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The
Human
Interface
Christopher Fahey




graphpaper.com
@chrisfahey
#ixd10 #human
ROBOTS?
I HATE
ROBOTS!
PYGMALION
THE
REPLACEMENTS
THE
REPLACEMENTS
CYBORGS?
”As our worlds become smarter,
and get to know us better and
better, it becomes harder and
harder to say where the world
s...
THE
  UNCANNY
  VALLEY
(Masahiro Mori)
The Uncanny Valley
The Uncanny Valley



             (How comfortable
ACCEPTANCE




             we feel around
             the machine.)
...
The Uncanny Valley
The Uncanny Valley
Lessons so far:


1. Don’t replace humans.
2. Don’t replicate humans.
Origins
What childhood
   experiences most
powerfully influence your
 approach to interaction
     design today?
Childhood IxD Experiences

1. Taking things apart to see how they work
2. Fixing broken things
3. Creating little worlds
Why?

1. Interaction design is a creative form.
    UX designers want to use technology and
design to create emotional, im...
Why?

1. Interaction design is a creative form.
    UX designers want to use technology and
design to create emotional, im...
New Technologies




                         Image
                         recognition
             Touch
              ...
New Technologies
Not so new
Not so new
Not so new
About the
“Human Interface”
“An interface is humane if it is
responsive to human needs and is
considerate of human frailties.”
- Jef Raskin, “The Huma...
“Design can be easier when we
acknowledge that products share
our homes and malls, and have
wants and lives of their own.”...
“If we want users to like our
software, we should design it to
behave like a likeable person.”
- Alan Cooper
We make better
products when we
 think of them as
  human beings.
“The role of technology is to
mirror our humanness. We were
born with everything we need:
good technology reminds us of
th...
The Human Interface...
... is about persuasion and seduction
... is smart and has awareness
... is physical, embodied
... ...
“Want to know what I think the next UI break-
throughs will be? Here are two, both of which can
be considered a return to ...
The Human
 Interface
The Human Interface

Literally, it’s about the ergonomics of the
body and the mind.
The Human Interface

Literally, it’s about the ergonomics of the
body and the mind.


Metaphorically, it’s about removing
...
Lessons so far:


1. Don’t replace humans.
2. Don’t replicate humans.
Lessons so far:


1. Don’t replace humans.
2. Don’t replicate humans.
           How?
Lessons so far:


1. Don’t replace humans.
2. Don’t replicate humans.
           How?
                  Behavior!
Lessons so far:

Not about mimicking human behavior, but
about reflecting it.
Software that mirrors behavior:
   • Chat an...
Paul Dourish: “Where the Action Is”
Reeves & Nass: “The Media Equation”
Ergonomics for the Mind




            (cups designed by the “other” Masahiro Mori)
Anthopomorphism
Human-ness
Human-ness (Christopher Alexander)

    The Quality
  Without a Name
      (QWAN)
        aka

  The Phenomenon
       of ...
Human-ness (Christopher Alexander)

                      1. Levels of Scale
     Fifteen          2. Strong Centers
     ...
Human-ness (Christopher Alexander)

                      1. Levels of Scale
     Fifteen          2. Strong Centers
     ...
Human-ness (Christopher Alexander)

                      1. Levels of Scale
     Fifteen          2. Strong Centers
     ...
Human-ness (Christopher Alexander)

                      1. Levels of Scale
     Fifteen          2. Strong Centers
     ...
Human-ness (Christopher Alexander)

                      1. Levels of Scale
     Fifteen          2. Strong Centers
     ...
Katherine Isbister: Better Game Characters by Design
Human-ness (Katherine Isbister)

External             Internal
Characteristics of   Characteristics of
Personhood         ...
The Three Qualia
 of the Human
    Interface
Three Qualia of the Human Interface:

          Sentience
          Intimacy
         Personality
Sentience
Sentience: The ability to feel or
perceive subjectively.
The system is able to collect
robust sensory data from the
world,...
The Human Sensorium
Voice Recognition
Image and Face Recognition
Nintendo Wii
Not always robust

Not all sensory data need be robust to a system to make
extremely intelligent deductions from the data.
Not always robust

Not all sensory data need be robust to a system to make
extremely intelligent deductions from the data.
Not always robust

Not all sensory data need be robust to a system to make
extremely intelligent deductions from the data.
Not always robust

Not all sensory data need be robust to a system to make
extremely intelligent deductions from the data.
Project Natal (Microsoft)
Project Natal (Microsoft)
Project Natal (Microsoft)
Artificial Intelligences
The Uncanny Valley: Sentience
The Uncanny Valley: Sentience




                           Creepy stalker
The Uncanny Valley: Sentience

 Observant and conscientious




                           Creepy stalker
Intimacy
2. Intimacy: The quality of being close,
comfortable, and familiar.
The system can interface with
humans extremely closely...
Intimacy

Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines:
   • Emotional Intelligence
   • Proximity
   • Presence
...
Intimacy

Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines:
   • Emotional Intelligence
   • Proximity
   • Presence
...
Intimacy

Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines:
   • Emotional Intelligence
   • Proximity
   • Presence
...
Intimacy

Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines:
   • Emotional Intelligence
   • Proximity
   • Presence
...
Intimacy

Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines:
   • Emotional Intelligence
   • Proximity
   • Presence
...
Intimacy

Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines:
   • Emotional Intelligence
   • Proximity
   • Presence
...
Intimacy

Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines:
   • Emotional Intelligence
   • Proximity
   • Presence
...
Intimacy

Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines:
   • Emotional Intelligence
   • Proximity
   • Presence
...
Intimacy

Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines:
   • Emotional Intelligence
   • Proximity
   • Presence
...
Machines that talk back
Machines that talk back
Conversations
Dialogue!   Dialog?




 Conversations
Politeness


Clifford Nass:
“Design solutions are often social solutions.”

Tom Armitage:
“The applications and tools we a...
Politeness


       • Don't reject
       • Don't interrupt
       • Say hello and goodbye
       • Use someone's name
   ...
Politeness   Praise



  Conversations
Identity
“You are not your job, you're not
how much money you have in the
bank, you're not the car you drive,
you're not the conten...
“You are not your job, you're not
how much money you have in the
bank, you're not the car you drive,
you're not the conten...
Personality
Personality: The sum of an individual
person’s mental, emotional,
behavioral, and social characteristics.
The system has a...
We see faces
Facial Fidelity
The Uncanny Valley: Faces
Personality
Characteristics
The Four Humours
Myers-Briggs
Interpersonal Circumplex
Interpersonal Circumplex




  Agreeableness
   (Communion)




                   Dominance
                    (Agency)
Interpersonal Circumplex
Interpersonal Circumplex
Voice
Voice = Content Strategy
Personality

Characters:
  • More than personality: Culture, Style
  • Casting
  • Names
  • Personas
  • Storytelling and...
Personality

Characters:
  • More than personality: Culture, Style
  • Casting
  • Names
  • Personas
  • Storytelling and...
Personality

Characters:
  • More than personality: Culture, Style
  • Casting
  • Names
  • Personas
  • Storytelling and...
Personality

Characters:
  • More than personality: Culture, Style
  • Casting
  • Names
  • Personas
  • Storytelling and...
What’s in a Name




    Maximillian    Linus
The Uncanny Valley: Names




                            Bob, Jeeves
The Uncanny Valley: Names




                            Bob, Jeeves
TiVo, iPhone
Personality

Characters:
  • More than personality: Culture, Style
  • Casting
  • Names
  • Personas
  • Storytelling and...
Personality

Characters:
  • More than personality: Culture, Style
  • Casting
  • Names
  • Personas
  • Storytelling and...
Brands
Broken Personalities
Conclusions
The
Human
Interface
The Uncanny Valley




Unthreatening
Appearance




                     Annoying
                     Personality
Things to try

  • Use pronouns for your product: he, she.
  • Give your application a name
  • Do more visceral prototype...
If we don’t humanize
   our products, our
     products will
    mechanize us.
Thanks!
Christopher Fahey

@chrisfahey

#ixd10 #human




graphpaper.com
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
The Human Interface
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The Human Interface

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Watch video here: http://vimeo.com/9661208

In "The Human Interface", I explain how we can make better products when we think of them as human beings.

This is the version I presented at the Interaction 10 conference in Savannah (significantly updated from the one presented at the 2009 O'Reilly Web 2.0 Expo in New York).

Apologies to all the cited people and rights-holders I have not yet had time to credit.

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Transcript of "The Human Interface"

  1. 1. The Human Interface Christopher Fahey graphpaper.com @chrisfahey #ixd10 #human
  2. 2. ROBOTS?
  3. 3. I HATE ROBOTS!
  4. 4. PYGMALION
  5. 5. THE REPLACEMENTS
  6. 6. THE REPLACEMENTS
  7. 7. CYBORGS?
  8. 8. ”As our worlds become smarter, and get to know us better and better, it becomes harder and harder to say where the world stops and the person begins.” - Andy Clarke, “Natural Born Cyborgs”
  9. 9. THE UNCANNY VALLEY (Masahiro Mori)
  10. 10. The Uncanny Valley
  11. 11. The Uncanny Valley (How comfortable ACCEPTANCE we feel around the machine.) FIDELITY (How well the machine mimics human characteristics.)
  12. 12. The Uncanny Valley
  13. 13. The Uncanny Valley
  14. 14. Lessons so far: 1. Don’t replace humans. 2. Don’t replicate humans.
  15. 15. Origins
  16. 16. What childhood experiences most powerfully influence your approach to interaction design today?
  17. 17. Childhood IxD Experiences 1. Taking things apart to see how they work 2. Fixing broken things 3. Creating little worlds
  18. 18. Why? 1. Interaction design is a creative form. UX designers want to use technology and design to create emotional, imaginative, and deeply human experiences.
  19. 19. Why? 1. Interaction design is a creative form. UX designers want to use technology and design to create emotional, imaginative, and deeply human experiences. 2. Change is in the air. New technologies are converging to permit new and more compelling interactions.
  20. 20. New Technologies Image recognition Touch Voice recognition Gesture
  21. 21. New Technologies
  22. 22. Not so new
  23. 23. Not so new
  24. 24. Not so new
  25. 25. About the “Human Interface”
  26. 26. “An interface is humane if it is responsive to human needs and is considerate of human frailties.” - Jef Raskin, “The Humane Interface”
  27. 27. “Design can be easier when we acknowledge that products share our homes and malls, and have wants and lives of their own.” - Matt Webb, BERG
  28. 28. “If we want users to like our software, we should design it to behave like a likeable person.” - Alan Cooper
  29. 29. We make better products when we think of them as human beings.
  30. 30. “The role of technology is to mirror our humanness. We were born with everything we need: good technology reminds us of that.” - Jack Dorsey (@jack), CEO Twitter
  31. 31. The Human Interface... ... is about persuasion and seduction ... is smart and has awareness ... is physical, embodied ... is linguistic, poetic, and narrative ... is emotional and feeling ... has a name and an identity ... has a personality
  32. 32. “Want to know what I think the next UI break- throughs will be? Here are two, both of which can be considered a return to fundamentals: 1. Command line languages; 2. Physicality: the return to physical devices, where we control things by physical body movement, by turning, moving, and manipulating appropriate mechanical devices.” - Don Norman, 2007
  33. 33. The Human Interface
  34. 34. The Human Interface Literally, it’s about the ergonomics of the body and the mind.
  35. 35. The Human Interface Literally, it’s about the ergonomics of the body and the mind. Metaphorically, it’s about removing abstraction from interactions
  36. 36. Lessons so far: 1. Don’t replace humans. 2. Don’t replicate humans.
  37. 37. Lessons so far: 1. Don’t replace humans. 2. Don’t replicate humans. How?
  38. 38. Lessons so far: 1. Don’t replace humans. 2. Don’t replicate humans. How? Behavior!
  39. 39. Lessons so far: Not about mimicking human behavior, but about reflecting it. Software that mirrors behavior: • Chat and IM reflect the immediacy of communication • Social networks mirror the structure of the special primacy we give our own friends (vs. everyone else) • Twitter reflects the semi-social “cocktail party” model of social interaction.
  40. 40. Paul Dourish: “Where the Action Is”
  41. 41. Reeves & Nass: “The Media Equation”
  42. 42. Ergonomics for the Mind (cups designed by the “other” Masahiro Mori)
  43. 43. Anthopomorphism
  44. 44. Human-ness
  45. 45. Human-ness (Christopher Alexander) The Quality Without a Name (QWAN) aka The Phenomenon of Life
  46. 46. Human-ness (Christopher Alexander) 1. Levels of Scale Fifteen 2. Strong Centers 3. Thick Boundaries Properties 4. Alternating Repetition 5. Positive Space of Living 6. Good Shape Structures 7. Local Symmetries 8. Deep Interlock and Ambiguity 9. Contrast 10. Gradients 11. Roughness 12. Echoes 13. The Void 14. Simplicity and Inner Calm 15. Non-Separateness
  47. 47. Human-ness (Christopher Alexander) 1. Levels of Scale Fifteen 2. Strong Centers 3. Thick Boundaries Properties 4. Alternating Repetition 5. Positive Space of Living 6. Good Shape Structures 7. Local Symmetries 8. Deep Interlock and Ambiguity 9. Contrast 10. Gradients 11. Roughness 12. Echoes 13. The Void 14. Simplicity and Inner Calm 15. Non-Separateness
  48. 48. Human-ness (Christopher Alexander) 1. Levels of Scale Fifteen 2. Strong Centers 3. Thick Boundaries Properties 4. Alternating Repetition 5. Positive Space of Living 6. Good Shape Structures 7. Local Symmetries 8. Deep Interlock and Ambiguity 9. Contrast 10. Gradients 11. Roughness 12. Echoes 13. The Void 14. Simplicity and Inner Calm 15. Non-Separateness
  49. 49. Human-ness (Christopher Alexander) 1. Levels of Scale Fifteen 2. Strong Centers 3. Thick Boundaries Properties 4. Alternating Repetition 5. Positive Space of Living 6. Good Shape Structures 7. Local Symmetries 8. Deep Interlock and Ambiguity 9. Contrast 10. Gradients 11. Roughness 12. Echoes 13. The Void 14. Simplicity and Inner Calm 15. Non-Separateness
  50. 50. Human-ness (Christopher Alexander) 1. Levels of Scale Fifteen 2. Strong Centers 3. Thick Boundaries Properties 4. Alternating Repetition 5. Positive Space of Living 6. Good Shape Structures 7. Local Symmetries 8. Deep Interlock and Ambiguity 9. Contrast 10. Gradients 11. Roughness 12. Echoes 13. The Void 14. Simplicity and Inner Calm 15. Non-Separateness
  51. 51. Katherine Isbister: Better Game Characters by Design
  52. 52. Human-ness (Katherine Isbister) External Internal Characteristics of Characteristics of Personhood Personhood • Bodies • Agreeableness • Faces • Dominance • Voices • Openness • Conscientiousness • Neuroticism
  53. 53. The Three Qualia of the Human Interface
  54. 54. Three Qualia of the Human Interface: Sentience Intimacy Personality
  55. 55. Sentience
  56. 56. Sentience: The ability to feel or perceive subjectively. The system is able to collect robust sensory data from the world, and make sense of that data.
  57. 57. The Human Sensorium
  58. 58. Voice Recognition
  59. 59. Image and Face Recognition
  60. 60. Nintendo Wii
  61. 61. Not always robust Not all sensory data need be robust to a system to make extremely intelligent deductions from the data.
  62. 62. Not always robust Not all sensory data need be robust to a system to make extremely intelligent deductions from the data.
  63. 63. Not always robust Not all sensory data need be robust to a system to make extremely intelligent deductions from the data.
  64. 64. Not always robust Not all sensory data need be robust to a system to make extremely intelligent deductions from the data.
  65. 65. Project Natal (Microsoft)
  66. 66. Project Natal (Microsoft)
  67. 67. Project Natal (Microsoft)
  68. 68. Artificial Intelligences
  69. 69. The Uncanny Valley: Sentience
  70. 70. The Uncanny Valley: Sentience Creepy stalker
  71. 71. The Uncanny Valley: Sentience Observant and conscientious Creepy stalker
  72. 72. Intimacy
  73. 73. 2. Intimacy: The quality of being close, comfortable, and familiar. The system can interface with humans extremely closely, up close and personal, and with our glad consent.
  74. 74. Intimacy Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines: • Emotional Intelligence • Proximity • Presence • Social Web • Personal Informatics • Multiplayer Games • Real Time Web • Conversations
  75. 75. Intimacy Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines: • Emotional Intelligence • Proximity • Presence • Social Web • Personal Informatics • Multiplayer Games • Real Time Web • Conversations
  76. 76. Intimacy Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines: • Emotional Intelligence • Proximity • Presence • Social Web • Personal Informatics • Multiplayer Games • Real Time Web • Conversations
  77. 77. Intimacy Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines: • Emotional Intelligence • Proximity • Presence • Social Web • Personal Informatics • Multiplayer Games • Real Time Web • Conversations
  78. 78. Intimacy Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines: • Emotional Intelligence • Proximity • Presence • Social Web • Personal Informatics • Multiplayer Games • Real Time Web • Conversations
  79. 79. Intimacy Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines: • Emotional Intelligence • Proximity • Presence • Social Web • Personal Informatics • Multiplayer Games • Real Time Web • Conversations
  80. 80. Intimacy Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines: • Emotional Intelligence • Proximity • Presence • Social Web • Personal Informatics • Multiplayer Games • Real Time Web • Conversations
  81. 81. Intimacy Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines: • Emotional Intelligence • Proximity • Presence • Social Web • Personal Informatics • Multiplayer Games • Real Time Web • Conversations
  82. 82. Intimacy Intimacy can be facilitated with and through machines: • Emotional Intelligence • Proximity • Presence • Social Web • Personal Informatics • Multiplayer Games • Real Time Web • Conversations
  83. 83. Machines that talk back
  84. 84. Machines that talk back
  85. 85. Conversations
  86. 86. Dialogue! Dialog? Conversations
  87. 87. Politeness Clifford Nass: “Design solutions are often social solutions.” Tom Armitage: “The applications and tools we are building are, whether we like it or not, defining the manners of the web today. We should be careful to consider the behaviors we wish to reinforce, and those we don't.”
  88. 88. Politeness • Don't reject • Don't interrupt • Say hello and goodbye • Use someone's name • Look people in the eye • Respond in kind • Respect differences
  89. 89. Politeness Praise Conversations
  90. 90. Identity
  91. 91. “You are not your job, you're not how much money you have in the bank, you're not the car you drive, you're not the contents of your wallet, you're not your fucking khakis.” - Tyler Durden, “Fight Club”
  92. 92. “You are not your job, you're not how much money you have in the bank, you're not the car you drive, you're not the contents of your wallet, you're not your fucking khakis.” No! You are your fucking khakis! - Tyler Durden, “Fight Club”
  93. 93. Personality
  94. 94. Personality: The sum of an individual person’s mental, emotional, behavioral, and social characteristics. The system has a distinctive character, with recognizable human cultural and psychological behaviors.
  95. 95. We see faces
  96. 96. Facial Fidelity
  97. 97. The Uncanny Valley: Faces
  98. 98. Personality Characteristics
  99. 99. The Four Humours
  100. 100. Myers-Briggs
  101. 101. Interpersonal Circumplex
  102. 102. Interpersonal Circumplex Agreeableness (Communion) Dominance (Agency)
  103. 103. Interpersonal Circumplex
  104. 104. Interpersonal Circumplex
  105. 105. Voice
  106. 106. Voice = Content Strategy
  107. 107. Personality Characters: • More than personality: Culture, Style • Casting • Names • Personas • Storytelling and Themes
  108. 108. Personality Characters: • More than personality: Culture, Style • Casting • Names • Personas • Storytelling and Themes
  109. 109. Personality Characters: • More than personality: Culture, Style • Casting • Names • Personas • Storytelling and Themes
  110. 110. Personality Characters: • More than personality: Culture, Style • Casting • Names • Personas • Storytelling and Themes
  111. 111. What’s in a Name Maximillian Linus
  112. 112. The Uncanny Valley: Names Bob, Jeeves
  113. 113. The Uncanny Valley: Names Bob, Jeeves TiVo, iPhone
  114. 114. Personality Characters: • More than personality: Culture, Style • Casting • Names • Personas • Storytelling and Themes
  115. 115. Personality Characters: • More than personality: Culture, Style • Casting • Names • Personas • Storytelling and Themes
  116. 116. Brands
  117. 117. Broken Personalities
  118. 118. Conclusions
  119. 119. The Human Interface
  120. 120. The Uncanny Valley Unthreatening Appearance Annoying Personality
  121. 121. Things to try • Use pronouns for your product: he, she. • Give your application a name • Do more visceral prototypes, things that have weight and that you can touch. • Collaborate with new disciplines • Go to a different field’s conference. Go to the Game Developer’s Conference, or to SIGGRAPH. • Tell more stories! Bring character-driven screenwriting and dramaturgy to your experience design.
  122. 122. If we don’t humanize our products, our products will mechanize us.
  123. 123. Thanks! Christopher Fahey @chrisfahey #ixd10 #human graphpaper.com

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