1. IntroductionCongratulations on deciding to become a teacher! You have made a decision that hasthe potential to enrich hundreds of lives, including your own. Do not underestimate thatpotential. By becoming a teacher, you will regularly come into contact with young mindsthat you can mould in many different ways. Make sure you do it purposefully and well.You might feel a little overwhelmed at taking on this responsibility. That is where this bookcomes in. We have thought about the things that most unnerve new teachers and pro-vide practical solutions for them. We want you to remain a part of this profession, and aswe discuss in Chapter 4, we want you to take advantage of our experience! Remember,you hold an important key to bringing about school reform in Pakistan: the power to influ-ence the leaders of tomorrow. By using the techniques described in this book, we hopethat you will hone your skills to really take advantage of the limited time you have to trainPakistan’s future. Good luck!
2. Knowing what you can or cannot achieve is called EXPECTATION. An expectation is whatyou believe will or will not happen. There are 2 kinds of expectations:High Expectations• : An optimistic belief that whomever you teach will be able toachieve success. An example is a teacher that says “I believe that every child canlearn and will achieve to his or her fullest potential.” The odds are greater that whatyou want to happen will happen because you will be expending energy to see thatthis will be so.Low expectations• : A pessimistic belief that whoever you teach or whomever you teachwill fail. An example is a teacher that says “These students just don’t want to learn”. Ifyou expect to fail, you are constantly looking for justification, proof, and demonstrationof why you have failed.Teachers who practice negative expectation will prevent student from reaching highstandards. Give your students more than they expect, and you will get back more thanyou ever expected.A research study on expectations was conducted in an American school. Before schoolstarted, students were tested. Teachers were told, “Based on this pretest, we haveidentified 20% of your students that are special. They will be “bloomers” of whom greaterintellectual growth is expected.” The students’ names were really selected at random, butthe teachers were led to believe that the status of being special children was based onthe test scores. The teachers were told not to tell these students that they were special.The researchers told the teachers, “We expect and know that you will do extremely wellwith these special students.”8 months later, all students were tested again and a comparison was made betweenthe “special” students and the other students. The results showed a significant gain inintellectual growth for the 20% who were designated “special” in the primary grades.When the teachers were informed that these students were no different than the others,they were astonished!The researchers concluded, “The results suggest rather strongly that children who are ex-pected by their teacher to gain intellectually in fact do show greater intellectual growthafter one year than do children of whom such gains are not expected.”1Your students will tend to learn as little or as much as you will expect of them. Yourexpectations will greatly influence their achievement in your class and ultimately their lives.You can accomplishanything with students ifyou set high expectationsfor behavior andperformance by which youyourself abide.Chapter 1: How can teachers invite all students to learn?1Adapted from Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2001)
3. Inviting Verbal Comments“Good morning!”“Congratulations!”“How can I help you?”“Tell me more.”Disinviting Verbal Comments“It won’t work.”“I don’t care what you do.”“You can’t do that.”“Get out.”Inviting Personal BehaviorsSmilingListeningWaiting your turnDisinviting Personal BehaviorsLooking at the clockYawningSneeringInviting Physical EnvironmentWell lit classroomClean spacesStudent work up on the wallsDisinviting Physical EnvironmentDark corridorsBroken furnitureBad smellsAre you Invitational or Disinvitational?2An INVITATION is a message that states that the person being invited isresponsible, able, and valuable. Effective teachers have the power and theability to invite students each day in class to learn together. Attentiveness,expectancy, attitude, enthusiasm, and evaluation are the primary forcesbehind a teacher’s being inviting or disinviting. These are the characteristics thatsignificantly influence a student’s self-concept and increase or decrease theprobability of student learning.All of us need to convey to our students every day that “you are important tome as a person.”2Adapted from Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2001)
4. If school does not begin with proper, positive expectations, there may not be aGraduation Day for a student. Celebrating the First Day of School must become a traditionof all educational systems. This day of celebration must include everyone associated withand interested in the education of these children. In addition to everyone at the schoolsite, this should include parents and the neighborhood. The more the school, the family,the community are joined as partners in the cause of educating young people, thegreater each child’s chance for success.3How to Welcome them to School4Organize a First Day of School celebration• Stand at your school gate and welcome your students on the First Day. Wave and• smile like they are a dear relative of yours who you are seeing after a long timeLet the first message in the assembly be one of welcome and positive expectations for• the school year.Hang up a banner welcoming students to school• Have guides in the corridors. Hang up directional signs to help students get to their• classrooms.Have your name and room number clearly visible on the classroom door along with a• personal greeting of welcome.The two most important groups of people, as far as young people are concerned, areparents and teachers.Involve students’ parents in school activities. Invite them to the art exhibitions, sports daysand other events where students showcase their progress. The successful education ofyoung people is an interrelated, community team effort.Chapter 2: How to help all students succeedThe most important dayof a person’s education isthe First Day of School, notGraduation Day.3Quoted from Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2001)4Adapted from Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2001)
5. There are five significant concepts that a teacher can use to enhance positiveexpectations6:Addressing a student by nameWhen you address a student, use the student’s name.• Use a student’s name in a friendly, respectful manner. Never address a student in an• angry or condescending tone. This is a put- down of a person’s identity and dignity.Pronounce the student’s name correctly. A person’s name is precious and personal.• When you use a person’s name, you are saying to that person, “You are important.• You are important enough for me to identify you by name.”Say “Please”How do people learn to treat others with politeness and courtesy? They learn from howthey were treated by others primarily during their formative years, such as at school. If youabuse a child, the child will grow up with the expectation of abusing others. If you treata child with kindness, the child will grow up with the expectation of treating other withkindness.Kindness begins with the word “please”• Please• is usually used when you ask someone to do something for you. Thus the mosteffective way to use please is to precede the word with the person’s name to whomyou are addressing the request, as in “Bilal, please...”Strongly consider adding the word• please to your worksheets, assignments and otherpapers that you distribute in class.Repetitive use of the word• please is important if a child is to learn to use the wordplease in his or her life“I really appreciate what you did. Thank you!”“Thank you” says to others that you appreciate their effort and kindness. If you haveexpectations that students will work hard and will learn to be kind, saying thank you is yourway of acknowledging that you know they have been kind and diligent and that youappreciate what they have done for you.Thank you is the perfect transition; it paves the way to the next request, lesson, or task• Chapter 3: How to encourage positive student behavior5Quoted from Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2001)6Adapted from Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2001)When you look at the trulyeffective teachers, youwill also find caring, warm,lovable people5.
6. The most effective way to use• thank you is to use it with the person’sname.Strongly consider adding the word• thank you to your worksheets,assignments and other papers that you distribute in class.Remember the power of a smile.If you truly want to achieve the maximum effectiveness when you use aperson’s name and say “please” and “thank you”, you should SMILE. Asmile is the most effective way to create a positive climate and to conveythe message: “Do not be afraid of me; I am here to help you.”Take a look at the chart on the next page to understand how to smile foreffectiveness.It All Adds up to LoveWhen you look at the truly effective teachers, you will also find caring,warm, lovable people.Years later, when the students remember their most significant teachers,the ones they remember the most are the ones who really cared aboutthem. Effective teachers know they cannot get a student to learn unlessthat student knows that the teacher cares.It is possible that a student in your classIs abused and neglected at home• Has poor health and is undernourished• Is emotionally needy and starved for attention and affection• You don’t need to tell all the members of a class that you love them, butyou certainly can show it. If you choose to be a significant and effectiveperson in a student’s life, you must demonstrate you care both implicitlythrough your body language and explicitly through what you say.
7. Step 1: SMILE.Smile as you approach the student, even if your first impulse is to behaveharshly toward the student.Step 2: FEEDBACK.Observe the reaction to your smile. Are you receiving a smile or at leasta signal that the student is relaxing and receptive to your approach?Step 3: PAUSE.Step 5: NAME.Say “Rehman” with a slight smile.Step 5: PAUSE.Step 6: PLEASE.Add please, followed by your request. Do this with a calm, firm voice,accompanied by a slight, non-threatening smile.Step 7: PAUSE.Step 8: THANK YOU.End with “Thank you, Rehman” and a slight smile.How to smile for effect7ExampleRehman, please stop talking to Bilal and do your own work. Thank you, Rehman. (slight smile).7Adapted from Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2001)
8. Chapter 4: Cooperative learning between teachersand administratorsCooperation is especially important for teachers because much of what they learn isprocedural. Procedural learning differs from the simple learning of facts and acquiringknowledge. It relies heavily on receiving feedback about performance and modifyingone’s implementation until errors are eliminated.Teachers can support one another in a way that if a teacher has a particular strength, heor she can share it with the other teachers at a particular school.Form staff-development support groups to help you implement success. Collegial supportgroups offer a formal structure for learning from colleagues. This is called collegial learning.Consisting of small groups of teachers and perhaps administrators, the goal of the supportgroup is to improve one another’s professional competence and ensure the professionalgrowth of all.The Apathetic School8Teachers do not discuss their practice of teaching with one another, nor do they help• one another improve their skills.Teachers are quick to point out areas for improvement to their students but pay no• attention to evaluations that point out areas for their own improvement.When new programs or ideas are suggested, teachers respond with apathy and• indifference.The faculty seldom unites around any effort to improve the school.• The Cooperative SchoolTeachers are working towards a common goal of school improvement.• Teachers observe one another’s teaching and strive to help one another improve.• Experienced teachers regularly share with new colleagues the practices that have• worked effectively for them.The principal provides the support that teachers need to work together, and the• teachers look to one another as resources for solving problems.The teachers are proud to take part in decision making.• Education is a helpingprofession. There areprofessionals out there willingto help. Help each other, andwe all profit.8Adapted from Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2001)
9. Members of collegial support groups serve many functions:They discuss new teaching practices and problems connected with their• implementation.Together they plan, design, prepare, and evaluate curriculum materials.• They observe one another’s teaching and offer helpful feedback.• The support groups consist of dedicated, caring, and knowledgeable colleagues willing toshare techniques for effective teaching.Successful schools are distinguished from unsuccessful schools by the frequency andextent to which teachers learn together, plan together, test ideas together, discussprojects together, reflect together, work things out together- all solely in the interest ofdeveloping students to their fullest potential.
10. Chapter 5: How can you have a well-managedclassroom?If you want your classroom to run like a well-oiled machine, first know that you have thepower to make that happen. But your next step must be to understand what classroommanagement means. It refers to all the things that a teacher does using time, materials,and space to establish a routine for students so that they can learn effectively.This means that the layout of the classroom must be organized and clean, studymaterials must be easily accessible and available, and the teacher must be friendly,knowledgeable, and efficient. With all these things present in your classroom, you may restassured that a productive atmosphere will exist, where your students will be engaged andactive. The environment will be task-oriented and predictable.Remember the characteristics of a well-managed classroom10:Students are deeply involved with their work.• Students know what is expected of them and are generally successful.• There is relatively little wasted time, confusion, or disruption.• The climate of the classroom is work-oriented, but relaxed, and pleasant.• “Effective teachers MANAGEtheir classrooms. Ineffectiveteachers DISCIPLINE theirclassrooms.”9Characteristics Effective Teacher Ineffective Teacher1. High level ofstudent involvementwith workStudents are working. Teacher is working.2. Clear studentexpectationsStudents know that assignmentsand tests are based on objectives.Teacher says, “Read Chapter 3,and know the material.”3. Relatively littlewasted time,confusion ordisruptionTeacher has a discipline plan.Teacher starts class immediately.Teacher has assignments posted.Teacher makes up rules andpunishes according to his or hermood.Teacher takes roll and dallies.Students ask for assignmentsrepeatedly.4. Work-orientedbut relaxed andpleasant climateTeacher has practiced proceduresuntil they become routines.Teacher knows how to bring classto attention.Teacher knows how to praise thedeed and encourage the student.Teacher tells but does notrehearse procedures.Teacher yells.Teacher uses generalized praiseor none at all.119, 10Quoted from Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T.11Adapted from Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2001)
11. Chapter 6: Managing student behaviorsThe most important behaviors to teach your students in the first few days of school are:1. Discipline2. Procedures3. Routines (see Chapter 7)These behaviors must be continually rehearsed with the students during the first weekof school. Through consistent rehearsal, you ensure that disruptive behaviors in theclassroom do not throw you off track. Make sure you have a plan. If you do not havea plan, you are planning to fail.12DisciplineRemember that enforcing discipline in the classroom does not mean the teacher shouldyell at his or her students or subject them to physical or emotional abuse. By resorting tosuch behaviors, teachers are only teaching students that it is acceptable for them to reactto situations in the same way and treat their peers similarly. It is not acceptable for them todo so, and the same standard applies to you.By having rules in place for students to follow, you provide them with consistency thatreduces their disruptive behaviors and you give yourself an actionable plan. Ideally, whileplanning rules for your class, you will also think about consequences and rewards for notfollowing the rules. This will prepare you to handle any situation that may arise in yourclassroom.The most successful classes are those in which the teacher has a clear idea of what isexpected from the students, and the students have a clear idea of what the teacherexpects from them.Rules are expectations of appropriate student behavior. You should think about themand have them ready for your students on the first day of school. Make sure that they areclearly communicated to the students.Enforcing discipline in theclassroom does not mean theteacher should yell at his orher students or subject themto physical or emotionalabuse.12Quoted from Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2001)
12. You should also think about approaching your principal and colleagues to discuss school-wide discipline plans. This kind of consistency across the school will help all the teachers inmanaging their classrooms effectively which will, in turn, benefit the students. Deliberateon what your goals for the discipline plan are, and then take your written plan to theadministration.Be sure to consider consequences and rewards. Additionally, make sureyou communicate openly with parents about your expectations as well. Your purposeshould be to collaborate with them in teaching the students acceptable behaviors, not tocriticize their parenting styles or their children.There are two kinds of rules that you can make: general or specific. If you already havea few years of teaching experience and have learnt how to encourage good classroombehavior, you can use general rules. As a newer teacher, though, you may find it morehelpful to have specific rules that target particular behaviors. In either case, remember toclearly explain your rules to the students!Consequences: positive and negativeConsequences are what result when a person abides by or breaks the rules. They can bepositive or negative, but they must be logical. Posting your list of consequences will makeit easier for your students to follow the rules. In case students do disrupt the class (they arechildren after all!), remember to keep your consequences reasonable. Do not overreact.Follow your plan and ensure that the delivery of your lesson is only minimally disrupted. DoNOT stop the lesson; just give the student a penalty.When rewarding the students, remember to follow the same rule of thumb as withconsequences: be reasonable and logical. It is important that teachers hold highexpectations of their students. Bribing them with material rewards is not the way to keepthem motivated. Instead, their greatest reward should simply be the satisfied feeling of ajob well done.Some useful tips to consider as youdesign your discipline plan:Remember to restrict the number• of your rules to five, a number thatstudents can easily remember. If youneed more rules, make sure that youdon’t post more than five at a time.Do not target academic work in• your rules. Talk about acceptablebehaviors instead.Think about what you want• to accomplish and whatconsequences or rewards willcontribute to the success of yourplan.Have these rules, consequences,• and rewards posted for students onthe first day of school to give them aclear idea of procedure.
13. Chapter 7: How can you achieve student buy-in?It is critical that teachers understand that they cannot increase student achievement by‘disciplining’ students. Forcing students to settle down and pay attention to the lessonshould not be the teacher’s goal. Instead, it is crucial that teachers have procedures inplace that do not allow students the time to become disruptive. To the highest degreepossible, students must be engaged while they are in class: that is the reason why they areenrolled in schools!Procedures and routinesThe reader may wonder, “If procedures are so important in ensuring that students learn,how can teachers make sure they have the best routines in place?” The answer to this liesin one word: planning. Teachers need to invest time in thinking about how their class willproceed, and what issues could present problems. Then, they need to think of effectiveways to handle those problems without wasting any of the students’ time. That is, theyneed to work out a process for how the class is conducted. Teachers and students mustboth remember that procedures are simply steps that need to be learned and followed.For example, teachers may have procedures in place for how students exit the classroomat break and recess times.How to ensure the success of proceduresAfter creating a procedure, however, it is essential that teachers communicate this to theirstudents. You may find the following three-step process useful.Explain1. - Define the procedure in concrete terms. Demonstrate the procedure, don’tjust tell it. Go through complex procedures step by step.Rehearse2. - Have the students practice the procedures step-by-step under yoursupervision. Correct any errors. The students should repeat the procedure until itbecomes the norm and can be practiced automatically without supervision.Reinforce3. - Determine whether the students have learned the procedure or if theyneed further clarification, demonstration, or practice. If the procedure needs to becorrected, reteach it, and give corrective feedback. If the students have learned theprocedure, praise them.To the highest degreepossible, students must beengaged while they are inclass: that is the reason whythey are enrolled in schools!
14. Chapter 8: What can you do to increase studentlearning and achievement?Remember that you mustenable your students towork hard by setting upprocedures for them tofollow and making surethey complete tasks in ameaningful way.It is essential for our students to be able to show that they have learned something. If theyare unable to do this, then as teachers, we have failed our students. The responsibility forstudent achievement lies on the shoulders of teachers.As you have read, effective teachers have high expectations of all of their students, haveexcellent classroom management skills, and are skilled in lesson planning and design.Teachers must be very clear about their primary duty: it is not to discipline the students,nor to pressure them into doing things in a certain way. Teachers are hired to guidestudents in developing their knowledge and skills. As such, it is their job to ensure thatstudents spend the maximum amount of time during the school day to work. By increasingthe amount of time that a student spends working, you improve the odds of increasingstudent achievement. The quality of the work that they do is a major determinant instudent achievement rates and depends on the quality of your instruction. However,by ensuring that you purposefully use up the students’ time in class you can be betterassured of improving their academic performance. This gain in academic ability can bemeasured in various ways, through different tests. It is not realistic to expect that you will beable to prepare students to show learning in all of those ways but make certain they candemonstrate their learning meaningfully.Remember that you must enable your students to work hard by setting up procedures forthem to follow and making sure they complete tasks in a meaningful way. “Did the student learn what you wanted the student to learn?” “Can you show that the student learned what you wanted the student to learn?”13If you are able to answer the two questions above in the affirmative, you may feel proudof yourself, because you have done your job.13Quoted from Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2001)
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