Information and territoriale decision support Florent Joerin Chaire de recherche du Canada en aide à la décision territori...
Plan <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Territorial Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Territoriale decision s...
Territorial information <ul><li>Dependence on geographic location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altitude and population density </...
Suitability for new shops
Suitability for new shops Joerin Bozovic 2007
Territorial decision support <ul><li>Every decision is at least slighty territorial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision is soci...
Decision support <ul><li>Rational myth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality can be summed up with mathematics . </li></ul></ul><u...
Three types of information <ul><li>Objective, subjective et arbitrary </li></ul>Objective Subjective Arbitrary Objective S...
Information objective <ul><li>Independence from the observer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature in this room is  objectivel...
Subjective information <ul><li>Dependence from the observer </li></ul><ul><li>A disliked information </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Arbitrary information <ul><li>Not independent from the observer,  </li></ul><ul><li>But not based on values or rationality...
Transparency <ul><li>Flush out arbitrary information </li></ul>Objective Subjective Arbitraire
Transparency <ul><li>Identify and debate subjective information </li></ul>Objective Subjective Objective Subjective
Decision process Evaluation Action Observation Territorial system Diagnosis Intelligence Design Review Choice Action Choice
Decision process:  information transformation Evaluation Action Observation Territorial system Information Indicator Alter...
Decision process:  different tools Evaluation Action Observation Territorial system GIS Indicators systems Project Managem...
Examples <ul><li>1) Socioscope : a diagnosis support tool </li></ul><ul><li>2) Choosing bus stop equipment </li></ul>
Socioscope <ul><li>Conférence régionale des élus de Montréal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>semi-public institution  </li></ul></ul...
Socioscope <ul><li>Complete economic indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Improve social development understanding </li></ul><ul><...
Contextualised indicators  Improve accessibility to health services  Healthy life expectancy
Healthy life expectancy
Interconnected  indicators Grocery and food stores density Healthy life expectancy
Grocery and food density
Des indicateurs contextualisés  Life course  Juliette and her son : a single parent family
Des indicateurs contextualisés  Systemic diagram  causal relationships
Systemic diagram  causal relationships
Design process Comittee (author) Priorities and  Causal relationships  First list : 50 indicators Paul Bernard, Université...
Choosing bus stop equipment <ul><li>Minimalise cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance...
More than 4500 bus stop
Criteria Criterion Evaluator Traffic # passengers at stop Connection # of possible connecting routes Potential # of possib...
Range of bus route connection
Passengers at stop
Decision-makers preferences Criterion Indifference threshold Preference threshold Weights % Traffic 1 23 25 % Connection 8...
Mutlicriteria analysis (Electre TRI)
Results <ul><li>52,3 % bus shelter at « high quality » stops </li></ul><ul><li>But, 272 bus shelter at « weak quality » st...
Building decision <ul><li>Why decision-makers are asking for support ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve decision efficienc...
Building understanding How to decide ? Interaction Territorial system Mental  model Decision system Virtual model direct I...
Building preferences Information Information Concerns Motivations Information  Stakeholders Stakeholders Territory Decisio...
Deciding without information <ul><li>Why decision-makers are asking for support ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve decisio...
Main information <ul><li>During discussions…  </li></ul><ul><li>Cadastral map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only documents open on...
<ul><li>Participative design process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan for a future residential project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Four steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information and discussion : several meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnost...
Cartographic indicators (on line) <ul><li>Learn about the decision context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighbourhood, district, ...
Cartographics indicators (on line) Dwelling affordability  % of households spending more than 30% in the renting cost
Cartographics indicators (printed) Dwelling affordability
Outcomes <ul><li>Low use of indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only few consultations on the website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Two types of situation <ul><li>PPGIS </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Conclusion <ul><li>Territorial decision support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still need theoretical and conceptual research </li>...
What about Territorial Intelligence ? <ul><li>Much in common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global and systemic approach, participa...
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B08 111 081015 Diapo Joerin En

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Sixth annual International Conference of Territorial Intelligence "Tools and methods of Territorial Intelligence"

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  • 05/06/09
  • B08 111 081015 Diapo Joerin En

    1. 1. Information and territoriale decision support Florent Joerin Chaire de recherche du Canada en aide à la décision territoriale Université Laval, Québec, Canada 16 octobre 2008
    2. 2. Plan <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Territorial Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Territoriale decision support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socioscope : a diagnosis support tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing bus stop equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S ome Thoughts on the role of information in the territorial decision support process </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    3. 3. Territorial information <ul><li>Dependence on geographic location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altitude and population density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>likely to change based on its location. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Person’s weight, engine’s power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not depend on the place of observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Topological relationships or spatial autocorrelation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values are generally close if spatially close </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation framework </li></ul></ul>observation locations similarity relationships
    4. 4. Suitability for new shops
    5. 5. Suitability for new shops Joerin Bozovic 2007
    6. 6. Territorial decision support <ul><li>Every decision is at least slighty territorial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision is social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social is also essentially spatial. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Territorial decision , a decision with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a « meaningful » effect on territory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field of territorial decision support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuzzy boundaries </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Decision support <ul><li>Rational myth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality can be summed up with mathematics . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision can be strictly rational. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nowadays, a more open approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More attention on stakeholders, on problem formulation and organisational context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A place taking account of different rationalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific but also aesthetic, social, ethical </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Three types of information <ul><li>Objective, subjective et arbitrary </li></ul>Objective Subjective Arbitrary Objective Subjective Arbitrary
    9. 9. Information objective <ul><li>Independence from the observer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature in this room is objectively 24 °C . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectivity based on social conventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convention for measuring temperature. Ice = 0 °C et Boiling = 100 °C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure is rather objective… </li></ul><ul><li>… but measuring or not is a choice </li></ul>Flourentzou, 2001, Constructivisme piagétien dans l'aide à la décision : contribution au développement durable en architecture.
    10. 10. Subjective information <ul><li>Dependence from the observer </li></ul><ul><li>A disliked information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>subjective analysis: where the feeling of the individual taking part in the analysis process determines the outcome ( Knowledgetransfer.net ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But, an essential part of information in decision processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-makers preferences, priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implies a rationality based on values, interest, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective information can be debated </li></ul>
    11. 11. Arbitrary information <ul><li>Not independent from the observer, </li></ul><ul><li>But not based on values or rationality </li></ul><ul><li>Can not be debated </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudo technical or scientifical </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution criterion is twice more important than cost. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abritrary : “Criterion has to be weighted… so…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective : “If the environmental impact is too big, population will certainly fight the project.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective : “I can’t really explain why but that’s my gut feeling.” </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Transparency <ul><li>Flush out arbitrary information </li></ul>Objective Subjective Arbitraire
    13. 13. Transparency <ul><li>Identify and debate subjective information </li></ul>Objective Subjective Objective Subjective
    14. 14. Decision process Evaluation Action Observation Territorial system Diagnosis Intelligence Design Review Choice Action Choice
    15. 15. Decision process: information transformation Evaluation Action Observation Territorial system Information Indicator Alternatives Criterion Choice
    16. 16. Decision process: different tools Evaluation Action Observation Territorial system GIS Indicators systems Project Management software Multicriteria analysis Choice
    17. 17. Examples <ul><li>1) Socioscope : a diagnosis support tool </li></ul><ul><li>2) Choosing bus stop equipment </li></ul>
    18. 18. Socioscope <ul><li>Conférence régionale des élus de Montréal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>semi-public institution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>120 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 local politicians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 social and economic lobbyist </li></ul></ul></ul>www.socioscope.qc.ca
    19. 19. Socioscope <ul><li>Complete economic indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Improve social development understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty, health, education... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supporting consensual decision-making </li></ul>www.socioscope.qc.ca
    20. 20. Contextualised indicators Improve accessibility to health services Healthy life expectancy
    21. 21. Healthy life expectancy
    22. 22. Interconnected indicators Grocery and food stores density Healthy life expectancy
    23. 23. Grocery and food density
    24. 24. Des indicateurs contextualisés Life course Juliette and her son : a single parent family
    25. 25. Des indicateurs contextualisés Systemic diagram causal relationships
    26. 26. Systemic diagram causal relationships
    27. 27. Design process Comittee (author) Priorities and Causal relationships First list : 50 indicators Paul Bernard, Université de Montréal Focus Groups Socioscope Systemic diagram
    28. 28. Choosing bus stop equipment <ul><li>Minimalise cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximise service quality </li></ul>Bus shelter, garbage can, posted schedules, seats Bus shelter, garbage can, posted schedules Seats, posted schedules Posted schedules None
    29. 29. More than 4500 bus stop
    30. 30. Criteria Criterion Evaluator Traffic # passengers at stop Connection # of possible connecting routes Potential # of possible connecting routes Intermodality Connection with others transport services Peak performance Stability of use (passengers/hours) Frequency # of buses by day Urban context Industrial, residential, dow-town, etc.
    31. 31. Range of bus route connection
    32. 32. Passengers at stop
    33. 33. Decision-makers preferences Criterion Indifference threshold Preference threshold Weights % Traffic 1 23 25 % Connection 8 12 20 % Potential 3551 6190 10 % Intermodality 6 15 10 % Peak performance 2,2 26,3 10 % Frequency 10 20 20 % Urban context 0 1 5 %
    34. 34. Mutlicriteria analysis (Electre TRI)
    35. 35. Results <ul><li>52,3 % bus shelter at « high quality » stops </li></ul><ul><li>But, 272 bus shelter at « weak quality » stops </li></ul>Global stop quality # stops # bus shelter   % shelter/ stop Very high 179 170 95 High 453 374 82,6 Doubtful 849 224 26,4 Weak 1 919 223 11,6 Very weak 993 49 4,9 Total 4393 1040 23,7
    36. 36. Building decision <ul><li>Why decision-makers are asking for support ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve decision efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is it really the best choice ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be able to decide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How can I decide ? Is there a good choice ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>And if the decision is territorial ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To… be able to decide ! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too complex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too many conflicts : NIMBY, LULU, and so on </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Building understanding How to decide ? Interaction Territorial system Mental model Decision system Virtual model direct Interaction virtual Interaction Decision Mental model Experiences Socioscope Decision support process Multicriteria analysis
    38. 38. Building preferences Information Information Concerns Motivations Information Stakeholders Stakeholders Territory Decision Expert Preferences Stakeholders
    39. 39. Deciding without information <ul><li>Why decision-makers are asking for support ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve decision efficency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be able to decide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LÉVIS City </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CID : coordination body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision about residential project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 executives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban planning, environment, Safety, Police, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>Just to Be able to decide !
    40. 40. Main information <ul><li>During discussions… </li></ul><ul><li>Cadastral map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only documents open on the table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor information but sufficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complemented by personal knowledge </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. <ul><li>Participative design process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan for a future residential project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacant land belonging to the Université Laval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 1000 habitation units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sixty participants : University employees, students, neighbouring residents, businesspeople, City of Québec… </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>Four steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information and discussion : several meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostics and prospects : 1 day workshop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy and choice : 1 day workshop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design : 2 days charrette </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Cartographic indicators (on line) <ul><li>Learn about the decision context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighbourhood, district, city </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Cartographics indicators (on line) Dwelling affordability % of households spending more than 30% in the renting cost
    45. 45. Cartographics indicators (printed) Dwelling affordability
    46. 46. Outcomes <ul><li>Low use of indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only few consultations on the website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few consultations during workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible reasons ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartographic composition, media (Internet, printed maps), themes of indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All the focus on the consensus buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few concerns about the decision efficiency </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Two types of situation <ul><li>PPGIS </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply a decision support tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urban design </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision support tools </li></ul></ul>Tool Actors Actors Actors Actors Actors Actors Actors Actors Actors Actors Actors Actors Tool
    48. 48. Conclusion <ul><li>Territorial decision support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still need theoretical and conceptual research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuzzy boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Somes distinctives features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial relationships: Interpretation framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support to build the decision : complexity and conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructivist approach : result is the process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A paradoxical question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do decision-makers really need (additionnal) information ? </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. What about Territorial Intelligence ? <ul><li>Much in common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global and systemic approach, participatory processes, and so on </li></ul></ul>Territorial Intelligence Territorial decision support Decision process Action Multicriteria analysis
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