Erika Garza Elorduy “World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001” The September 11 attacks also referred to as 9/11,were a series of four coordinated suicide attacks upon theUnited States in New York City and the Washington, D.C.areas on September 11, 2001. On that Tuesday morning, 19terrorists from the Islamist militant group al-Qaedahijackedfour passenger jets. The hijackers intentionally flew two ofthose planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United AirlinesFlight 175, into the North and South towers of the WorldTrade Center complex in New York City; both towerscollapsed within two hours. Debris from the collapsing towers fell onto or initiatedfires in several surrounding buildings leading to the partial orcomplete collapse of all the other buildings in the complex.Debris also caused major damage to ten other largestructures in the immediate area. The hijackers alsointentionally crashed American Airlines Flight 77 into thePentagon in Arlington, Virginia, and intended to pilot thefourth hijacked jet, United Airlines Flight 93, into the UnitedStates Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. Its passengers
Erika Garza Elorduytried to overcome the hijackers and the plane crashed into afield near ShanksVille, Pennsylvania. Nearly 3,000 peopledied in the attacks, including all 227 civilians and 19hijackers aboard the four planes.Hijackers & Al-Qaeda: Suspicion quickly fell on al-Qaeda, and in 2004, thegroups leader, Osama bin Laden, who had initially deniedinvolvement, claimed responsibility for the attacks. Al-Qaedaand bin Laden cited U.S. support of Israel, the presence ofU.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq asmotives for the attacks. The United States responded to theattacks by launching the War on Terror and invadingAfghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had harbored al-Qaeda. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorismlegislation and expanded law enforcement powers. Havingevaded capture for years, bin Laden was located and killedby U.S. forces in May 2011. Deaths: The attacks resulted in the death of 2,996 people,including the 19 hijackers and 2,977 victims. The victims
Erika Garza Elorduyincluded 246 on the four planes (from which there were nosurvivors), 2,606 in New York City in the towers and on theground, and 125 at the Pentagon. Nearly all of the victimswere civilians; 55 military personnel were among those killedat the Pentagon. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979 when theSoviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Osama bin Ladentraveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arabmujahideen to resist the Soviets.Under the guidance ofAyman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996bin Laden issued his first fatwā, calling for American soldiersto leave Saudi Arabia. Motives: Al-Qaeda explicitly cited three motives for its activitiesagainst Western countries: the presence of U.S. troops inSaudi Arabia, U.S. support of Israel, and sanctions againstIraq. After the attacks, bin Laden and al-Zawahiri releasedadditional videotapes and audiotapes, some of whichrepeated those reasons for the attacks. Memorials:
Erika Garza Elorduy The first memorials to the victims of the September 11,2001, attacks began to take shape online, as hundreds ofwebmasters posted their own thoughts, links to the RedCross, and other rescue agencies, photos and eyewitnessaccounts. Numerous online September 11 memorials beganappearing a few hours after the attacks, although many ofthese memorials were only temporary. The destruction of the Twin Towers and otherproperties caused serious damage to the economy of LowerManhattan and had a significant effect on global markets.Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed inMay 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year.Numerous memorials have been constructed, including theNational September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York,the Pentagon Memorial, and the Flight 93 National Memorialin Pennsylvania. After a lengthy delay, the 1,776-foot-tall(541 m) One World Trade Center is expected to becompleted at Ground Zero in New York City in 2013. The Tribute in Light was the first major physicalmemorial at the World Trade Center site. A permanentmemorial and museum, the National September 11Memorial & Museum at the World Trade Center site are
Erika Garza Elorduyplanned, as part of the design by overall WTC siteredevelopment. The Tribute in Light is an art installation of 88searchlights placed next to the site of the World TradeCenter to create two vertical columns of light inremembrance of the September 11 attacks. It is producedannually by The Municipal Art Society of New York. It initiallyran as a temporary installation from March 11 to April 14,2002, and was launched again in 2003 to mark the secondanniversary of the attack. As of 2010, it has been repeatedevery year on September 11.