Ask: on average how may letters do you get a week—things that come through your mailbox? What about email?
Ars DictaminisThen and Now: Toward a Multimodal Approach<br />Chanon Adsanatham<br />March 25, 2011<br />
117 billion letters were processed in 2009.<br />2.8 million emails are sent every second. <br />
“There is scarcely any Species of Composition deserves more to be cultivated, than the Art of Writing Letters, since none is of more various or frequent Use, through the whole Course of human Life.” Charles Johnson, The Complete Art of Letter-writing, 1770<br />
Focus<br />How has letter writing been theorized in the past? <br />How do contemporary business textbooks teach letter writing? <br />How might we recast the canons of rhetoric as a multimodal heuristic for letter writing in the 21st century? <br />
History: Antiquity<br />Demetrius’s On Style (1st century BC)<br />“virtual image of the writer’s soul”<br />not too long nor too grand in style<br />Language = plain, simple<br />Julius Victor (4th century CE) <br />2 kinds of letters<br />Familial: use plain style <br />Official: use ornamented style <br />
History: The Middle Ages <br />Birth of ars dictaminis (1087)<br />Alberic: Letter = 5 standard parts<br />Salutation<br />Exordium (goodwill)<br />Narration (background)<br />Petition (request)<br />Closing<br />Style: cursus or rhythmic prose <br />
History: The Renaissance<br /> Erasmus (1469-1536)<br />Argues against rigid formula<br />Advice: adjust style and arrangement to fit the purpose and audience <br />Places the rhetorical situation at the heart of letter writing<br />
History: 17th to 19th Century<br />George Snell’s (1649) 5 parts of a letter:<br />Proper greeting<br />Respectful phrases<br />Smooth closure<br />Appropriate length<br />Concision<br />Style = plain style<br />Importance of grammar, politeness, grace<br />Letter as a reflection of one’s class and character<br />19th century: taught as a subject in school <br />
In sum <br />Emphasize style + conventions <br />Theory of style + arrangement <br />
Contemporary ars dictaminis<br />How do contemporary textbooks teach letter-writing?<br />8textbooks published between 2005-2011<br />
Common Textbook Features: In Order <br />Linear writing process/analysis of the rhetorical situation<br />invention = brainstorming and clustering<br />revision = proofreading and checking accuracy<br />Genres: letters, report, instructions, proposal, presentations, resumes<br />Grammar manual in the appendix <br /> What do you notice about this ordering? Any implications? <br />
In Sum<br />Rhetorical: focus on audience, purpose and context <br />Focus on language, format and conventions (required elements) <br />Current-traditional, “objective rhetoric” (Berlin, 1987) <br />Logocentric: graphics and design not a part of letter-writing chapter<br />
What’s Missing: Why oh why? <br />Emails are now like web interfaces.<br />Why aren’t textbooks (and we) teaching students to pay more attention to design? <br />What can we draw from rhetorical theory to help us address this gap? <br />
Ars DictaminisNow: <br />Recasting the Canons of Rhetoric as a Heuristic for Letter Writing <br />
Invention <br />Drawing from common topics <br />Content often merge from various communications before writing (e.g. meetings, phone calls)<br />Analyzing the rhetorical situation<br />Using the heuristic as a thinking tool/aid<br />
Arrangement<br />Following conventions with rhetorical flexibility<br />Creating a professional ethos<br />Using arrangement for emphasis<br />Employing design and layout strategically <br />
What can we do with this theory? <br />Does NOT replace the importance of alphabetic writing <br />Use the heuristic to generate possibilities for how to compose a correspondence<br />Conceptualize style as both a matter of language and visual design<br />See the relationship between arrangement (the 3rd canon) and design and think about arrangement in a non-linear manner <br />
Pedagogical Application<br />Breakdown and reframe the <br />canons into exploratory <br />questions and havestudents <br />blog to them beforeconstructing <br />a business correspondence.<br />Style <br />Materiality <br /> What type of media/medium can one use to compose and deliver the correspondence; what kind of “feel” and “look” are you going for; and how might this impact the quality of the message?<br />
In conclusion…<br /> A greater awareness of ars dictaminiscan help instructors and students become a more rhetorically and historically informed composers and readers of letters in the 21st century.<br />By now over 300 billion emails would have been sent. <br />
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