Risks to Urban Areas Natural disaster Terrorist Attack Determining an acceptable level of risk Magnification of urban environment
Fragmentation Jurisdictions Vertical Horizontal Overlapping missions/gaps Sectors Public Private Nonprofit
September 11th Response Creation of Department of Homeland Security Movement of FEMA to DHS Political Implications
Hurricane Katrina Response Community Block Grants National Response Plan National Incident Response System National Preparedness Goal After-action reports - FEMA
Development of Local Plan Specific to possible threats Can be generalized to all threats Role of City Emergency Manager Vertical Integration Horizontal Integration “Point Person”
Los Angeles 3,694,820 residents Multiple languages are spoken
Los Angeles Preparation The City has a very diverse population, therefore, communication is key Under their Emergency Management Department, preparation materials are available in different languages
Emergency Management Department Coordinates the emergency preparedness of all city departments. Coordinates the response and recovery efforts during major disasters Eliminates confusion among departments
Emergency Management Department Provides definitions and descriptions of natural disasters that occur in Los Angeles Provides information for citizen action in the event of a terrorist attack Offers tips on how citizens should react to disasters in different environments There are also annexes to the City of Los Angeles Emergency Operations Master Plan and Procedures that determine what city departments have responsibility in the event of a certain type of disaster.
Earthquake and Megacities Initiative Los Angeles is partnered with this international, non-profit, scientific organization. They partner with megacities to develop best practices for dealing with emergencies and disasters Has four components Knowledge and practice Training and institutional strengthening Disaster risk assessment Development of a city-wide disaster risk management master plan
Wildfires of October 2007 A string of wildfires hit Southern California in October of 2007. Five counties, including Los Angeles County were affected Over 20,000 people from the area had to be evacuated EMD coordinated the efforts of firefighters, water dropping helicopters and rescue shelters, among others.
Wildfires of October 2007 Intergovernmental assistance was provided Former President Bush declared the area a disaster FEMA paid 75 percent of the state’s eligible firefighting costs. During rebuilding, citizens were urged to use fire resistant materials.
Biloxi, Mississippi Population: 45,768 White alone - 26,343 (67.8%) Black alone - 6,855 (17.6%) Hispanic - 2,298 (5.9%) Asian alone - 2,217 (5.7%) Two or more races - 758 (2.0%) American alone - 280 (0.7%) Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone - 92 (0.2%) Other race alone - 22 (0.06%)
Biloxi’s Preparation With the city being prone to hurricanes and a few other natural disaster; residents in Biloxi have to take all proper precautions. All of these efforts are directed at preparing local communities with effective planning tools utilizing an all hazards approach.
Emergency Management Agency The Mississippi Management Agency prepares, trains, and respond to all natural and man-made disasters that occur in the state.
Emergency Management Agency Provides training and courses for individuals and groups to attend to learn more about emergency preparedness. Offers several different prevention kits for all different kinds of disasters. Disaster Recovery: for those who lost their home or property in a storm assistance is provided. (if approved by FEMA)
Emergency Management Agency Disaster Response: divided into the Operations and Communications sections of MEMA, which jointly operate as the state's 24-hour warning point. The Operations Section is responsible for coordinating support for state and local response in an all hazards concept The Communications Section is the designated state warning point. Operating 24 hours a day, seven days a week, the Communications Section has the responsibility for alerting state and local officials to all natural or man-made incidents throughout the state.
Hurricane Katrina 2005 Hurricane Katrina unleashed a fury of destruction on South Mississippi and the Gulf Coast. Hundreds of thousands of lives were thrown into disarray. Mississippi’s hurricane preparedness set the stage for the state’s post-Katrina recovery, saving lives and serving the immediate needs of those affected by the storm.
Hurricane Katrina 2005 Governor commissioned a Recovery, Rebuilding, and Renewal program to help rebuilding after Katrina. Intergovernmental assistance was provided Nearly 520,000 Mississippi families registered for federal assistance with more than $1.3 billion given to those residents through the FEMA Individual Assistance program.
Hurricane Katrina 2005 More Efforts in disaster response and hazard mitigation took on major initiatives. Increasing the capacity of state and local emergency agencies, promoting flood insurance coverage, and mandating stronger building codes and elevation requirements.
Best Practices Central point of information Decentralized decision making center Plan practiced frequently Personnel “borrowing” Formalized roles and responsibilities
Financial Context of Relief 75% Federal 18% State 7% Local Depleted Tax Base Income Sales
Challenges in Completing the Report Finding direct information for responses to emergency situations by both Los Angeles and Biloxi was difficult. Determining what information to include regarding the Emergency Management process of both cities was also challenging.