Al-Balqa Applied University
Faculty of Agriculture Technology
Water Resources and Environmental Management Department
Global warming and effects
on water resources
Presented By : Ahmed Marei
Water Resources M.Sc
Presentation Title :
• What’s global warming ?
• Atmospheric gases
• Greenhouse gases and effects
• Who are responsible ?
• Effects of global warming
• Concerns of global warming on water
What’s the Global Warming?
• The term "global warming" is refer to increases in
average temperature of the air and sea at Earth's
• Since the early 20th century, the global air and sea
surface temperature has increased about 0.8 °C
(1.4 °F), with about two-thirds of the increase
occurring since 1980.
• (IPCC) reported that scientists were more than 90%
certain that most of global warming was being caused
by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases
“GHGs” produced by human activities.
Note : Global surface temperature in 2013 was +0.6°C (~1.1°F)
• Different greenhouse gases have very different heat-
trapping abilities. Some of them can even trap more
heat than CO2( the most important GHGs). A molecule
of methane produces more than 20 times the warming
of a molecule of CO2. Nitrous oxide is 300 times more
powerful than CO2. chlorofluorocarbons have heat-
trapping potential thousands of times greater than
• But because their concentrations are much lower than
CO2, none of these gases adds as much warmth to the
atmosphere as CO2 does.
GHGs Greenhouse Gases
Cont. Green House Gases
• The global increases in carbon dioxide concentration
are due primarily to fossil fuel use and land use
change(ex. Deforestation), while those of methane and
nitrous oxide are primarily due to agriculture.
• Water vapor, which causes about 36–70% of the
greenhouse effect; carbon dioxide (CO2), which causes
9–26%; methane (CH4), which causes 4–9%; and
ozone (O3), which causes 3–7%.Clouds also affect the
radiation balance through cloud forcing similar to
List of countries by 2012 emissions estimates
EDGAR (database created by European Commission and Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency)
released 2012 estimates. The following table lists the 2012 estimate of annual CO2emissions estimates (in
thousands of CO2 tonnes) from these estimates along with a list of emissions per capita (in tonnes of CO2 per year)
from same source.
Country CO2 emissions
World 34,500,000 4.9
China 9,860,000 7.1
United States 5,190,000 16.4
India 1,970,000 1.6
Russia 1,770,000 12.4
Japan 1,320,000 10.4
Germany 810,000 9.7
South Korea 640,000 13.0
Canada 560,000 16.0
United Kingdom 490,000 7.7
Mexico 490,000 4.0
Indonesia 490,000 2.0
Saudi Arabia 460,000 16.2
Brazil 460,000 2.3
Australia 430,000 18.8
Iran 410,000 5.3
• The greenhouse effect is the process by
which absorption and emission of infrared radiation
by gases in a planet's atmosphere warm its lower
atmosphere and surface.
Effects of Greenhouse Gases
Greenhouse effect schematic showing energy flows between space, the
atmosphere, and Earth's surface. Energy exchanges are expressed in
watts per square meter (W/m2
• Human influence has been detected in warming
of the atmosphere and the ocean, it is extremely
likely (95-100%) that human influence has been
the dominant cause of the observed warming
since the mid-20th century.
Who are Responsible?
• Rise in sea levels and a change in the amount and pattern of
• Expansion of subtropical deserts.
• Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic, with the
continuing retreat of glaciers.
• Frequent extreme weather events including heat waves,
droughts and heavy rainfall.
• Ocean acidification; and species extinctions due to shifting
• Reduced diversity of ecosystems & reducing Biodiversity .
• Effects significant to humans include the threat to food
security from decreasing crop yields and the loss of habitat
Effect forms of Global Warming
Concern of Global Warming on
Precipitation frequency and intensity
Evaporation and transpiration
Changes in average annual runoff
Concerns of Global Warming on