Chapter 6: Government and Finance of U.S. Schools<br />Ashley Evans, Mariah Hutcherson, Amber DeWitt<br />
Why Do You Need To Understand Educational Politics?<br />Educational politics refers to how people use power, influence, a...
Why Do You Need To Understand Educational Politics?<br />Among the groups who will compete to shape educational policies d...
Why Do You Need To Understand Educational Politics?<br />Five Dimensions of Educational Politics<br />Political pressure f...
How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />While the Constitution does not address public education, the Tenth A...
How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />Local School District<br />Local school districts vary greatly in reg...
How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />School Board<br />A school board, acting as a state agent, is respons...
How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />School Boards (continued)<br />Some states have taken steps to reform...
How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />Superintendent of Schools<br />The Superintendent is the key figure i...
How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />School Restructuring<br />At many schools across the country, excitin...
How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />School-Bases Management<br />A frequently used approach to restructur...
What Powers And Influence Do States Have In Governing Schools?<br />Above the level of local control, states have a great ...
What Powers And Influence Do States Have In Governing Schools?<br />The Roles of State Government in Education<br />Variou...
What Powers And Influence Do States Have In Governing Schools?<br />State Board of Education<br />The state board of educa...
What Powers And Influence Do States Have In Governing Schools?<br />State Department of Education<br />State departments o...
What Powers And Influence Do States Have In Governing Schools?<br />State Department of Education (continued)<br />Today, ...
What Powers And Influence Do States Have In Governing Schools?<br />Chief State School Officer<br />The chief state school...
How do R.E.S.A. Assist Schools?<br /><ul><li>An intermediate unit in which local school districts receive support services...
How Are Schools Financed In The United States?<br />A combination of revenues from local state and federal sources are use...
Federal Funding<br />Block Grants are given to the state or the local education agency to do as they wish.<br />Education ...
Trends in Funding for Equity and Excellence<br />Districts with higher property wealth can generate more money per pupil<b...
Tax Reform and Redistricting<br />Serrano v. Rodriguez 1971 –California<br />San Antonio School District v. Rodriguez<br /...
Other states have developed many ways to provide vertical equity, which is, allocating funds according to educational need...
School Choice and Voucher Systems<br />Voucher Systems: Created by Milton Friedman over 50 years ago, who believes schools...
Education-Business Coalition<br />Businesses can contribute money or materials to schools; sponsor teams; award scholarshi...
Privatization Movement <br />It’s a radical departure from schools as most people know them<br />Between 1998-2004 the num...
Charter Schools<br />Innovative, outcome-based, public schools<br />
Chapter 6  edu 250
Chapter 6  edu 250
Chapter 6  edu 250
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 6 edu 250

830 views
705 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Career
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
830
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 6 edu 250

  1. 1. Chapter 6: Government and Finance of U.S. Schools<br />Ashley Evans, Mariah Hutcherson, Amber DeWitt<br />
  2. 2. Why Do You Need To Understand Educational Politics?<br />Educational politics refers to how people use power, influence, and authority to affect instructional and curricular practices within a school or school system. <br />
  3. 3. Why Do You Need To Understand Educational Politics?<br />Among the groups who will compete to shape educational policies during your teaching career, at least 10 can be identified:<br />Parents<br />Students<br />Teachers<br />Administrators<br />Taxpayers<br />Federal, state, and local authorities<br />Ethnic and racial groups<br />Educational theorists and researchers<br />Corporate sector<br />Special interest groups<br />
  4. 4. Why Do You Need To Understand Educational Politics?<br />Five Dimensions of Educational Politics<br />Political pressure from federal, state, and local levels.<br />Conflicting educational philosophies<br />Competition for educational resources<br />Changing legal rights and responsibilities of teachers<br />Push for higher standards, testing, and accountability<br />
  5. 5. How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />While the Constitution does not address public education, the Tenth Amendment is used as the basis for giving states the legal authority to create and manage school systems. The Tenth Amendment gives to the states all powers not reserved for the federal government and not prohibited to the states. The states have created local school districts giving them responsibility for the daily operation of public schools. <br />
  6. 6. How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />Local School District<br />Local school districts vary greatly in regard to demographics such as number of school-age children; education, occupational, and income levels of parents; operating budget; number of teachers; economic resources; and number of school buildings.<br />The organizational structures of school districts also differ. Large urban systems which may contain sever districts, tend to have a more complex distribution of roles and responsibilities than do smaller districts.<br />
  7. 7. How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />School Board<br />A school board, acting as a state agent, is responsible for the following: approving the teachers, administrators, and other school personnel hired by the superintendent; developing organizational and educational policies; and determining procedures for evaluating programs and personnel.<br />In most communities, school board members are elected in general elections. In some urban areas board members are selected by the mayor.<br />School boards play a critical role in the U.S. education system. However, school boards have been criticized for not education themselves about educational issues, being reluctant to seek imput from the communities, not communicating a vision of educational excellence to their communities, and not developing positive relationships with superintendents.<br />
  8. 8. How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />School Boards (continued)<br />Some states have taken steps to reform school boards. For example, Arkansas provides board members with training in developing partnership with their communities, creating a vision of educational excellence, and team building. One study of school boards found that effective boards:<br />Focus on student achievement <br />Allocate resources to needs<br />Watch the return on investment<br />Use data<br />And engage the communities they serve<br />
  9. 9. How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />Superintendent of Schools<br />The Superintendent is the key figure in determining a district’s educational policy. The specific responsibilities of the superintendent are many. Among the most important are the following:<br />To serve as professional adviser to the board of education and to make policy recommendations for improving curricular and instructional programs<br />To act as employer and supervisor of professional and nonteaching personnel (janitors, cafeteria workers, etc.)<br />To represent the schools in their relations with the community and to explain board of education policies to the community.<br />To develop policies for the placement and transportation of student within the district<br />To prepare an annual school budget and adhere to the budget adopted by the school board. <br />
  10. 10. How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />School Restructuring<br />At many schools across the country, exciting changes are taking place in how schools are controlled locally. To improve the performance of schools, to decentralize the systems of governance, and to enhance the professional status of teachers, some districts are restructuring their school systems. <br />
  11. 11. How Does The Local Community Influence Schools?<br />School-Bases Management<br />A frequently used approach to restructuring schools in SBM. Most SBM programs have 3 components in common:<br />Power and decisions formerly made by the superintendent and school board are delegated to teachers, principals, parents, community members, and students at local schools.<br />At each school, a decision-making body made up of teachers the principal, and parents implements of the SBM plan.<br />SBM programs operate with the full support of the superintendent of schools.<br />
  12. 12. What Powers And Influence Do States Have In Governing Schools?<br />Above the level of local control, states have a great influence on schools. Since the 1990’s, the influence of the state on educational policy has increased steadily. In response to criticisms of U.S. education, many states launched extensive initiatives to improve education, such as the following:<br />Increased academic standards<br />Greater accountability for teachers<br />Testing students in teacher education programs prior to graduation<br />Frequent assessments of students mastery of basic skills<br />Professional development as a criterion for continued employement of teachers<br />Recertification of experienced teachers<br />
  13. 13. What Powers And Influence Do States Have In Governing Schools?<br />The Roles of State Government in Education<br />Various people and agencies play a role in operating the educational system with in each state.<br />The Legislature<br />The State Courts<br />The Governor<br />State Takeover of Schools<br />
  14. 14. What Powers And Influence Do States Have In Governing Schools?<br />State Board of Education<br />The state board of education, acting under the authority of the state legislature, is the highest education agency in a state. Every state, with the exception of Wisconsin, has a state board of education. Most states have two separate boards, one responsible for elementary through secondary education, the other for higher education.<br />
  15. 15. What Powers And Influence Do States Have In Governing Schools?<br />State Department of Education<br />State departments of education have a broad set of responsibilities, and they affect literally every school, school district, and teacher education program in a state. In general, the state board of education is concerned with plicy making, the state department of education with the day-to-day implementation of those policies.<br />
  16. 16. What Powers And Influence Do States Have In Governing Schools?<br />State Department of Education (continued)<br />Today, the responsibilities of state departments of education include (1) certifying teachers, (2) distributing state and federal funds to school districts, (3) reporting to the public the condition of education within the state, (4) ensuring that school districts adhere to state and federal guidelines, (5) accrediting schools, (6) monitoring student transportation and safety, and (7) sponsoring research and evaluation projects in improve education within the state.<br />
  17. 17. What Powers And Influence Do States Have In Governing Schools?<br />Chief State School Officer<br />The chief state school officer is the chief administrator of the state department of education and the head of the state board of education. The duties of this position include: <br />Serving as chief administrator of the state department of education and state board of education<br />Selecting state department of educational policies and budgets to the state board <br />Recommending educational policies and budgets to the state board<br />Interpreting state school laws and state board of education policies<br />Ensuring compliance with state school laws and policies<br />Mediating controversies involving the operation of schools within the state<br />Arranging for studies, committees, and task forces to address educational problems and recommend solutions.<br />Reporting on the status of education to the governor, legislature, state board, and public<br />
  18. 18. How do R.E.S.A. Assist Schools?<br /><ul><li>An intermediate unit in which local school districts receive support services that they cannot economically and logistically provide for themselves. </li></li></ul><li>How Does The Federal Government Influence Education?<br />They allot money to improve science, math, and foreign language. <br />The Lanham Act.<br />The GI Bill of Rights.<br />
  19. 19. How Are Schools Financed In The United States?<br />A combination of revenues from local state and federal sources are used to finance public elementary and secondary schools. <br />46.9% from a local source and 9.2% from a federal source and 44% from the state.<br />
  20. 20. Federal Funding<br />Block Grants are given to the state or the local education agency to do as they wish.<br />Education Consolidation and Improvement Act – it gives a broad range of choices in spending federal money.<br />Entitlements – a small portion of funds to give to supplemental programs to help meet the educational needs of special student populations. <br />
  21. 21. Trends in Funding for Equity and Excellence<br />Districts with higher property wealth can generate more money per pupil<br />Students from poor families are less likely to have access to educational opportunities and resources<br />
  22. 22. Tax Reform and Redistricting<br />Serrano v. Rodriguez 1971 –California<br />San Antonio School District v. Rodriguez<br />Some states have full funding programs where the state sets the same per-pupil spending level for all schools/districts.<br />redistricting: redrawing school district boundaries to reduce the range of variation in the ability of school districts to finance education<br />
  23. 23. Other states have developed many ways to provide vertical equity, which is, allocating funds according to educational needs.<br />Additional support id given to programs for low income backgrounds, ESL, special gifts and talents, special education, &vocational programs.<br />Additional funds to cover education costs for special needs is known as categorical aid.<br />
  24. 24. School Choice and Voucher Systems<br />Voucher Systems: Created by Milton Friedman over 50 years ago, who believes schools would be better if operate by private businesses and not the govt.<br />According to voucher plans, parents would be given govt. funded vouchers to purchase educational services at schools of their choice. (private, secular, parochial, for-profit, charter)<br />School Choice: Practice of allowing parents to choose schools for their children<br />
  25. 25. Education-Business Coalition<br />Businesses can contribute money or materials to schools; sponsor teams; award scholarships; provide cash grants for pilot projects and teacher development; provide mentors, volunteers , or expertise; and even construct buildings<br />Education-Business Coalitions: <br />NASSMC<br />The Business Roundtable<br />GE<br />Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation<br />
  26. 26. Privatization Movement <br />It’s a radical departure from schools as most people know them<br />Between 1998-2004 the number of private companies operating public schools went from 13 to 53.<br />Between the same years, the number of privately managed schools increased from 135 to 463.<br />
  27. 27. Charter Schools<br />Innovative, outcome-based, public schools<br />

×