideology… an exampleAre we Christiannation?Would this change ourexperience of living as CoAmericans?             ...
The Intersection of History &Biography  Culture is an intrinsic part of our   Background image http://www.mcli.dist.marico...
Societies are unique Society emerges from the actions of all the  members of the interrelated social group   Actions tak...
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Societies and culture

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Societies and culture

  1. 1. Terms and ideas
  2. 2. Society is the  Sociology is the study oflargest form ofgroup people in groups  Sociology is a way to think about social action  Society is composed of social actions with a group of people who share  Culture  (and related subcultures)  Defined geography  A Specific time period  And are relatively autonomous
  3. 3. CultureTo understand asociety we must firstunderstand itsculture
  4. 4. Where does culture comefrom?  Culture is handed down to us through the process of socialization.  Learning a culture is also called aculturalization  Culture is learned  The ability to have culture is biological but the specific culture is learned  We are constantly socialized  We are always learning more about our culture  Culture is shared  No one has their “own culture”  Always shared with someone
  5. 5. Culture has a materialbasis We use material “things” to support ourselves and survive Culture is limited by our ability to  Obtain material goods or the resources to make them  Use material goods in settings for which they were not designed Culture adjusts to new uses of environmental resources through  Material change …Technology (technological change)  And through non-material adaptation (ideological change)
  6. 6. Culture has anon-materialbasis Knowledge  Ideas  Skills Organized into  Philosophies  Beliefs  Customs  Institutions  Language http://commons.wikimedia.org/w iki/File:The_Thinker,_Auguste_R odin.jpg
  7. 7. Different cultures meet thesame needs differently Cultural Universals  Every culture must provide a set of routine behaviors that make it possible for the people in the culture to meet their human needs.  George Murdock, an Anthropologist, compiled a list of 72 areas that are addressed by all cultures.  He found great diversity in the way in which cultures handled the same area of human need, emotion or behavior  Importantly, he believes that all cultures do address all these areas; these areas of culture are the cultural Universals
  8. 8. The “Universals”age-grading hygiene postnatal care ethics pregnancy usagesathletic sports incest taboosbodily adornment ethno-botany inheritance rules property rightscalendar etiquette joking propitiation of supernatural beingscleanliness training faith healing kin groups puberty customscommunity family feasting kinship nomenclatureorganization religious ritual languagecooking fire-making residence rules lawco-operative labor folklore sexual restrictions luck / superstitionscosmology soul concepts food taboos magiccourtship status differentiation funeral rites marriagedancing surgery games mealtimesdecorative art tool-making medicinedivination gestures trade obstetricsdivision of labor gift-giving visiting penal sanctionsdream interpretation weather control government personal nameseducation weaving greetings population policy Source:http://home.snu.edu/~hculbert/poweschatology erpt/define.ppt hair styles hospitality housing List from: Howard Culverson’s summary of Murdock’s Universals
  9. 9. The same culture often meets thesame need differently atdifferent times and placesCultural  Resources MatterChange  MaterialismObviously time canbring new  Marx (who controls materials)technologies andtechniques to solve  Diamond (geographic luck)old problems.  Lenski (technology drives change)But it may be thatideas will change as  Ideas Matterwell. This results inchanges in the social  Beliefsrules andexpectations.  Weber (Protestant Ethic)
  10. 10. Culture changeCulture Lag  The rate of change can beSometimes culture very slow or very fast… orchanges faster thanpeople within the anywhere in betweenculture can keep  Culture changes in response toup.  Population changesWhen non-material culture  Environmental changesfalls behind  Resource changesmaterial culture it is  Discovery, Innovation, Inventioncalled culture lag  Ideas
  11. 11. LanguageSapir-WhorfHypothesisThe words that a cultureuses transmit more thancommunication, theytransmit the values, whatis good/bad; right/wrong;important/not important.Language shapes notonly what we say, buthow we think about the The Rosetta Stone,world. written in 3 languagesLearning a new language provide a clue to theinvolves learning how the translation ofculture perceives reality, hierogyphicsin fact how it defines andconstructs what is real.
  12. 12. Dominant IdeologyCultural  Two views  Conflict Theorybeliefs that  This term is defined as the conflicthelp to theorists see itmaintain  Ideas that provide advantage to the powerful and disadvantage to the lesscontrol by powerful  Ex: bank policiesthe powerful  Functionalismin society.  Social stability requires consensus  “Strong values” (i.e. dominant ideology) provides the needed agreement  Everyone benefits when we all agree
  13. 13. Dominant Ideology… an exampleAre we Christiannation?Would this change ourexperience of living as CoAmericans? ngr res pec ess sh reli exe gio ting a all ma n, o n e k rcis sta e no fre e e th r proh blis law pre dom ere ibiti hme o pea ss; or of spe f; or ng th nt of a e pet ceab the ri ech, bridg free itio ly to ght or o i red res nt he asse of t f th ng th e so f gr Go mb he pe e v l iev ernm e, an ople anc ent d to es. for a
  14. 14. The Intersection of History &Biography Culture is an intrinsic part of our Background image http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/show/itl05/ history and our biography
  15. 15. Societies are unique Society emerges from the actions of all the members of the interrelated social group  Actions take place in real time and are affected by earlier actions Culture is expressed  Through the norms of the actors  Through the rules of the society  Through the institutions of society  Through material objects People are free to deviate  Deviation may or may not bring cultural change

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