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Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
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Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science



By doing so you will be able to see and read the basic text of 70 pages with 177 footnotes. If you should be interested in receiving the appendices, please let me know. ...

By doing so you will be able to see and read the basic text of 70 pages with 177 footnotes. If you should be interested in receiving the appendices, please let me know.

We would like to ask you to spread this document as broadly as possible to your politicians, administrations, press, policy, justice, fellow-fighters, a.o.

The fight for a world without chemtrails will not be easy, but now we have a peacefull weapon which offers evidence based prove that the phenomenon is not internet gossip or conspiracy theory but – to put it blatantly – that we are being sprayed.

This has been going on for years and it’s not going to stop ! According to the conference of 18-22 th February of the AAAS they are planning to put to 20 million tons of aluminium into the atmosphere !

I have already delivered this ‘Case orange’-document in an outprint copy personally to the Brussels headquarter of UNO and Nato and eight embassies (USA, UK, Germany, France, Iran, Russia, China, Venezuela).

I have send it by email to all pressagencies, to all embassies, in short to everyone who should be interested in this very important information.

As you know on August 17 th of 2009 I personally lodged a complaint with the Belgian Justice department against the intentional and systematically spraying of heavy metals, chemical substances and virological filth into our atmosphere. As a result there is since October 2009 an ongoing investigation into this matter.



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    Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science Document Transcript

    • CheckTheEvidence.comCase Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail ScienceThis is a text-searchable version of the Belfort Groups report on Contrails, Chemtrails and Weather Modification. Theoriginal PDF is large, and not currently text-searchable. I therefore made this page, using OCR software (OpticalCharacter Recognition), which is searchable, though there may be some garbled words or sections - and the formattinghas not been fully preserved from the original document..There is a message below from Peter Vereecke who has been instrumental in getting this document compiled.08 June 2010Dear chemtrailfighters from all over theworld,On Saturday 29 th of May the Belgian Belfort-group organised inGhent an international symposion on the subject :The illegal spraying of harmfulsubstancesin the atmosphere by airplanesalso known as ‘chemtrails’:THE TRUTHBased on the positive reactions we received and also ourown feeling it was a success. You can see the whole event via this link:http://www.ustream.tv/channel/belfort-testOne of the highlights was certainly the presentation of"CaseOrange", a scientific report, which has been compiled on behalf ofthe Belfort-group and of humanity by a team of experts withrelevant aviation background. This is very important : the authorsare inside experts. They know what they are talking about !The document consists of 300 pages. As it is tooexpensive for us to send it in a copy-version and as it not possible to send itin attachment because the pdf-file is too heavy I ask you to download it viathis link :http://www.belfort-group.eu/sites/default/files/page/2010/05/COpart1.pdfBy doing so you will be able to see and read the basictext of 70 pages with 177 footnotes. If you should be interested in receivingthe appendices, please let me know.We would like to ask you to spread thisdocument as broadly as possible to your politicians, administrations,press, policy, justice, fellow-fighters, a.o.The fight for a world without chemtrails will not beeasy, but now we have a peacefull weapon which offers evidence based prove thatthe phenomenon is not internet gossip or conspiracy theory but – to put itblatantly – that we are being sprayed.This has been going on for years and it’s not going tostop ! According to the conference of 18-22 th February of the AAAS they areplanning to put to 20 million tons of aluminium into the atmosphere!http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comI have already delivered this ‘Case orange’-document in an outprintcopy personally to the Brussels headquarter of UNOand Nato and eight embassies (USA, UK, Germany, France, Iran, Russia, China, Venezuela).I have send it by email to all pressagencies, to allembassies, in short to everyone who should be interested in this very importantinformation.As you know on August 17 th of 2009 I personally lodged a complaintwith the Belgian Justice departmentagainst the intentional and systematically spraying of heavy metals,chemical substances and virological filth into our atmosphere. As a result there is since October 2009 anongoing investigation into this matter.I am now also prepairing to lodge two additionalcomplaints: - with the International Courtof Justice,The Hague - the European court of humanrights, StrassbourgI will do so not only on behalf of the Belfort-group butalso of you all.Finally I would like to draw your attention to a veryintresting new intiative of the Lightworkers World. They are planning a worldwide protestaction against chemtrails on June 24 th.You can read all about it on their website:http://lightworkersworld.com/events/01/mass-action-event-chemtrails/I would like to conclude this email with the chorus linesof our anthem, a very powerfull and encouraging song of Leonard Cohen:Ring the bells that still canringForget your perfect offeringThere is a crack in everythingThat’show the light gets inKeep the good work going, my dear friends and bravefighters !Yours sincerely,- PeterVereecke -Former mayor of EvergemFounder Belfort-groupE-mail : peter@belfort-group.euBelfort-groupp/a Hooiwege 209940 EvergemBelgiumhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comCASE ORANGECONTRAIL SCIENCE, ITS IMPACT ON CLIMATE ANDWEATHER MANIPULATION PROGRAMS CONDUCTEDBY THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIESCompiled for the Belfort Group, Hooiwege 20 B-9940 Evergem BelgiumIf we can stand up to them, allEurope may be free and the life of the world may move forwardinto broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world, includingthe United States,including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss ofhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.coma new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by thelights of perverted science.Winston Churchill, This was theirfinest hour speech to theHouse of Commons, June 18th 1940.LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS:AFBAir Force BaseATPAirline Transportation PilotATSDR Agencyfor Toxic Substances and Disease RegistryAWACSAirborne Early Warning and Control SystemBKN Brokenclouds°C DegreesCelsiusCi CirrusCc CirrocumulusCOCarbon MonoxideDLRDeutsches Institut für RaumfahrtDODDepartment of DefenseDTR DiurnalTemperature RangeECMElectronic Counter MeasuresELF ExtremeLow FrequencyEPA EnvironmentalProtection AgencyFAA FederalAviation AdministrationFIR FlightInformation Regionft FeetGWPGlobal Warming Potentialhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comHAARP HighFrequency Active Auroral Research ProgramHC HydrocarbonsHMSOHer Majestys Stationary OfficeHz HerzICAO InternationalCivil Aviation OrganizationIPCCInternational panel for Climate ChangeKg KilogramKW KilowattLbs PoundsNASA NationalAir and Space AgencyNATO NorthAtlantic Treaty OrganizationSALTStrategic Arms Limitations TalksSet ScatteredcloudsSN SmokeNumberSOP StandardOperating ProcedureUEA Universityof East AngliaUIR UpperInformation RegionUSSRUnion of the Socialist Soviet RepublicsVLFVery Low FrequencyWMOWorld Meteorological Order1. EXECUTIVESUMMARYhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:This unclassified research paperhas been compiled on request of the Belfort Group, a Belgian environmentalwatchdog. It highlights the specific problems associated with contrailsemitted by aircraft, the manipulation for geo-engineering or defensepurposes of someof these trails by the United States government and the subsequent effect onquality of life. In orderto force public debate on the subject this document has not only beentransmitted to embassies of states that organize weather manipulationsprojects, news agenciesand interest groups in this field but also to organizations in countriesthat are not considered asallied forces by the United States and NATO.Contrails are not the harmlessemissions of aircraft at high altitude that only have an esthetic impact onthe sky as meteorologists suggest. They do not only contain huge amounts ofwater vapor, but also significant amounts of Carbon Dioxide, Nitric Oxide,Sulfur Oxide and soot that have a significant impact on public health. Inthat respect it is noteworthy that derogations for emissions of Hydrocarbonsand Carbon Monoxide have beengranted for engines of some military aircraft, which exceed civil regulatorylevels in a verysignificant way. Chapter 3 contains a detailed description how contrails areformed, itsdetailed chemical composition plus a very interesting case study of theKC135 tanker & E-3 Sentry(AWACS) aircraft, the latter being operated on a Luxemburg registrationwithout complying to civil standards.Persistent contrails have a devastating impact on eco-systems on Earth. Theydevelop in menmade Cirrus cloud that can cover a significant part of the sky. It isscientific evidence that those aviation-induced clouds already occupy 3 to5% of the sky in Europe and this figure increases by 1 to 2% per decade. Asthese types of clouds are not classified assuchby the WMO, the World Meteorological Organization, there is obviously notendency to research thissubject thoroughly and subsequently civil aviation authorities and otherhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comgovernment bodies write the thesis of chemtrails off as a hoax.Nevertheless it is proven that the existence of these persistent contrailshas a negative impact on temperature and they can alter precipitationslevels. It also induces the dehydration of the stratosphere. Chapter 4provides a summary of the most striking results of scientific research onthis subject.Given theextensive history record of weather manipulation projects, conducted mainlyby theUnited States armed forces, the relationship between men made contrails andits impact on different climatologie parameterscreates a scientific basis for a weather manipulation system. Chapter 5contains a detailed overview of the major weather modificationoperations in human history, starting from relatively innocent endeavorssuch as cloud seeding withsilver iodide over ionospheric heating to large-scale geo-engineeringprojects through commercial aviation. Patents, previously classifieddocuments, order forms for Barium and maps with daily spraying schemesirrevocable denote the existence of a global military sponsored andgovernmental approved project for alteration of the upper troposphere forglobal control purposes. The technical details, including the nature of theseeding material and its possible impact on public health, are alsoincluded in chapter 5.Finally the investigation group,which wants to remain anonymous until further notice, comes to the finalconclusion that atmospheric seeding for the sake of military interests anda global business model has a devastating impact on eco-systems on thisplanet and quality of lifein general. This practice is therefore considered as unacceptable.82. NOMENCLATURAGive me along enough lever and a place to stand on and I will move the earth.Archimedes (287 - 212 B.C.)http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com2. NOMENCLATURA:A distinction is made betweencontrails, distrails, wingtip vortices and chemtrails. In this researchpaper only contrails and chemtrails are subject to an in-depth study.2.1. CONTRAILS:Contrail isthe contraction of the words condensation and trail, the condensation ofengine exhausts. The word dates back to World War II and contrails wereconsidered as a nuisance as they attracted enemy fighters in the fray.B-17 heavybombers are on their way to Schweinfurt, emitting substantialamounts of contrails. German pilots could easily pickout the exact position of individual planes by their contrails.1Incontrary to popular belief contrails are not exclusively formed by jetaircraft, but also by propellerdriven airplanes, providing that their operating altitude is suitable fortheir formation. This phenomenon is temperature related. As temperaturedrops with 2°C/1000 ft altitude gain in a standard atmosphere and a cold airparcel can only hold very limited water vapor any hot exhaust fumesautomatically condense into artificial clouds. This usually happens above26,000 ft where the ambient temperature is below -40°C.As can be noticed on the pictureabove the intensity of the contrails vary with altitude / temperature,the bombers on the top right emitting heavier contrails than the planes athttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comthe bottom. A veryimportant feature is that these early contrails are short lived. Howevermodern jet aircraft with more powerful engines and high turbine temperaturesemit more persistent contrails, which usually trail for 20-30 miles along.Contrailsfrom a Quantas Boeing 747, Australia (Source: Wikipedia, contrails)1 Air& Space Power Chronicles, Schweinfurt - the battle within the battle for the8th US Air Force, Capt. D. Reichert, USAF10Contrailsmay have strange shapes and even be horizontally dispersed over large areasby jet streams, strong winds in the upper atmosphere that exceed a velocityof 100 knots.2.2. DISTRAILS:A distrail is the abbreviation fordissipation trail. When an aircraft passes through a thin, stable cloud,even when the conditions for the production of contrails are not met, itproduces a tunnel like path through that cloud.Distrails are created as a resultof the elevated temperature of the exhaust gases absorbingthe moisture from the cloud. Clouds exist where the relative humidity is100% and temperature and dew point are thus equal, but by increasing thetemperature, the air canhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comhold more moisture, so the relative humidity drops below 100% even for thesame absolute moisture density, thus causing the visible water droplets inthe cloud to be converted back into water vapor.Thispicture shows a contrail that changes into a distrail at the top right,cutting througha layer of Altocumulus clouds.2.3. WINGTIP VORTICES:Airplanes fly as a result of anequilibrium of lift, drag, mass and thrust. When a wing generates lift itcauses a vortex to form at the wingtips and sometimes also at the trailingedges of the wing flaps. It causes wake turbulence, which is quitepersistent and potentially dangerous to other, mostly smaller planes. Thehigher the angle of attack of the wing the higher the lift coefficient willbe with stronger vortices in the end. High angles of attack in commercialaviation are achieved in landing configuration (flaps & landing gear down)or during initial climb after take off (high thrust & body angle).The reduction in pressure andtemperature across each vortex can cause water to condense and make thecores of these wingtip vortices visible. The effect is more common on humiddays and in anticyclones with strong temperature inversions. These visiblecores contrast with contrails and distrails, the latter being produceddirectly behind the engineat higher altitude.Military aircraft travelling attransonic speed and making high performance maneuvers mayproduce a vapor cone or Prandtl-Glauert singularity as a result of a suddendrop in air pressure,sometimes nicknamed the shock collar or shock egg.2 Contrailscience Home Page, http://contrailscience.com/contrail-to-distrail/11http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comA U.S. AirForce F-22 Raptor executes a supersonic flyby at low altitude, producingpronounced wingtip vortices and a shock egg.2.4. CHEMTRAILS:Chemtrail is the contraction ofchemical trail and is used by some sources to denote intentionalspraying by airplanes for military or political purposes and that may beharmfulto public health. A more general name is aviation smog,which combines contrails, distrails and chemtrails. Authors referring tochemtrails claim that this phenomena is much more persistent than contrailsand when sprayed in a grid it is able to cover vast areas.Althoughofficially denied by government sources many countries performed tests for cloudseeding to either generate precipitation where it was needed or to preventprecipitation where it is unwanted. At this moment only the Russian andChinese governments admit that they use particular matter in order tomanipulate weather patterns.4Thispicture shows an interesting combination of contrails (right hand side),distrails (bottom left) and possibly chemtrails (left hand side) overBelgium in the vicinity of Brussels, September 2009. Note that the contrailshave spread overa large area.3 Livehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comScience, Britt R.R., Editorial Director, June 30th 2009, Picture by courtesyof DOD/Petty Officer 1stClass Dejarnett, U.S. Navy.4 MichaelsJay, Meteorology News, 19th October 2009, Moscow testing cloud seeding123.CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTRAILSThe intuitive spirit is a giftfrom God. The rational brain is its servant. We have created a society thatworships the servant and has forgotten the gift.Albert Einstein (1879-1955)13http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com3. CHARACTERISTICS OFCONTRAILS:3.1. PREVIOUS SURVEYS ABOUTCONTRAILS:Meteorologists ignore and even deny the effects of aviation on the weather,stating that contrailsand in a lesser extend distrails only have an esthetic influence on the waythe skylooks. As they do not induce precipitation nor reduce the visibility oraffect sunshine they are not worth mentioning in a weather bulletin. On afew occasions meteorologists refer to it as veil shaped clouds, actuallymaking the public belief that its origin is natural andnot human. Because contrails are not considered as a weather phenomenonthere are subsequently very few scientific surveys covering this topic.Appleman was the first in 1953 topresent charts that forecast the likelihood of contrail formation based uponthe temperature profile of the 700-100-Hectopascal layer where commercialjets usually operate.5 Pilieand Jiusto in 19586, Scorer and Davenport in 1970 7 andHanson & Hanson in 19958 modifiedhis work. They identified a unique range withinwhich a contrail should theoretically form.However, the lack of field teststo verify these models and the fact that contrails have beennoted to form and spread during conditions deemed unfavorable according tosome of the modelsdescribed above. With the introduction of new technology, such assatellites, more accurate surveys were within reach. This resulted forinstance in the development of a new empiric model developed by Travis topredict widespread occurrences of contrails -.But even with the aid ofgeostationary satellites it proves extremely difficult to predict formation,size and life span of contrails that may remain isolated or cluster ingroups. Extensive survey is mandatory in order to understand fully thenature of contrails. However there is an economic drawback to this, asaviation is the backbone of fast transport and commerce spanning the globe.Any survey can potentially be turned down by lobby groups that do not wantto see unwanted attention unleashed on an ignorant publicwith undesirable side effects of aviation. Officially science does not workthat way, but in practiceresearchers generally do not bite the hand that feeds them. This is also whycontrails are politely classified as veil clouds.Travis D.J, Carleton A.M. andhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comLauritsen R.G. performed a very interesting survey immediatelyafter the 9-11 attacks in 2001, when all commercial aviation was stuck onthe ground for a period of3 days. It was probably the only opportunity to perform a comparative study.The results were only released two years later and proved the evidenceof jet contrail influence on climate,10 althoughit was suggested by some other researchesthat the sky was unusually clear during that period.1Theresults of some of these surveys are used in the next paragraphs.5 Appleman,H., 1953: The formation of exhaust condensation trails by jet aircraft. Bull. Amer. Meteor.Soc, 34,14-20.6 Pilie,R. J., and J. E. Jiusto, 1958: A laboratory study of contrails./. Meteor., 15,149-154..7 Scorer,R. S., and L. J. Davenport, 1970: Contrails and aircraft downwashj. FluidMech., 43, 451-464..8 Hanson,H. M., and D. M.Hanson, 1995: A reexamination of the formation of exhaust condensationtrails byjet aircraft. J. Appl.Meteor., 34, 2400-2405.9 TravisJ.T, An Emperic model to predict widespread occurences of contrails,American MeteorologySociety, Volume 36, Issue 9, September 1997.10Travis D.J., Carleton A.M. and Lauritsen R.G, Regional variations in U.S.diurnal temperature range forthe 11-14 September 2001 aircraft groundings: evidence of jet contrailinfluence on climate, Journal ofClimate, Volume 17, March 1st 2004.11Kalkstein and Balling Jr., Climate Research, 26,1-4, 2004http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com 143.2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OFCONTRAILS.3.2.1. Standards formeasurement:In order to understand what isbeing done, we first have to understand some basic concepts.A jet engine is an internal combustion engine, just like an automobileengine is. In a jetengine, the fuel and an oxidizer combust (or burn) and the products of that combustionare exhausted through a narrow opening at high speed.12The substances contained in acontrail depend on the following parameters:Enginetype, its by-pass ratio and its pressure ratio & rated output: newer technologyis usually much more environmentally friendly.Type of fuel: modern jet enginefuel is primarily kerosene, which is a fossil fuel. However a distinctioncan be made between civil and military operations. Civil airplanes used inhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comcommercial aviation fly on JET A-1, while aircraft used for defenseoperate on a different fuel that provides optimal viscosity, heat sink andthermal stability in any operational theatre ranging from arctic toequatorial.13In this respect it is noteworthy that NATO-forcescurrently use JP-8 (Jet Propellant 8),a relative new fuel type whose additives are legally protected by a patent.14Powersetting: at take off power and cruise setting combustion is optimal, burning morethan 99% of the fuel through complete combustion to carbon dioxide andwater. At idle conditions, much less fuel is consumed and, in the interestof maintaining stable combustion at lower power conditions, some sacrificein combustionefficiency occurs even though this inefficiency is still only a percent or so.Any combustion inefficiency of Hydrocarbon fuel will result in emissions ofsome combination of CO and incompletely oxidized Hydrocarbons, as well assomecarbonaceous particles.Maintenance standards and engine age: older engines or retrofitted powerplants (e.g. upgrade to stage III of obsolete DC-8 aircraft in the years2000 and beyond) emitsignificantly more pollutants than newer designs. Nano sizedmetal particles12Picture by courtesy ofAerospaceweb.org.13Shawn P. Heneghan and William E. Harrison III, JP8+100:the development of high thermal stabilityfuel, Aerospace Mechanic Division, University of Dayton, OH and USAF WrightLaboratories, N. WrightPatterson AFB, OH, 6th international conference on stability and handling ofliquid fuels, Vancouver,October 13-17 199714Aircraft Engine Speciated Organic Gases: Speciation of Unburned OrganicGases in Aircraft Exhaust,Assessment and Standards Division Office of Transportation and Air QualityU.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agencyhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comand AEE-300 - Emissions Division Office of Environment and Energy FederalAviation Administration, FAA publication. May 2009.15originating as a result of wearmay also appear in the contrail. The same problem occurs in countries wheremaintenance standards are somewhat lower.3.2.2. Chemical composition ofjet aircraft emissions:Burningfossil fuels primarily produces the following gaseous emissions:15Carbon Dioxide (C02).A largeamount of water vapor (H20) that immediately freezes upon contactwith thefree air. This makes the contrail visible for the human eye.Nitricoxide (NO) and nitrogen oxide (N02), which together are called NOx.Sulfur Oxides (S02).Soot.However very few tests have beenperformed in order to assess and evaluate a detailed chemicalcomposition in terms of Hydrocarbons (HC) of contrails. Of special interestis the survey of the USEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA)of May 2009, which uses data from a set of studies initiated by NASA calledAircraft Particle Emissions experiment (APEX). This project was supported bya wide range of sponsors (NASA, FAA, CARB, EPA, DoD ...) and focusedattention on commercial aircraft Particulate Matter (PM) emissions.The main objective of the APEXresearch was to characterize both gaseous and particulateemissions to advance the understanding of emissions from commercial aircraftengines.APEX1 was conducted in April of 2004 with a NASA-owned DC-8 aircraft equippedwith CFM-56-2C1 engines. APEX2 was conducted in August 2005 for typical in-useaircraft engines (CFM56 engines on B737 aircraft), APEX3 testing wasconducted in October and November of 2005 spanning a range of engines from asmall business jet, through a modern regional turbofan, a single-aisletransport turbofan, to a large high bypass ratio turbo fan, representingfive different engine types, some measuring more than one example. In allstudies, exhaust plumes were sampled at the engine exit plane and severaldownstream measurement locations.Test results on the CFM56-3engines running on JET A-1 fuel revealed that the most important compound Inemissions is Ethylene, followed by Formaldehyde, Acetylene,Propene, Acetaldehydehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comand another 46 substances including Benzene. The most importantcompounds of Hydrocarbon engine emissions on a molar basis are as follows:16is NASA Facts, Glenn Research Center, Article FS-2000-04-010-GRC,Safeguarding our atmosphere, Glenn Research reduces harmful aircraftemissions.16ShawnP. Heneghan and William E. Harrison III, JP8+100:the development of high thermal stability fuel, Aerospace Mechanic Division,University of Dayton, OH and USAF Wright Laboratories, N. Wright PattersonAFB, OH, 6th international conference on stability and handling of liquidfuels, Vancouver,October 13-17 1997 . 16CompoundEmissionRatio (mmole/ mole)CompoundEmissionratio (mmole/ mole)http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comEthylene0,770Acrolein0,061Formaldehyde0,572l-butene0,044Acetylene0,211Glyoxal0,044Propene0,1511,3-Butadiene0,044Acetaldehyde0,135http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comBenzene0,030The other 41 compounds have aweight below 0,030 mmole per mole. Full test results are included inappendix 1, page Impact of fuelspecifications on aircraft engine emissions:17.Incommercial and military aviation the following fuel types are being used :FUELTYPEAPPLICATION FIELDREMARKSJET A-1Commercialaviation and some air forces not being a NATO-member (e.g. AustrianAF)Jet fuelas analyzed in paragraph 3.2.2. nowadays also used in recreationalaviation & flight training, referred to for fiscal purposes as AeroDiesel.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comJP-4 AvtagUSAirforce, NATO CodeF-4050/50Kerosene - Gasoline, phased out in 1996 in favor of JP-8.JP-5USNavy, NATO CodeF-44Still inuse in naval operations, highest flash point, higher than JET A1and JP-8.JP-7US AirForceSpeciallydesigned for supersonic operations above Mach 3 (Example: formerSR-71 Blackbird)JP-8US AirForce, NATO CodeF-34ReplacingJP-4, transition should be completed by the year 2010.Aircraft operators are constantlyrefining their fuels to deal with specific performance concerns.A major problem with gasoline is that it has what is known as a low"flashpoint." This is thetemperature at which it produces fumes that can be ignited by an open flame.Gasoline has a flashpoint of around 30 degrees Fahrenheit (-1 degreehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comCelsius). This makes fires much more likely in the event of an accident. Soengine designers sought to develop engines that used fuels with higherflashpoints.The U.S. Air Force during the1990s switched from JP-4 to JP-8 because it had a higher flashpoint and wasless carcinogenic, among other things. By the mid 1990s, the Air Forcefurther modified JP-8 to include a chemical that reduced the buildup ofcontaminants in the engines that affected performance. JP-5 has even ahigher flashpoint than JP-8, but its high cost limits its use to aircraftcarriers. JP-8 has a strong odor and is oily to the touch, which makes itmore unpleasant to handle and less safe in some ways.17 AirBP, the history of Jet fuel, www.bp.com.17t o /o Ç/t oevhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comMilitarypersonnel who work with it complain that it is difficult to wash off andcauses headachesand other physical problems.18Market isbig and ever increasing with the military operations in Iraq, Afghanistanand the restlessefforts on war on terror. About 60 billion gallons (227 billion liters)were used worldwide by the late 1990s, with the U.S. Air Force, Army, andNATO using about 4.5 billion gallons (17 billion liters). It is also used tofuel heaters, stoves, powered electric generators, and combat vehicles. TheM1 Abrams battle tank also uses JP-8 in its gas engine turbines. The use ofa single fuel for most military applications would greatly simplify wartimelogistics.A latest development is JP-8+100,a version of JP-8 with an additive that increases its thermal stability by56°C (100°F). The additive is a combination of a surfactant, metaldeactivator, and an antioxidant. It was introduced in 1994. The additivereduces coking andfouling in engine fuel systems. Commercially, this additive is used inBoeing aircraftoperated by KLM, andin police helicopters in Tampa, Florida. It is also used as fuel forCanadian CF-18 Hornets.Of special concern is thecomparison between JET A-1 and JP-8 / JP-8+100. Officially thefuel types are similar, except that the military variant contains additionalicing inhibitor,corrosioninhibitors, lubricants, and antistatic agents.19 Apatent protects the exact compositionof additives of JP-8, which is quite obvious in order to prevent espionageandtransfer of technology to hostile parties.20 Neverthelessit is possible to establish a comparison between Jet A-1 and JP-8+100 asseveral civil organizations are part of the engineering program.More thaninteresting is the conclusion of the 6 International Conference onStability and Handlingof Liquid Fuel, held in October 1997 in Vancouver, Canada. In this paper theeffects of the selected additives in JP-8+100 are examined on propertiesthat are unrelated to thermal stability characteristics. For instance thecomparison between Jet A-1 and JP-8of additive Specific Aid 8Q405 is of special interest.21 Fora given concentration theconductivity of JP-8 jet fuel is much higher, which underlines theusefulness of the proposed additives. However one can logically assume thataircraft engine emissions will also significantly increase as a result ofthese additional icing inhibitor, corrosion inhibitors, lubricants, andantistatic agents. Official tests results have never been released by the USgovernment, which is also the beneficiary of the patent.The full paper of the 6l InternationalConference on Stability and Handling of Liquid Fuel, aswell as the detailed specifications of military aviation fuels are includedin appendix 2.18www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Evolution ofTechnology/fuel/Tech21.htmhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comw MIL-DTL-83133F11 April 2008 Superseding MIL-DTL-83133E 1 April 1999Detail Specification Turbine Fuel, Aviation Kerosene Type, JP-8 (NATO F-34),NATO F-35, and JP-8+100(NATO F-37).20 USpatent 20050274063 - jet fuel additive concentrate composition and fuelcomposition andmethods thereof, filed June 13th 2003, published December 15th 2005.2i B. Dacre and J. Hetherington, Electrical Conductivity of HITTS AdditivePackages for the JP-8+100Program, Rutherford Laboratory, Royal Military College of Science, Swindon,UK, 1997, Table 1, page325.18REVIEWED BY:AO3.3. AIRCRAFT EMISSIONREGULATIONS:http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com3.3.1. Regulatory standards:Engine emissions for civilaircraft are regulated. The UK Civil Aviation Authority publishes adatabank with information on exhaust emissions of only those aircraftengines that have enteredproduction. Engine manufacturers, who are solely responsible for itsaccuracy, provide this information based on a test run. It was collected inthe course of the work carriedout by the ICAO Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) buthas not been independentlyverified unless indicated. The UK CAA is hosting this Databank22This already reveals twoon behalfof ICAO and is not responsible for the contents, weaklinks:Themanufacturer provides data, based on few tests. Its reliability is notverified byany agency. Therefore one must rely entirely on the quality system of thatcompany.Militaryaircraft are actually exempted from this regulatory system as some aircraftare equipped with engines that are no longer used in commercial aviation.23 Althoughaircraft equipped with older engines mostly do not have a noise certificateand are subsequently denied landing rights on civil airports they can stillcross our airspace and land on AF Bases where those restrictions do notexist.As ICAO only publishes standards &recommended procedures, which must be integratedinto national legislation, some countries can promulgate derogations on emissionregulation.The regulatory standards are thosefound in the Standards & recommended procedures of the ICAO, Annex 16,Volume 2 (subsonic engines), Part III and include a standard for smoke,unburned Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx):PARAMETERREGULATORY LEVELS24http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comSmoke Number (SN)83,6 x (F<*>)0274 or50, whichever is lower; and Fco = rated engine outputHydrocarbons (HC)Dp/Foo = 19,6;and Dp = mass in grams of any pollutant emitted during thereferencelanding and take off.Carbon Monoxide (CO)Dp/F°o = 118Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)Variable level in function of engine age and engine pressureratio,ranging betweenDP/ Fœ =40 + 2FTo* (production before 31-12-95)And DP / Fco = 36 + 1,6[]o° (enginepressure ratio 82,6 ormore)And Yl00 = enginepressure ratioRefer toappendix 3 for a detailed explanation of these parameters.22ICAO Aircraft Emissions Engine Databank, UK CAA, Updated Julylôth 2007.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com23Aircraft Engine Speciated Organic Gases: Speciation of Unburned OrganicGases in Aircraft Exhaust,Assessment and Standards Division Office of Transportation and Air QualityU.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agencyand AEE-300 - Emissions Division Office of Environment and Energy FederalAviation Administration, FAA publication. May 2009, page 3.24ICAO Aircraft Emissions Engine Databank, chapter 7, regulatory standards, UKCAA, UpdatedJulylôth 2007.193.3.2. CaseStudy: civil versus military engine emissions. Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comOutline25The introductionof these regulatory levels was a good move to wipe out obsolete commercialjet Aircraft, unless the engine were retro fitted and upgraded to stage III. Furthermorethe databank includes data of engines, which do not have to comply with theemission standards, but instead received wide derogations. This clearlyshows that this system is not fail safe, as it leaves too many backdoors.In order to make apoint let us examine more closely 3 different engine types:a) ThePW4048, new generation, which equips the Boeing 777.b) TheJT3D-3B that is still used on KC135 and B-52H bombers.c) TheCFM56-3C as used on the NASA APEX research as set in paragraph 3.2.2.Engine tests on the Pratt & Whitney PW4084 as used on the Boeing 777 wereperformed from April 26th till May 2nd 1994 for the measurement of data forthe ICAO data bank.26The KC135tanker, which is the military version of the Boeing 707, is equipped withJT3D-3B engines,tested between 1972 and 1974. Another version, the E-3 Sentry, better knownas theAwacs (Airborne Early Warning and Control System), is equippedwith TF33-PW100A of Inter Turbine Technologies, which are not included inthe ICAO Aircraft Emissions Engine Databank227http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com25 AirNavigation (Aircraft Noise) Regulations, Statutory rules 1984 N°188 asamended, February 22nd2002, Office of Legislative drafting, Attorny-Generals Department,Canberra, Australia.26Boeing Photo, credit K63367-0527 ImageCourtesy of the United States Department of Defence20PV3.3.2.2. Test resultsComparison of aircraft emission data as obtained on the test data sheetbetween the threeengine types reveals quite interesting information:PARAMETERhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comPW4084 (Boeing777)28JT3D-3B(KC135/ B52H)29CFM56-3C (APEX test)30Smoke Number SN (standard50)10,5054,509,9Hydrocarbons HC (standard19,6)2,90303,904,3Carbon Monoxide CO (standard118)19,50288,1065,7Oxides of Nitrogen NOx(standard42,69 for KC135; 79,38 for B777; 23,35 for theAPEX testengines)62,80http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com34,3053,1The test results have to beinterpreted as follows:a) Thedata obtained with the CFM56-3C-1, labeled in green color in the table, acts asreference. This engine type meets all regulatory standards and will be usedto establish the HC-emissions by the other engine types.b) Olderaircraft such as the KC135 tanker and the strategic bomber B-52H do emit substantialamounts of gaseous emissions. The NOx value of the JT3D-3B engine is lowerthan the data for the Boeing 777 engine due to its lower engine pressureratio. To put in simpler words: the more engine power available the higherthe emission of Nitrogen will be. This is considered as normal.c) Forsome unknown reasons derogation for the JT3D-3B engine has been granted inthe ICAO data sheet (see appendix 3): 395,4 for the HC-parameter and 328,2for CO. This is in fact anincrease of a very roval 2017,6% for the emission of Hydrocarbon and 278.2%for Carbon Monoxide.d) Ifone extrapolates the test results as published in paragraph 3.2.2 for theCFM56-3C engine the actualweight of each chemical compound is magnified by an unknown factor. One canassume that for instance the emission of Ethylene could well exceed ahundredfold the test data of 0,77 emission ratio in mmole / mole (seeappendix 1). There is no doubt that operation of airplanes with suchobsolete engines has a negative influence on public health.e) Apartfrom some minor airline companies on remote places the JT3D-3B engine isexclusively in use in military forces that are not subject to anyrestrictions of that kind.Although no data is available for engines used on the E-2 / E-3 SentryAwacs model one can assume that its emissions are similar, because some airforces such as the Royal Air Force, the French Arméede lAir andthe Saudian forces already have retrofitted their E-3s with morecontemporary CFM-engines.Copies of the ICAO documents forthe 3 engine types can be found in appendix 3.28 ICAOEngine Exhaust Emissions Databank, Subsonic Engines, PW4084, July, 18th2007.29 ICAOEngine Exhaust Emissions Databank, Subsonic Engines, JT3D-3B, October, 1st2004.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com30 ICAOEngine Exhaust Emissions Databank, Subsonic Engines, CFM56-3C-1, October,1st 2004. Production numbersof the KC-135 Stratotanker:In orderto know if excessive emissions of these military aircraft are statisticallysignificant onemust assess how of them have been build and the percentage of militarytraffic in global aviation. Production of the KC135 ceased in 1965. In1988 Boeing Company performeda mid life upgrade on 746 airplanes, clearly denoting the long activeservice of that airplane.31About 410 airframes have been upgradedsince with CFM56 engines.32Additionally a batch of 33 E-3Sentry aircraft has been build of whom 17 are in use in NATO forces. Theseaircraft, which have not been retrofitted with CFM-engines33,operate mainly from Geilenkirchen AFB (German - Dutch border) with amultinational crew under Luxemburg flag with apparently a civil registrationnumber. The reason for this is quite complex. In summary official NATOsources state that it is not possible to use markingsof all member countries and they had to find a member nation whoselegislation in this area was sufficiently accommodating to provide the ForceCommander with enough latitudeand flexibility to make up his crews as required and organize maintenanceoperations.34 ThusRegistration of the E-3As with NATOs smallest member nation, Luxemburg, wasproposed.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comNote theflag of Luxemburg on the tail section and underneath the wing of this E-3Aat GeilenkirchenAFB. Its registration number is a civil LX-code. This airplane is still equippedwith older TF33-PW100A engines (credit: official NATO AWACS website).It isquite intriguing that airplanes with a Luxemburg (semi) civil registrationdo not need to complywith the ICAO engine emission databank and can do things at their ownconvenience. Furthermore Mr. D. Rumsfeld, former minister of defense underthe Bush administration,declared that an upgrading program of the B-52 and KC-135 would only bepartly implemented as a result of cost cutting programs.35 ANATO survey suggests that theAwacs aircraft are sustainable beyond 2025. 6These old aircraft with high HC- and CO-emissions are likely to stay in theair for a while. The fact that Geilenkrichen AFB will not be closed in theyear 2025 as planned but even see its runway extended underlines3i Boeing Integrated Defence Systems website, Stratotanker overview.32 CFMNews, USAF expands CFM56-2-powered RC-135 fleet, July, 22nd 2002.33 CFMNews, USAF expands CFM56-2-powered RC-135 fleet, July, 22nd 2002.34Official NATO Airborn Early Warning and Control Force website www.e3a.nato.int,E-3A Component,FAQ, Question 14 Why is there a red lion on the tail?35 GlobalSecurity, SECAF lays out case for tanker upgrade, Master sgt S. Elliott, AirForce Print News, March 7th, 2003.36 NATOAirborne Early Warning and Control Program, US Air Force Maj. Gen. G.Winterberger, NAEW&C Force Commander and P. McCaffrey NAPMA, Plans andEvaluation Division, March 2nd, 2005.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com22this.373.3.2.4. Percentage ofmilitary traffic in global aviation:Althoughthe majority of air traffic on this planet is civilian, military operationsrepresent almostthe most important segment in aviation38:Fractionof each Segments Daily Tr«rffi012 3 4 5 6B 9 10 111? 13 14 15 16 W 18 13 ÜÜ ¿182 S3 Local HourAccording to the Eurocontrolstatistics military traffic is actually the biggest segment between 8 AM and3 PM. Of course not all military traffic consists of KC-135 tankers and E-3Sentry aircraft, but one must bear in mind that very substantial resourcesin an Air Force are used to keep the Defense Force (Multi Role Units &Ground units in crisis zones) operational and this includes a lot oflogistics in the form of transport wings. This does not only include modernaircraft as the C-17 Globemaster but also obsolete planes asthe Lockheed C-130, which is still in use in many Air Forces and is notsubject to study in thissurvey.However,when taking into account that some part of civil cargo traffic is performedhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comon behalf of the military then we can assume that the military segment topsabove 10% at regularintervals. Conclusions of thistest case:The logical conclusion obtained bycombining the data as mentioned above is that the militarysegment is statistically important and that airplanes with excessive HC-,CO- and NOx-emissions arestill widely used, although airplanes such as the KC135 and E-3 complywith ICAO-Standards and Recommended Procedures.This is actually unacceptable inthe view of the efforts being made by civil operators in orderto comply with environmental requirements. Efforts should be made bypoliticians to phase outthose aircraft equipped with engines that do not meet the basic regulatorylevels as set in the ICAO. This encompasses the workforce of about 300KC-135 in the United States and all of the E-3 Sentry aircraft based atGeilenkirchen. In this respect it is a total contradiction that theseaircraft are allowed to operate under a Luxemburg LX-registrationnumber, bearing in mind that its engine types are even not listed in theICAO-databank.37 De Limburger,Limburgs dagblad, Basis Awacs blijft ook na 2025 gewoon open, December15th,2009.38Eurocontrol Trends in Air Traffic, Volume 5, Dependent on the dark: cargoand other night flights inEuropean Airspace, 2009.23http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comREVIEWED BY:AO4. EFFECTS OFCONTRAILS ON CLIMATENo more than a few decades remainbefore the chance to avert the threats we now confront will be lost and theprospects for humanity immeasurably diminished. We, the undersigned membersof the world scientific community, warn all humanity what lies ahead. Agreat change in the stewardship of the Earth and life on it is required ifvast humanmisery is to be avoided and our global home on this planet not to beirretrievable mutilated."WorldScientists, warning to humanity", document signed by1600 senior scientists from 71 countries, published in Time,Planet of the Year, November 18th 1992,Publication rejected by the New York Times and WashingtonPost as not newsworthy244. EFFECTS OF CONTRAILS ONCLIMATE:4.1. Effects of contrails oncloud formation:4.1.1. Characteristics ofCirrus clouds:Cirrus clouds (WMO abbreviation Ci) areformed in a natural way when water vapor freezesinto ice crystals at altitudes above 8000 meters (26,000 ft) in the higherpart of thetroposphere. The exact altitude depends also on the heightof tropopauze, the boundary with the stratosphere and the higher levels ofearths atmosphere. That means that Cirrus clouds in polar regions willhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comappear at a much lower altitude than at the equator.Due to the sparse moisture at ahigh altitude, Cirrus clouds are very thin. Fall streaks, sometimesalso called Virgae, form when ice crystals fall from Cirrus clouds. Thechange in wind with height and how quickly these ice crystals fall determinethe shapes and sizes the fall streaks attain. Since ice crystals fall muchmore slowly than raindrops, fall streaks tendto be stretched out horizontally as well as vertically. Cirrus streaks maybe nearly straight, shaped like a comma, or seemingly all tangled together.As wind velocity increases with altitude they may be spread over largeareas. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of jet streams, whichsplits the cells of the different tropopauze layers. Sometimesone can even see the clouds moving fast from the ground.39There are other cloud typesassociated with Cirrus such as the Cirrostratus (WMO abbreviationCs) and the Cirrocumulus (WMO abbreviation Cc), but these are generally relatedto incoming frontal systems and are further omitted from this survey.AlthoughCirrus clouds look thin they may occupy a significant part of the sky up to30% andeven more in some areas - in meteorological terms called scattered (SCT)up to broken (BKN). Transmittance of direct and diffuse sunlight is about80%.Global map of average Cirrus cloudcover based on the ISCCP cloud database for the period 1984 - 1999 (in %cloud cover)39WMO website, Meteoroligical Codes for high altitude clouds.40Is there a trend in Cirrus cloud cover due to aircraft traffic?, F. Stordal et al., Atmos.Chem. Phys., 5,(2005)21555-2161.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com25Changes in the Cirrus cloud coverin percentage between the two periods 1992-199941and 1984-1991.4.1.2. Impact of Cirrus cloudson climate:The climate of the Earth resultsfrom an energy balance between absorbed sunlight and radiative losses ofheat from Earth and its atmosphere to space. Clouds are an importantmodulator in this balance. Clouds reflect sunlight back toward space, whichreduces the solar energy available to the Earth - also called the Albedoeffect. Clouds also reduce radiative heat losses to space (greenhouseeffect). Which of these two opposing processesdominates depends on many parameters including cloud particle composition,cloud structure, cloud cover, and cloud location. Changes to only one ofthese parameters can havesignificant implications for climate.42http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com41 Idemas footnote 40.42 KinneS., Cirrus Clouds and climate, NASA Ames Research Center webpage.26Thegreenhouse effect is weak for low altitude clouds, so their Albedo effectdominates and they cool the Earths climate. Incontrast, cold high altitude Cirrus clouds may either coolor warm the climate.This will prove to be a key element whether to determine if weathermodification programs are being conducted on the planet in order to reduceglobal warming.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comCirrus clouds have thus a stronggreenhouse effect, which may outweigh their Albedo effect losses. As theimportance of both opposing effects depends critically on little understoodCirrus properties, theoretical calculations of the climatic effects ofCirrus are controversial. The main uncertainty stems from a currentinability to calculate the scatteringof sunlight in Cirrus clouds, since they contain a multitude of ice crystalshapes and sizes, and areirregular in structure. Even more, Stefan Kinne of the NASA Ames ResearchCenter states clearly that the Cirrus Albedo effect is severelyunderestimated by calculations.43Thisproves that knowledge in this field of science is quite limited andextensive research ismandatory in order to fully understand the impact of Cirrus clouds onclimate. In this respectit is noteworthy that evidence of thin Cirrus clouds in the Stratosphere hasalready been established.444.1.3. Development of contrailsinto Cirrus clouds:Contrails, a man made phenomena,are not listed as such in the WMO cloud coding. In thehigh cloud section of the document the only possible link with contrails isthe Cirrus in the form ofhooks, filaments, or both, progressively invading the sky - WMO code 0509,section 4. Refer to appendix 4 for the full cloud coding as provided by theWMO.Because contrails are not listedin the WMO decoding table there is logically no instrumentto catalogue them or to make them an inherent part of a weather forecast(TAF in aviation). Whencontrails turn into Cirrus clouds they are just incorporated in the actualweather report (METAR in aviation). As there are no instruments formeasurement most meteorologists just limit their impact on climate as beingonly esthetic.Not all contrails develop intoCirrus clouds and if they do, what is the exact scientific base? Well,aircraft emissions as explained in paragraph 3.2.2. are actually aerosols, microscopicparticles suspended in the air.45 Theyact like seeds: water molecules can condenseor freeze on to them to form cloud particles.Sulpheric Acid (H2S04)increases as a result of gas-phase oxidation processes. Soot particlesbecome chemically activated by adsorption and binary heterogeneousnucleation of Sulphur Trioxid (S03, a chemical compound ofSulphur and Oxygen) and H2S04 inthe presence of H20,leading to the formation of a partial liquid H2S04/H20coating. Upon further cooling, volatile liquid H2S04/H20droplets are formed by binary homogeneous nucleation, whereby the chemi-ionsact as preferred nucleation centers. These aerosols grow in size bycondensation and coagulation processes (clotting).Coagulation between volatile particles and soot enhances the coating andforms a mixed H2S04/H20-soot aerosol, whichis eventually scavenged by background aerosol particles atlonger times. If liquid H20 saturation is reached in the plume, acontrail forms. Ice particleshttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comare created in the contrail mainly by freezing of exhaust aerosols.Scavenging of exhaust particles and further deposition of H20leads to an increase of the ice mass. The43Kinne S., Cirrus Clouds and climate, NASA Ames Research Center webpage.44Keckhut P., Hauchecorne A., Bekki S., Colette A., David C, and Jumelet C,Evidences of thin Cirrusclouds in the stratosphere at mid-latitudes, Service dAeronomie/InstitutPierre-Simon Laplace, CNRS,Verrieres leBuisson, France,Received: 28 December 2004 - Accepted: 17 January 2005 - Published: 21June 200545NASA Facts, Glenn Research Center, Article FS-2000-04-010-GRC, Safeguardingour atmosphere,Glenn Research reduces harmful aircraft emissions. 27contrailpersists in ice-supersaturated air and may develop into a Cirrus cloud.Short-lived andpersistent contrails return residual particles into the atmosphere uponevaporation. The scavengingtimescales are highly variable and depend on the exhaust and backgroundaerosol size distributionsand abundances, as well as on wake mixing rates.Thismeans that the formation of contrails not only depend on the amount of HC-,CO and NOx engine emissions but also on the fuel type being used. In thisrespect it is likely that older engines operating on fuels with additionaladditives as highlighted in the case study producemore persistent contrails.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com4.1.4. Impact of aviation onthe formation of men made Cirrus:Beforediscussing the possible impact of contrails on climate one has to assess themost popularflying routes as well as the projected evolution of aviation on the globe.The most congested trafficpatterns are situated between the East and West coast of the United States,overhead the North Atlantic and between major cities in Europe. When we lookat the trend in commercial aviation the number of flights may well double inthe next ten years. In order to avoid airspace saturation on the busiestroutes Air Traffic Control agencies such as CANAC in Brussels anticipatedthis development by introducing new transponders(Mode S) in November 2009 to allow smaller separation standards between airplanes.-30--W-190-70 -eo 3ingtoit46This map shows the distances flownwith aircrafts for the year 2000 between 9800 and 11600 m altitude.It shows also 10 regions from which a correlationbetween aircraft density andCirrus trends has been analyzed and proven.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com46 Isthere a trend in Cirrus cloud cover due to aircraft traffic?, F. Stordal et al., Atmos.Chem. Phys., 5, (2005)21555-2161.28XM Xtl MM »<71W0 IMS IMSThis graph showsthe projected growth in freight in freight ton kilometers (FTK), accordingto estimation from Boeing Corporation in 2002.47The predictedincrease in air traffic for the year 2009 has been hampered by the worstfinancial crisis since the great depression in the thirties, but it still atits 2007 level - an increase of about 28% in comparison to the year when theabove graphics have been designed.According to theQuantify Project Group, which studies the climate impact of transportsystems in Europe, the amount of Cirrus clouds tends in general to decreaseon our planet, except inregions with high air traffic. For Europe it is estimated that thehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comamount of Cirrus clouds, which can be attributed to air traffic increases by1-2% per decade. Aviation induced cloud cover is maybe 3-5% over Europe.48According to thesame source there are trends observed that increase in Cirrus cloud coverand in the fuel used by aircrafts go parallel. However, the consumed fuelincreases over the years less fast (33% for 1992 to 2000) than the distancetraveled by plane (+44%) since engines became more efficient. Military airtraffic has also significantly increased since the second Gulf war and thesubsequent war on terror - putting reserve squadrons of the National Guardwith older technology back in action.Whiteleg andCambridge from the Stockholm Environment Institute even expressively statesthat aviation poses a threat on different stakeholders:49On global level:affecting whole eco-systems.Regional: e.g. theEuropean theatre.Local: e.g. livingin the vicinity of Frankfurt airport.Community: livingin the immediate surrounding of Frankfurt airport.Health impact:possible diseases on all levels.47 WhitelegJ and Cambridge H, Aviation and Sustainability, Stockholm EnvironmentInstitute, 2004.48 EU FP6Integrated Project Quantify, Quantifying the climate impact of global andEuropean TransportSystems., 2006.49Whiteleg J and Cambridge H, Aviation and Sustainability, StockholmEnvironment Institute, 2004,page 15.29http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comt o fo y //*Pi/GLOBALREGIONALLOCALCOMMUNITYHEALTH IMPACThttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comCarbon DioxideContrailsSulphur DioxideNoise exposurePulmonary diseaseCirrus cloud formationAcidificationOzoneSleep disturbanceDVT - DeepVeinThrombosishttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comNitrogen OxidesPotential loss of habitatAirport pollutionBuilding damageRadiation exposureClimate changeReduction in biodiversityLocal traffic congestionRural disturbanceOzone depletionParticulate matter (PM)Poorerhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comeducationperformanceGlobal warmingContrails and formation of Cirrusclouds were thus in 2004 already known problems. However no action of anykind has been taken to solve this issue. The situation is even worse:international aviation emissions are excluded from the Kyoto Protocol andtherefore aviation enjoys the freedom to continue to pollute theatmosphere. It has now beenrecognized by the UK government (HMSO, 2004) that if aircraft emissions aretaken into account, it will not be able to meet its target of 60% reductionin greenhouse gases by theyear 2050."50There are other hints that anyeffort to reduce jet engine air emissions and subsequent pollution issystematically torpedoed for the sake of global economy. For instance the Reutersnews agency reported on November 23rd 2004that local air pollution agencies in theUnited States were pulling out of talks with the U.S. Environmental Agencyand the Federal Aviation Administration after 5 years of work with noacceptable results. The aim of this voluntary program was to develop ascenario for reduction of pollution and particulatematter (PM) of jet aircraft.51 Recentlysome new surveys have been conducted inorder to develop acceptable scenarios with a minimum financial impact oncompanies for contrail control. For instance Robert Sausen of theDLR-lnstitute for physics of the atmospherein Germany suggested a change in cruising altitude of commercial airplanes, withthe best option a reduction of 6000 ft.5 Howeverreducing the cruising altitude would signify a noticeable increase in fuelconsumption. It does not come as a surprise that these initiatives are keptsilent for the sake of return on investment, which is very low to negativein the sector (Start with a big fortune in aviation to acquire a smallone).It isundeniable that aviation has a significant impact on climate and somescientists agree thatit has not been quantified. Sausen even describes in this survey the levelof scientific50Same source as footnote 48, page 17.51Truth in aviation: efforts to reduce jet engine air pollution take a setback, Newsletter of the RegionalCommission on Airport Affairs, December 2004.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com52Sauser R, Climate impact by aviation and minimising it by operational means,DLR-Insttitut für Physikder Atmosphere, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, meeting on environmental impactof air traffic, Brussels,May 3rd 2007.30knowledge on Cirrus clouds andcontrails as poor. Refer to appendix 5 for an updated aviation radiativeforcing for the year 2000.A different pathway is theintroduction of a carbon tax on aviation operations. Besides the fact thatit would be a very profitable operation for some interest groups it is clearthat many airline companies would be forced to file for bankruptcy if acarbon tax would be levied on their operations, resulting in a net loss of 4million jobs in the United States alone.53 Alsoother countries such as Australia and India have objected against such tax andeven if the European Community votes such a law it would not only be delayedsignificantly by rearguard battles, but low cost flying would certainly be athing from the past.Bearing in mind that the Copenhagen summit in 2009 wasdeliberately torpedoed by the main industrial nations with the United Stateson top one can only conclude that the ongoing scenario is to develop optionsthat ensure Business as Usual. Even the Kyoto Protocolcan be considered as mere occupation therapy for the development of alucrative cap & tradesystem.4.2. EFFECT OF CONTRAILS ONTEMPERATURE:4.2.1. Variations in the dailytemperature range as a result of contrails:Although it is clear that aircraft emissions have animpact on climate it is quite difficult to measure this, because aviation isjust part of everyday life. However there has been one small window ofopportunity to perform a reliable scientific survey, at the time that all commercialflights within the U.S. airspace were grounded for a period of 3 days afterthe events of 11 September2001.54http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comThis survey, performed by David J.Travis, Andrew M. Carlton and Ryan G. Lauritsen, released in final form 2years later (!), revealed a departure of average diurnal temperature range(DTR) from the normal values derived from the 1971 - 2000 climatology datafor the indicated 3-day period in 2001. DTR values for 11 to 14 Septemberduring the grounding period, measured at stations across the United States,showan increase of about 1,1 °Cin comparison with the normal values.55This increase is larger than anyduring the 11-14 September period for the previous 30 years,giving ammunition to critics who state that weather conditions at thisspecific period were veryextraordinary and no scientific based conclusions could be taken. However evenmore surprising is the fact that the 11-14 September increase in DTR wasmore than twice thenational average for regions of the United States where contrail coveragehas previously been reported to be most abundant, such as the Midwest,Northeast and Northwest regions.56In thesubsequent days after September 14th whencivil flight operations resumed there wasa temperature drop of about 0,8°C, denoting the return to normalconditions. This underlines the impact of contrails on global surfacetemperatures with a noteworthy coolingdown effect, especially reducing the maximum day temperatures. A new proofthat aviationsignificantly affects climate emerged after the massive grounding in Europein53 Kreutzer D,Ph.D., The economic impact of cap and trade, testimony before the energy andcommercecommitee U.S House of Representatives, April 22, 2009.54Nature, Volume 418, August,8 2002, Contrails reduce the daily temperaturerange, a brief intervalwhen the skies were clear of jets unmasked an effect on climate.55Travis D.J., Carleton A.M. and Lauritsen R.G, Regional variations in U.S.diurnal temperature range forthe 11-14 September 2001 aircraft groundings: evidence of jet contrailinfluence on climate, Journal ofClimate, Volume 17, published March 1st 2004.56DeGrand J, Carleton A.M., Travis D.J. & Lamb, P.J. Appl. Meteorol,39,1434-1459, published in 2000.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com 312010 due to the volcano eruptionin Iceland. It is too early to assess the quality of the survey, but theKings College in London claims that airports are air polluters.The fullpaper covering the regional variation in U.S. diurnal temperature rangeduring the 9-11 events, the summary from the magazine Nature as well asthe press release of April»nd22 ,2010 from the Kings College London can be viewed in appendix Global warming potentialof aircraft engine emissions:After the first reports ofClimate Gate, the deliberate manipulation of weather data for IPCCpurposes that emerged on the surface during the Copenhagen summit forclimate change in 2009,one can even wonder if there is any global warming at all57.Climate change is a more appropriate term.Nevertheless the potential of global warming of gaseous emissions fromaircraft engines isnot to be neglected. Global warming potential (GWP) is the impact agreenhouse gas has on global warming expressed over a 100-year time period.The GWP of each greenhouse gas depends on its ability to absorb heat in theatmosphere. By definition, C02 isused as reference case, with a GWP of 1.Globalwarming potential values enable an increase or reduction of any of thegreenhouse gasesto be expressed as an equivalent reduction of C02over a 100-yearperiod. Table 4.2.2-1 lists the GWP of the greenhouse gases covered by Kyotoas well as those others related to aviation emissions:58Greenhouse gashttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comChemical formulaGWP 100 year time horizonCarbon DioxideC021MethaneCH421Nitrogen OxideN20310PerfluorobutaneC4F107000http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comPerfluorocyclobutanec-C4F88700Sulphur HexafluorideSF823900The GWP of greenhouse gases isquite high. According to the study of the Stockholm Environmental Instituteaviation emissions account for around 3.5 per cent of mans contributionto global warming from fossil fuel use. By 2050, this percentage could growto between 4 per cent and15 per cent (IPCC data from1999 and provided the data is not corrupted byClimate Gate.)59However this global warming potential is not realized ascan be concluded in the post 9-11 survey. There are three possible reasonsfor this:57Climate change: this is the worst scientific scandal of our generation,Daily telegraph, November 28th2009.58Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995: The Scienceof Climate Change(Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996), Table 2-9, "RadiativeForcing of Climate Change,"p. 120.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com59Whiteleg J and Cambridge H, Aviation and Sustainability, StockholmEnvironment Institute, 2004,page 1732 APPROVEDThe cooling down effect due to theformation of contrails and subsequent Cirrus outweighs the Global WarmingPotential of the gaseous engine emissions. There are no known scientificstudies on this topic.Additional additives have been incorporated in jet fuel in order to counterglobal warming.A combination of both scenarios.As willbe explained in a different paragraph several patents and scientificresearch papersexist for cloud seeding in an attempt to counter global warming.4.3. EFFECT OF CONTRAILS ONPRECIPITATION:4.3.1. Precipitationprinciples:Precipitation occurs when thefollowing conditions are met:- There must be moisture in theair. A cold parcel of air can contain less moisturethan warm air. Relative humidityincreases when the air parcel is adiabatically cooled(e.g. orographic lifting) or moisture is added to that parcel (e.g. air mass pickingup moist from an ocean) or a combination of both.- Condensationnuclei, such as dust particles, must be abundant.- Thedroplets or ice crystals must be heavier than the updrafts. Mounting aircurrentsare a result of instable air (cold air moving in over a warmer surface) and producecumuliform clouds, the Cumulonimbus or Thunderstorm being its supreme form.The higher the updrafts the more violent the precipitation will be. Instable weather conditions the droplet tends to fall as soon as it is formeddue to the limitedupdrafts.Moreoverhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comprecipitation is much more likely in low-pressure areas where frontalsystems areallowed to slip in. However thermal thunderstorms may develop at any placeon earth,except at the poles where temperatures do not permit this. A new developmentin climate change is theintroduction of super cells with deep rotating updrafts that bust throughthe stratosphere, with extensive hail and extreme turbulence as a result.The crash of Air France flight 447 on its way from Riode Janeiroto Paris in June 2009 with the loss of 224 lives is probably attributed tothe presence of such cell on its flight path.4.3.2. Relation betweencontrails, air temperature and precipitation:Thequestion arises if contrails and their switch into men made Cirrus have animpact on precipitation.In that respect 3 counter posing elements have to be distinguished:a) Jetengine emissions with extensive aerosol production deliver quite somecondensation nuclei on which droplets can form. This increases theprobability of additional precipitation.b) Howeveras shown in the survey in paragraph 4.2.1 a significant temperature drop isnoted due to the formation of contrails. As cold air can contain lessmoisture than a warm parcel of air precipitation could decrease.c) BecauseContrails are formed in the upper part of the troposphere the subsequent reductionin temperature could trigger additional instability in the atmosphere. Forexample an ascending air particle in a Cumulonimbus cloud would indeed meetalmost no resistance when nearing the tropopauze because it is always warmerthan the surrounding air. As a result it will bust through the tropopauzeand enter the stratosphere. Only the isothermal layer in the stratosphereprevents the thunderstorm shooting much higher. To put it in differentwords: contrails may inducethe formation of super cells. Very limited scientific field research hasbeen 33performedon that topic, but this conclusion is only a matter of logic.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comIt is clear that there is arelation between these parameters, but scientists have failed to quantifythe parameters. This is nothing new in meteorology: since the introductionof the Bergeron-Findeisen precipitation theory in 1935 it has beencontinuously evaluated and criticized60,but scientists can still not determine why a single cumulus develops into athunderstormwhile its neighbor doesnt.The same applies in thisdiscussion. A survey by Yun Qian and his colleagues, published in 2009,revealed long-term observational data that both the frequency and amount of lightrain have decreased in eastern China for 1956-2005 with high spatialcoherency and this as aresult of increased aerosol concentration in the atmosphere.61 Aviationhas not been particularly targeted in this survey, but aircraft engineemissions have to be considered as a variant on this.Professor D. Rosenfeld of theInstitute of earth Sciences at the Hebrew university of Jeruzalem(Israel) has come up with a surprising finding to the disputed issue whetherair pollution increases ordecreases rainfall. The conclusion of the study group is as follows: bothcan be true, depending on local environmental conditions. The amount ofaerosols is thecritical factor controlling how the energy is distributed in the atmosphere.62 According tothis survey they followed the energy flow through the atmosphere and the wayit is influenced by aerosols and other airborne particles. On this planetthere is indeed an interactionof energy between the different cells within the troposphere in order toobtain a life sustainingtemperature (15°C in the International Standard Atmosphere at sea level).Aerosolsact twofold: on one hand they act like a sunscreen reducing the amount of energyreaching the ground. Accordingly less water evaporates and the air mass at groundlevel stays cooler and drier, with a reduced tendency to rise and formclouds.FigureI: Ice cloud microphysical modelAerosols act as a sunscreen with asubsequent reduction of energy reaching the ground. Some sources refer tothis phenomenon as global dimming.63http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com60 StickleyA.B., An evaluation of the Bergeron-Findeisen precipitation theory, MonthlyWeather Review,October 1940.« Qian, Y., D. Gong, J. Fan, L. R. Leung, R. Bennartz, D. Chen, and W. Wang(2009), Heavy pollutionsuppresses light rain in China: Observations and modeling,/. Geophys.Res., 114, D00K02,doi:10.1029/2008JD011575.62Rosenfeld D, Does air pollution increase rainfall?, Hebrew University ofJeruzalem, September 5th2009.63 geo.arc.nasa.gov/sge/jskiles/fliers/gif_folder/imagelO/imagelOa.gif34On the other hand, without naturalaerosols such as dust particles there would be no cloud droplets becausethey act as gathering points for air humidity, the so called condensationnuclei as explained in the previous paragraph. When the droplet is formed,energy is released in the form of heat during the condensation process. Thisenergy level for the evaporation - condensation process is significantlyhigher than during the freezing / melting process (540 Calories /g versus 80Calories /g). Due to the released heat the air parcel gets lighter than thesurrounding air and is allowed to rise further. However, if there is asurplus of these condensation nuclei as a result of natural activity (e.g.Vulcan eruption) or mens intervention (e.g. industrial pollution,contrails), the droplets never reach the critical mass needed to fall toearth as precipitation becausethere is just not enough water to share between all the aerosol particles.Furthermore with a rising numberof droplets their overall surface increases, which on turn increases theamount of sunlightreflected back to space with subsequent cooling and drying of the Earth.In a nutshell the study of Prof.Rosenberg shows the following: with rising pollution, the amount ofprecipitation at first rises, then maxes out and finally falls off sharplyat very high aerosol concentrations. Of even more interest is hisconclusion: The practical result isthat in relatively clean air, adding aerosolsup to the amount that releases the maximum ofhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comavailable energy increases precipitation. Beyond that point, increasing theaerosol load even further, lessens precipitation. This opens of course aninteresting window towards future climate control by regulating the amountof aerosols that are released in the upper troposphere. To put it in thewords of Prof. Rosenberg: The determination of this issue is one withsignificant consequences in an era of climate change and especially in areassuffering from manmade pollution and water shortages, including Israel.This is indeed very true: domestic water supplies are the emerging assets onEarth. The outline of the survey of Prof. Rosenberg can be found in appendix7.4.4. OTHER EFFECTS OFCONTRAILS:4.4.1. Dehydration of thestratosphere due to contrails:Theextreme dryness of the stratosphere is believed being caused byfreeze-drying of air asit enters the stratosphere through the cold tropical tropopause.Sedimentation of ice crystals in the thin Cirrus may provide a significantdownward flux of water vapor. It has also recently been suggested thatgravity waves generated by convection may drive the formationof ice clouds in the lower stratosphere and that precipitation of crystalsin these clouds may serveas a stratospheric dehydration mechanism.6A quiteintriguing article appeared on the USA Today website on January 28th 2010in the veryevening hours, stating that water vapor may flatten the global warmingtrend.65This statement has first beenpublished in the Science Journal by senior scientist Susan Solomon of theNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Boulder, Colo. Solomonwas also a co-chair of one of the groups within the Intergovernmental Panelon Climate Change that putout the definitive forecast of global warming in 2007. The fact that theIPCC got stuck in one of the greatest climate scandals revealed by the Daily telegraphon November 28th 2009,also better known as Climate Gate with huge fraud of climatologie databy Prof. Phil Jones of the University of east Anglia (UEA) over long years66,does not improve credibility of any panel member.In this respect it is noteworthythat the UK Information Commissioners Office that leads64 Jensen,E. J., 0. B. Toon, L. Pfister, and H. B.Selkirk (1996), Dehydration of the upper troposphere andlower stratosphere by subvisible Cirrusclouds.65Doyle R., water vapor may flatten the global warming trend, USA Today withcontribution ofAssociated Press, January 28th 2010.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com66Booker C, Climate change: this is the worst scientific scandal of ourgeneration, Daily Telegraph,November 28th 2009. 35the investigation decided that theUEA failed in its duties but said that it could not prosecute those involvedbecause the complaint was made too late.67 Althoughit looks that Climate Gate will end in the bin as a result ofadministrative red tape and carefully plannedlobby work, a new leak has already emerged on January 30th 2010when the Daily Telegraph (again) published that the UN expert panel claimson climate change are based on a students dissertation and an article in amountaineering magazine.68At a closer look the claim in Mrs.Solomons 10/10/10 paper goes even further: 10% decreasein water vapor at 10 miles above our heads during the last 10 years hasslowed down the rate of earths warming by 25%.69 Thequestion where the water vapor went to, remains open. But according to thissurvey it is surprising how big the impact is of such small change (10%!)in water vapor on the surface climate. But according to that survey thisisnt an indication that predictions on global warming are overstated: "Thisdoesnt meanthere isnt global warming," notes Solomon. "Theres no significant debatethat it is warmer now thanit was 100 years ago, due to anthropogenic (man-made) greenhouse gases."No onecan be surprised that this survey has been ridiculed as a hoax in theaftermath of ClimateGate. However when combining the study material obtained by Jensen in 1996 withthe very recent survey by Mrs. Solomon it is obvious that there is a linkbetween the occurrence of natural plus man made Cirrus clouds near thetropopauze, the dehydration ofthe stratosphere and the flattening of the global warming trend. When thisknowledge is linked with the surveys of previous paragraphs it becomescrystal clear that aerosols emittedby aircraft engines have a significant impact on precipitation patterns andsurface temperatures.4.4.2. Other factors affectingclimate change:Althoughchanges in precipitation patterns, surface temperature and stability of theair massare quite measurable parameters there might be other intangible factors:One ofthe most obvious side effects of the formation of contrails is the impact on astronomy.One has seldom a clear sky available for observation in areas with dense airtraffic.Withhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comchanging cloud cover and subsequent temperature drop in the upper layer of thetroposphere, hurricane activity may be increased as a result of the releasedinstability. It is noteworthy that storms and major floods have more thantripled since1981.70 No apparentrelationship between aircraft engine emissions, aerosols,contrails and hurricane activity has been established yet on ascientifically basis.It isaccepted that knowledge on man made Cirrus cloud is relatively poor and that studyof the impact of contrails on the Stratosphere is only in its initialphases. However one can assume that it might have an impact on higher layersand the ozone layer. Ozone depletion does not only occur as a result ofindustrial activity, butalso due to multiple nuclear tests conducted in the 20thcentury.67Webster B., Scientists in stolen E-mail scandal hid climate data, LondonTimes, January 28th 2010.68Gray R. And Lefort R., UN Climate change panel based dims on studentdissertation and magazinearticle, Daily Telegraph, January 30th 2010.69Solomon S., ten percent decrease water vapor in the stratosphere slowsearths warming trend, theScience Paper, January 28th 2010.70Global Environmental Outlook, GE04 Environment for Development, UnitedNations EnvironmentalProgramme, 2007. 36http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com5. CONTRAILSAND WEATHER MANIPULATIONIf the ionosphere is greatlydisturbed, the atmosphere below is subsequently disturbed."Charles A. Yost, author of"Electrical forces applied to basic weather phenomena", 1992.375. CONTRAILS AND WEATHERMANIPULATION:5.1. FROM CHEMTRAILS TOGEO-ENGINEERING:5.1.1. Scientific basis for aweather manipulation system:In theprevious paragraphs it has been clearly denoted that man made contrails dohave a significantand measurable impact on temperature and precipitation on the planet.Especially the data obtained by Professor D. Rosenfeld (see paragraph 4.3.1)proves to be quite solid to sponsor a weather manipulation theory, sincealtering the aerosol doses in the atmosphere can either increase or decreaseprecipitation patterns.Thisopens a window on a scientific basis in order to produce scenarios tocounter global climatechange, providing that the designers of that system bear the followingconsiderations in mind:Development of a reliable matrixof aerosol ingredients versus field conditions.Engineering of a efficient, reliable but low cost system in order to seedthe atmosphere.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comSponsorship through government agencies with a far-reaching commitment of captainsof industry.Actually all elements - except thereliability factor - are in place in order to justify the creationor even the existence of such a system: advanced technology is at hand andfinancing the system through cap & trade systems ensures nearly unlimitedfunding. If operated forthe benefice of mankind a weather modification could solve manyenvironmental issues, such as reversing desertification and avoid the worstconsequences of a global climate change.However,from a military point of view the organization owning the property rights ofsuch a system also has capability to manipulate temperature andprecipitation patterns of other nations,and this at very low cost. Imagine what could happen if such a system fallsin the hands of a rogue state: it would change global dominationpatterns. Therefore it is unimaginable that civilians run a weathermodification system if it came into existence.Conspiracy theories flourishnowadays as never before. It is of no surprise that stories of weathermanipulation systems, such as chemtrails and HAARP, already have foundtheir way to the Internet.Policy makers write these off as a hoax, because there is no hard scientificevidence for their existence. And if they exist, they are kept secret -which is quite obvious. However it is common knowledge that governmentpolicy annex history is manipulated at the discretion of the manipulatedstate. There are countless examples of this in human history and ClimateGate is without doubt also one of them. All these elements necessitate acloser look to the chemtrail phenomenon, starting from its origin. This iscovered in the next paragraph.This chapter will furthermore notonly prove that weather manipulation through contrail formationis not that fictional, but will also produce evidence through patents andresearch documents thatthis system is in place and fully operational.5.1.2. Conspiracy theorycharacter of chemtrails:With the huge explosion ofaviation traffic during the last 10 years it was a matter of time beforesomeone would question the ever-increasing amount of contrails. The firstreference to production of contrails for specific purposes as described inparagraph 2.4, seemsto date from an article by William Thomas dated January 8th,1999. In that text the suspiciousof three people about contrails is recounted. Soon afterwards this man wasinvited onto a popular radio show at that time (Art Bell), marking thebeginning of a real 38http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com71Internet phenomenon. Apparentlyit has cross-fertilized itself. A comparison of Internet hitsfor chemtrails between the years 2004 and 2010 is as follows:7220042010Change in %Google791.0001.260.000+59,3%Blogs4828152.000+3148,3%Images9180http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com170.000+1851,8%Videos212347.800+2251,5%News522+440%Forums38110.000+289.473,7%This reveals a number ofinteresting developments:Attentionby the general public for the chemtrail phenomenon has increased significantlyduring recent years.Images on the Internet withcontrails and / or chemtrails have skyrocketed.Mainstream news does not hook inon the existence of chemtrails.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comTherelative strength and importance of the chemtrail movement becomes quiteclear whenit is compared with other popular topics, such as global warming, UFOs andmorgellons (polymers floating in the sky):73Google (total)20042010CHANGE in %Tour de FranceUnknown788.000.000Not applicableUFOs36.700.00036.900.000+0,5%Global warming67.500.00032.400.000-52%http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comClimate gate012.100.000Not applicableChemtrails791.0001.260.000+59,3%Morgellons236.000249.000+5,5%Google (news)20042010CHANGE in %Tour de Francehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comUnknown21.600Not applicableGlobal warming32.58423.100-29,1%UFOs9291890+203,4%Climate gate0401Not applicableChemtrails522+440%http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comMorgellons49+225%71Contrail science, a brief history ofchemtrails, www.contrailscience.com72Combination of Contrail Science data and own investigation.73 Idemas footnote 72.39Thesetables denote clearly that chemtrails are widely regarded by the generalpublic as wellas mainstream news agencies as a marginal, dubious phenomenon that iscertainly not threatening everyday life and does not need further attention.In this context it is noteworthythat attention for global warming has fallen dramatically over the lastyears. It is possibly a result of the ever-increasing controversy of thattopic combinedwith a deep widening economic crisis, necessitating people to keep theirfeet on the ground. Orperhaps there is just a shift in nomenclature: global cooling, climatechange... The sudden appearance of climate gate related stories with highhit rates on the Internet might support this theory.There ismore: association with topics that are not backed by hard scientificevidence puts thechemtrail phenomenon automatically in the esoteric or conspiracy theorycorner. There are 4 logical reasons for this:Because the phenomenon isbasically Internet driven, there is no support whatsoever from scientists,political parties or environmental organizations. It is striking that thehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comrepresentative of the ecologist party (Grüne) inVienna even expletivelystates that the subject is a mere conspiracy theory and there is neither timenor resources available to study the subject.74Most of the people posting thechemtraiP observations on the Internet are not academically qualified to doso. Estimating the cruising altitude of a jet airplane is indeed a trickyaffair. Making the difference between contrails and chemtrails is evenmore challenging. Last but not least posting pictures of grid-patterncontrails on the Internet without a valid caption does not promote anyscientific seriousness towards the subject.Many websites that provideinformation about chemtrails also cover other subjects, such as theexistence of extra-terrestrial life on earth, global mind control programsand other stuff. As a result of this any story about chemtrails is treatedthe same way as a hoax and this regardless the value of that information.Only a handful Internet sites arededicated solely on chemtrails. In fact they combine all chemtrailreports within a single state and post it on the Internet. Examples of thesearehttp://arizonaskvwatch.com/ and http://www.chemtrails-info.de.These websites often offer test analysis of water samples and reports of sprayingactions. Sadly on many occasions the information presented containsscientific errors or wrong interpretations.Government instances officiallydecline in a systematic way the existence of chemtrails. On the other handall the available information on the Internet does not permit verificationof any chemtrail claim. Anonymous reports, such as the testimony of AgentDeep Shield who claimed to be an insider in the chemtrail business75,does again not improve credibility.Last but not least there are anumber of websites that deny the existence of chemtrails in a quitecynical but scientific way. An example of this is http://contrailscience.com/chemtrail-mvths/.Its Webmaster, known as Unicus, doesactually hide his real identity - adding fresh meat for the conspiracytheory grinder that it might be a government agency. However it issignificant that this website deals with any of the websites mentionedabove, reducing the argumentation of chemtrail protagonists to a piece ofrubble.74Haderer C and Hies P., Chemtrails, Verschwôrung amHimmel?; VF SammlerVerlag 2005, Graz,Austria.75Idem as footnote 74. 40http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comWHY PlAIiS1I1KIAIRPLANES leave trails in the atmos-/phere that can be picked up. if a spotter is quick enough, like those of gamp sought by a hunter. Some of them,espe cially trails left by a planes exhaust at high, cold attitudes, endurefor some time, while those made by wing tips creating vor tices are audibleas well as visible. Both of these types of airplane trails areexplained by condensation. Invisible water vapor in a planes exhaustcondenses into a visible cloud when the vapor reaches an ex cess of what theatmosphere will hold. Wing-tip trails add no water to the air. but aa theirvortices expand, the air tempera ture in them drops and the dew point isreached if the vortices are strong enough aud humidity is high.O- C*KTRJ"UCJA4.fO»C» «RAROSAIR O» SPIRAL.RlOuCINOhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comTIM». I«ATURE ANDCA„S>~<-.vllltlCCONDENSATION O»WATER0»IC«tft "*SSu*l ON IHNMIIOWH5UMFACC CAUSESOUTWAAOMOVEMENT OfAI» TOWAROujw-pwssuae .NEAR TIP©MIAMI» HIIUUONueetR suR*Act c arma Tir CAUSIS INWAROMOVIMINT Of AIR, TOWARDlOiN-PRESSURI AREA NIA* WINGROOT© UNMR-WINO, AIR tlHOi TOSWtRL U» AND JOIN«*»nmi *»o.AIR. BUT .5 It" •CHINO INSPIRA4.«hiitlhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comb¡RCtNoi.o lit»theh.avil» loadod pladive. Itmoy be heardwhopulls outof o lowdive, it I* from »h»wing-tip trail illmtralad at left, and ¡taudible otterthot of the motor die» awayMARCH, 194.»Home page illustration of thecontrail science website. Contrails already exist~7fsince the beginning of aviation.All these elements induce that ascientific approach to chemtrails automatically would compromiseresearchers and their career. Moreover, who wants to chemtrail thepopulation after all and for what sake? So in the best case the word isbadly chosen, because public health is supposed to be one of the backbonesof our consumer driven society. Nevertheless it comes as a surprise thatsome lone authors were able to persuade their editor to publish their bookabout chemtrails - maybe because it has such a high conspiracy theorylevel that sells well. Although it is impossible to review all publications,here is a selection of them:http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com76 www.contrailscience.com. PopularScience, March 1943, Page 55.41AUTHORTITLECOMMENTChrisHaderer PeterHiessChemtrails, Verschwôrung am Himmel?77Rather chaotic book, with aseparate chapterabout other conspiracy theories.Well documented with ample photographicmaterial, but without any hardscientific evidence.Contains a copy of a letter from amember of the German parliament (Bundestag),in which the limited spraying of barium and aluminum in the atmosphere isacknowledged.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comDr.Leonard G. HorowitzDeath inthe air: globalism, terrorism & toxicwarfare78Theauthor is a graduate of the Harvard Schoolof Public Health.Chemtrails are linked with jeopardize of publichealth and CIAs population control projects.Containsmany traceable references on bioterrorism.JeaneManning Dr.Nick BegichAngelsdont play this HAARP.79Publication solely dedicated to HAARP.Describesthe system as an extension of presidentsReagan star wars project with the ability to manipulate weather patternsand even produce earthquakes.5.1.3. Establishment of a reliable researchprotocol:Despite some interesting elementsin the publications mentioned above and the numerousInternet articles It is quite clear that due to environmental bias it isimpossible to analyzechemtrails in a profound and scientific way.The onlyoption to approach this subject in a serene way is to restart investigationfrom zero,with new nomenclature and an acceptable research protocol that includes thefollowing:Historyhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comtracking of atmosphere and weather modification programs in Europe, the UnitedStates of America, the People Republic of China and Russia / former USSRwith new searching tools, such as cloud seeding, geo-engineering and weatherforce multiplication. The term geo-engineering fits best, because itencompasses all sorts of human intervention to manipulate climate patterns: atmosphereseeding, marine cloud whitening research80, carbon storageresearch and even cooling down the earth with a cloud of spaceships (!).81In-depthstudy of pending patents covering weather- or atmosphere alteration: patentholder Identity, application field, a feasibility study and implementation records.77Haderer C and Hies P., Chemtrails, Verschwôrung amHimmel?; VF SammlerVerlag 2005, Graz,Austria, ISBN 3-85365-213-1.78Horowitz L.G., d.m.d., m.a., m.p.h., Death in the Air: globalism, terrorism& toxic warfare, TetrahedronLLC, Sandpoint, U.S.A, 2009, ISBN 978-0-923550-30-1.79Manning J., Begich N. Dr., Angels dont play this HAARP: advances in Teslatechnology, Earthpulsepress, Anchorage, Alaska, U.S.A, second edition, 2007, ISBN 0-9648812-0-9.80Copenhagen Consensus Center, press release: top economists recommend climateengineering,September 4th 2009, Copenhagen / Washington.81Angel R., Feasibility of cooling down the earth with a cloud of smallspacecraft near the innerLagrange Point [LI), University of Arizona, 17184-17189 PNAS November, 14th2006, Vol. 103, N°46.42REVIEWED BY:AOhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comAnalysisof recent scientific and military surveys regarding climate control or climatechange mitigation by means of cloud seeding.Search through all availablechannels to obtain actual solid evidence of weather modificationprograms through reverse engineering: the existence of associations (academic,political, IPCC) that support such programs, order sheets of seedingmaterial on behalf of government agencies and operational charts.Witness reports, whether anonymousor not, that do not include a valid reference for crosscheck will not beincluded in the report. Photographic material in the context of thisresearch protocol shall only be released when the probability of error isclose to zero.5.2. HISTORY OFGEO-ENGENEERING:5.2.1. Period 1899-1940: theresearch work of Nicolas Tesla:From an agricultural point of viewmankind has always wished to intervene in weather patterns to avoid longperiods of drought or adverse weather. The first known research in the fieldof engineering of nature forces is attributed to Nicolas Tesla (1856-1943),a brilliant but still underestimated inventor in established academiccircles.He wasone of the most important contributors to the birth of commercialelectricity (AC) and is best known for his revolutionary developments in thefield of electromagnetism in thelate 19th and 20thcentury.He clashed continuously with Edisons insistence that the UnitedStates should stick to his DC-technology for power distribution andelectrical lighting - knowing that his system was far more efficient. Thefact that only Thomas Edison appears in history records and schoolbooks willbecome quite obvious.In 1899Tesla performed wireless power experiments near Colorado Springs and was ableto produce a 30-second golf ball sized lightning.Left: publicity picture of aparticipant sitting in Teslas laboratory in Colorado Springs, circa 1900.Right: actual photo of an experiment in Colorado Springs, during which thebank of light is receiving power from a distant transmitter.82http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comJ.P. Morgan, still one of the mostimportant banks on the globe, heavily financed his projects. The majority ofthe money was spent in the construction of the Warden-Cliff tower,which would be able to create voltages of 15 million Volt and 40-ftlightning-like discharges.8382 Bothpictures in public domain.S3 Cheney M., Tesla: man out of time. Simon and Schuster, 2001, ISBN0743215362.43Actual photograph of theWarden-Cliff tower, prior to its demolition in 191784http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com87This is also the reason why Edison wasHowever, just as VictorSchauberger was in search of free energy through water vortices85,Tesla was pursuing electric energy without wires. He patented this invention onApril 8th, 1905.86 Resultswere satisfactory, but after Tesla admitted to his financiers thatan experimental power station on Long Island was to send wireless electricalpower as well as messageshis public career ended. Although he continued to invent and depose furtherpatents, he was kicked out of the spotlight for the sake of economicinterests of J.P. Morgans shareholders, lionized in mainstream historybooks.Justbefore the destruction of the Warden-Cliff tower in 1917, Tesla offered hisservices for the development of a particle beam weapon to the U.S.department of war and was subsequentkicked out of their office. Persuading people at that time that a magnifyingtransmitter could beam up electrical energy to the stratosphere and bounceit back to a predeterminedplace on earth was indeed hopeless, given the level of technology at thattime.88 Neverthelessif this proves to be true Tesla did excite the Schumann cavity (Earthsresonance frequency 7,83 Hz) already in 1899 - 53 years before W.O. Schumannidentified it scientifically. He also had a deep insight in the behavior ofthe ionosphere,more precisely the existence of a skip zone - the extension of a radiosignal well beyond thehorizon after reflection in the Heaviside layers (invention officiallyattributed to Tellegen in 1933). A variant of Teslas idea of themagnifying transmitter hasbeen put in practice in the HAARP-system for study and manipulation of theAurora Borealis, althoughits designers repeatedly stress that there is no analogy with Teslastheories.89Teslas research work is quiteremarkable. In respect of this research one can conclude that he was thefirst to perform experiments to produce lightning at will and to offer itfor bothcivil and military purposes. Similar projects to trap the enormous reserveof electrical current of a single thunder flash have been undertaken sincethen, but apparently without success.In Switzerland the test facility burned even down. An Egyptian company,Logic-co in Cairo, is one of the first enterprises that seem to specializeexclusively in the collection of renewable electrical energy from lighting.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com84 Bycourtesy of the Nikole Tesle Museum, Belgrade, Serbia85Schauberger V., das Wesen des Wassers,AT Verlag, München, 2006.86US patent 787,412, art of transmitting electrical energy through naturalmediums, through U.S. patentoffice.87Idem as footnote 82.88Seifer M. Dr., Nikolas Tesla: the history of lasers and particle beamweapons, proceedings of theinternational Tesla symposium, 1988.89 http://www.haarp.alaska.edu/haarp/faq.html445.2.2. Period 1940-1945: firstatmospheric seeding:In both World Wars weather was aconsiderable and sometimes decisive factor for success or disaster. Parallelto this armies started to rely heavily on camouflage after the stalematethat followed the initial German dash on Paris in 1914. Already less thanone year later the German field army developed man-made fog throughsmokescreens in order to dissimulate troop movements or to go into theoffensive through nerve gas attacks,although there are historical references to deliberate obscurity datinghttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comback to at least 1565.90Theaerial bombing campaigns in World War II, first by the Luftwaffe andfollowed by very aggressive daylight raids by the 8th AirForce and the Royal Air Force at night marked the firstdeployment of what later would be known as ECM - Electronic CounterMeasures. Although radar was only in its childhood stage during thisconflict, it faltered the German Blitz on England. The subsequent strugglebetween the belligerents was to become known as the battle of the beams.Despite the fact that British intelligence had broken the German Enigmacode, they allowed the mass destruction of Coventry by raiders equippedwith the Knickebein System in 1941 in order to keep the Germans unaware of thissecurity breach.In July 1943 the Royal Air Forcemade one of its most successful sorties by deliberately seedingthe atmosphere with masses of small-aluminized paper strips, coded Window,togarble German radar. That night Hamburg was flattened with greatloss of life. The Luftwaffe operated a similar system in 1944, calledDiippel, for disturbing air traffic in the vicinity of allied aerodromesover South East England.9The crescent-shaped white cloud onthe left is formed by massively seeding the atmosphere with aluminumparticles, thus jamming the92German radar and rendering theirdefense useless, July 1943.This development is important inthe context of this survey, because Chaff as it is called inNATO-nomenclature today is still part of the ECM-defense system and there isevidence that it is tested on a regular basis. On July 19th, 2005Diippel has been used during air exercises over Germany and theNetherlands, causing major disruption on weather radars.90The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition,2009, Houghton MifflinCompany.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com91The history of radar, BBC maths, science and technology, July, 14th 2003.92United Kingdom Government through IWM, public domain.93RTL, programm Guten Abend, Kartsen Brandt: Bundeswehr manipuliertWetterkarte, July, 19th2005.45Hardcopy from theRTL-broadcasting, with the Chaff clearly visible in the area of Kassel.Meteorologists were not amused at that time.5.2.3. Period 1945-1950:operation Cirrus:The Second World War ended withthe atomic bomb tests, during which uncountable magnetic pulses werereleased in the atmosphere. As a result of this the U.S. was not onlyconfirmed in its role as world leader, but unlimited funding becamehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comavailable for different projects, including the first weather manipulationprograms.The project, later called Cirrus,originated in 1947 and was led by Nobel laureate Dr. IrvingLangmuir and his protégé Dr.Vincent Schaefer in co-operation with the U.S. Army, Navy,Air Force and General Electric. Dr. Schaefer was the man who dropped 1,4 kgof icepellets on November 13th, 1946 into a super stratus cloud nearSchenectady, New York andsnow fell. This is the first known fruitful attempt to induce precipitationfrom a cloud.To test his theories Schaeffercreated a cold box in a laboratory to recreate the same conditions.Breathing into the box produced a tiny cloud of super cooled water droplets,just as in real conditions in the upper part of a cloud. FurthermoreSchaeffer discovered thatthe addition of any substance with a temperature below -40°Cwould cause million of icecrystals to form in the cloud.94Foractual cloud seeding the U.S. Signal Corps became involved in February 1947and it earnedthe name Project Cirrus. 37 experimental flights took place in the firsthalf-year thatdid not always produce the expected results, mainly due to the inherentvariability of theweather. Modification of tropical typhoon through dispersion of 80 lbs dryice in 1947 ended with major flooding in the Savannah area with damagetotaling $20 million as a resultof a sudden course change.95 Officiallyit was classified as an act of God.After this the lawyers of GeneralElectric told Dr. Langmuir not to discuss the hurricane case until thestatute of limitations ran out for prosecution. Fear for a legal casenecessitatedfurther operation out of public eyes and the project was closed in 1950 due toa shift in government with different priorities. In 1958 three nuclear bombsweredetonated in the Van Allenradiation belt (protective zone of charged particles trapped in theEarths magnetic field starting around 2000 miles altitude), starting todeplete the ozone layer with each further attempt by the United States, theformer USSR and94Reilly C, Staff Historian, Rain men: scientists here tried to change theweather, Monmouth Message,February 20th 2009, U.S.A.95Idem as footnote 94.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com4696France. This information willbe of major importance in the next chapter. Nevertheless project Cirrus isthe first confirmed cloud seeding program in history. The full outline ofthis program can be found in appendix Start of operation StormFury (1962) and Popeye (1967):ProjectStorm Fury continued on the knowledge obtained during operation Cirrus,with its mainobjective to weaken tropical cyclones by flying aircraft into them andseeding with silveriodide.97 The partnerswere the U.S. Department of Commerce and the U.S. Navy. Thehypothesis was that the silver iodide would cause super cooled water in thestorm to freeze and subsequently disrupt the inner structure of thehurricane. Although this hypothesis proved to be incorrect the cloud seedingproject continued officially until 1983 with the last experimental flight in1971.STORMHJRY Hypothesis IB|The hypothesis of operation StormFury was incorrect because tropical cyclones seem not to contain that muchsuper cooled water to make cloud seeding effective. Additionally unseededhurricanes often undergo the same structural changes as the treated ones.98The crew enlisted in Operation vStormfuryhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comin 1963. Note the special belly of the Douglas DC6-B on the background forcloud seeding purposes.96 NationalAcademy of Sciences, Long time effects of multiple nuclear weapondetonation, 1975, pages6-7.97 Willoughby,H. E., D. P. Jorgensen, R. A. Black, and S. L. Rosenthal, 1985: ProjectSTORMFURY, AScientific Chronicle, 1962-1983, Bull. Amer. Meteor.Soc, 66,505-514.98 AtlanticOceanic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division,Operation Storm Furyresearch paper.47/o A r t<¿In the wake of operation StormFury there was also a less known military application during the VietnamWar. From March 1967 until July 1972 the U.S. military cloud seeded 47.409units of silver iodide to extend the monsoon over North Vietnam andespecially in the vicinity of the Ho Chi Min trail. The objectives of thisoperation, called Popeye, was to denyhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comthe enemy the use of roads by softening road surfaces, causing landslides,washing out rivercrossings and to maintain saturated soil conditions beyond normal time span.It actuallyresulted in the targeted areas seeing an extension of the monsoon by anaverage of 30 to 45 days.99 Thefull transcription of a U.S. senate hearing about weather modificationin S.E. Asia is included in appendix 9.Pi/Operation Popeye proves thatweather modification explicitly forms part of the U.S. weapon portfolio(make mud, not war), shining new light on the Advisory Committee onWeather Control, which was created in 1953 under direct Federal Governmentcontrol with Captain H.W. Orville as chairman. Its mission was to studyweather-making activities withemphasis on rain making to benefit water supplies and land utilization100 Despitethe mixed results obtainedduring operation Storm Fury and Popeye it gave way to a very profitable butcontroversial business with companies offering local weather modificationfor agricultural purposes through hail cannons and cloud seeding by smallaircraft. The successfuloutcome of such an operation is at least to say doubtful.Cessna 210 with a device for cloudseeding with silver iodide.Cloud seeding aims to make more snow and rain stateswith weatherCloud seeding improves the precipitation efficiency of niodiflcatiohttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com2 Silver iodide isshaped like an icecrystal and attractswatervaporwithin • • •thedoud. ., !3K><to fafl as snow. In warm weatherthe snow melts andhits the ground as rain.Air flow4 Once seeded, it can take 15 co 30 minutes for snow crystals tofall outof the cloud, seeding must takeplaceupwind of the target areahttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comcloudsby introducing artificial ice-forming substances, suchas silver iodide, wearher modification programs areoperating in 11 western states.Source: Wejdior Modtflctflofl AuocUnonNowadays there are still severalstates in the U.S. running cloud seeding programs.99Top secret hearing held on March 20,1974 made public on May 19,1974 weathermodification,SEASIA rain making100Substancially increased research programs needed in meteorology to benefitwater supplies andland utilization, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chimistry, Page 1192,December 1953.48After theChernobyl disaster in 1986 major A. Grusin described how the Soviet airforce createdrain clouds to protect Moscow from radioactive fall out. Sadly thehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.compopulation in Belarus was exposed to radiation doses 20 to 30 times higherthan normal, causing intenseradiation poisoning in children.101 Thearticle is included in appendix 10.Silver iodide is still used on alarge scale by the Russian and the Chinese air force for generation of clearskies during military parades or major sports events, such as the Olympicgames.102 In 2009 themayor of Moscow was planning to spend several million Dollarsto pay the Russian Air Force and spray a fine mist of particulate matter(cement dust in 2007, silver iodide or new chemicals) in the clouds. Theideas of operation Cirrus andStorm Fury still stand: seeding the clouds would increase moisture and thusforce the clouds torelease their precipitation before they reached the capital - thus savingthe city millions in snow removal costs.103Preliminary tests revealed strange hole punched clouds over Moscow thatworried its inhabitants.This strange cloud over Moscow inNovember 2009 is attributed to a cloud seeding test.Unfortunately the experimentproved to be a huge failure with 417.000 cubic meters snowshoveled between February 21s1 and22nd 2010 - breakingthe record of 1966.104 It hasnot been determined if there is any correlation between the harsh winterconditions in Moscow orthe rest of Europe in this period and any cloud seeding initiatives.However, it is clear thatextensive hard evidence exists of weather manipulation for both civil andmilitary purposes on micro- and macro scale since the Eisenhower administration,with ever changing seeding material ranging from dry ice over silver iodideto cement and particulate matter. However one must bear in mind thatmechanical cloud seedingis quite expensive and it was a matter of time before alternative and moreefficient ways of manipulation of the atmosphere were to be developed.101 GrayR., How we made the Chernobyl rain, Daily telegraph, April 22nd 2007.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com102 Michaels)., China may attempt to alter weather for Olympics, Meteorology news, July15th, 2008.103 MichaelsJ., Moscow testing cloud seeding; promises winter without snow, MeteorologyNews,October, 19th 2009.104Moskou onder een dik pak sneeuw, De telegraaf,22 Februari 2010.495.2.5. U.S. and Soviet proof of concept ELF-projects (1975 to 1995):A proofof concept project is one where advanced research experiments are designedto test,usually on a smaller scale, specific applications of research. These testsallow researchers to extrapolate results, which can be used to engineer fullsize technology systems. Within the scope of this survey a proof ofconcept project for weather modificationis the last step before full weapon system development (militaryapplications) orgeo-engineering around the planet (civil and military applications).After the American debacle inVietnam the two opposing blocks shifted to a more silent cold war and thisdespite extensive strategic arms limitations talks (SALT). Instead ofdropping masses of silver iodide in the atmosphere and battering thetroposphere with atomic tests -already totaling 400 kilotons at that time -a subtle battle of the frequencies between U.S. and opposing Soviet forcesmade its headway. Its ultimate target: replacing thermonuclear weapons by non lethalelectro pulses through manipulation of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere.105Development of such devicesstarted quite a long time ago. Already in 1966 Anthony Ferraroat the Penn State University performed the first military funded experimentshttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comwith a 500kW ionosphere heater.106A high-power transmitter wouldheat a region of the lower ionospherewhile a weaker transmitter was pulsing. Thus the experimenters could studywave interaction within that specific layer of earths atmosphere. They hadto shut down the project some years later because there was an unacceptableinterference with air traffic control and other types of radiocommunication. As a result of this, military decision makers decided thatall future projects would be located in remote places on the globe.In 1974Dr. R. Helliwell and J. Katsufrakis of the Stanford Universitys RadioScience Laboratoryshowed that a very low frequency radio wave (VLF) could vibrate themagnetosphere (The region abovethe ionosphere in which the magnetic field of the earthhas a dominant control over the motions of gas and fast charged particles),thus confirming theresearch work of Anthony Ferraro.Exact one year later in 1975 theU.S. Navy launched an ELF-facility (Extreme Low Frequency) capable toradio-contact deep running Polaris or Poseidon ICBM missile carryingsubmarines in case of extreme national disaster. This operation, with codename Project Sanguine, consisted of the development of a communicationnetwork in the 45 to 75Hz frequency range plus a grid of deeply buried cables covering 1250 squaremiles. In this system,sited in specially selected rock and ground formations, the earth acts as aconductor, with the rock formations forcing the radio waves outward into theionosphere insteadof inward toward the earths core. 08 Thesaturation of the ionosphere forces some ofthese ELF signals underwater to a considerable depth, enabling submergedsubmarines to receive and react to messages from a distance of over 2500miles even if normal communication channels should be destroyed in apreemptive attack. A similar system, called ZEVS with its transmitterlocated near Murmansk, is still in use in Russian Navy.109ios U.S.patent 4,686, 605 - issued August 11th 1987 to Bernard J. Eastlund andassigned to APTI inc., Method and appartus for altering a region in theEarths atmosphere, Ionosphere and/or Magnetosphere.106Ferraro A.J., Reflections on 40+ years of ionospheric research,Communication & Space ScienceLaboratory, Penn State University, United States107Stanford University VLF group website http://www.star.stanford.edu/people/rah.htmlios WallechinskyD. And Wallace I., Major engineering events in history: Project Sanguinenearsoperation, 1981.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comi°9 Jacobsen T., ZEVS,the Russian 82 Hz ELF transmitter, Norway.50A ZEVStransmission recorded in Italia by Renato Romeroon the 8th of December 2000, at 08:40 UTC. The "message waiting" signal,81.6 Hz low for 8 minutes, 82.7 Hz high for 4 minutes is easily detected inthe spectrogram. After the 16 minutes long message sequence of thetransmission is again the carrier at 82 Hz. Because of the long exposure arethe Schumann resonance bands easily visible at the bottom of thespectrogram.However in thefield of ELF-transmitters the Soviets proved to be far superior to theAmericans at that date with significant amount of manpower and resourcesattributed for the development of a fully operational ionospheric heater inZelanogradskaya near Moscow, which was completed in 1981. There are reportsthat the device was not only used for ionosphere study and modeling, butalso for pulsing of ELF-waves on a 10 Hz frequency in the form of awoodpecker signal -just above the natural Schumann resonance frequency ofthe earth of 7.83 Hz - in order to disturb communication and to resonatewith neurons of human brains at key brainwave rhythms.110 Theexistence of a U.S. radio frequency radiometry handbook, which containsmathematics for calculation of the dosages of radio frequency radiationnecessary to cause changes in animals and humans, is a silent witness of thebattle of the frequencies between the United States and the former Soviethttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comUnion.111 After thecollapse of the U.S.S.R. many projects were abandoned and the Americans tookthe lead in the research. Today 10 known Ionosphere heaters or researchfacilities are operative around the globe (4 U.S. staffed, 1 in Norwayoperated by the German Max Planck Institute since 1991 and 5 Russian).This ionospherestudy station at Zmiev, currently in the Ukraine, has been abandoned afterthe demise of the Soviet Union.112110Dr. Begich J & Manning J., Angels dont play this HAARP, advances in Teslatechnology, page 17,Earthpulse press, Anchorage, ninth printing, 2007.111Radio frequency radiation dosimetry handbook, U.S. Air Force School ofAerospace medicine, BrooksAir Force Base, October 1986.112Picture by courtesy of the Pravda, http://english.pravda.ru/ img/idb/photo/5-67.jpg51http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comThe studyof ELF-transmitters either for civil or military purposes is particularimportant in thescope of this survey, because alteration or manipulation of the ionosphereat a specific place inevitablyalters the weather below. When transmitting in the VLF or ELF frequencyrange the ionosphere is sliced about in the same way of a space shuttleentering or leaving the atmosphere, leaving an incision at the point ofimpact. Due to the natureof propagation of VLF and ELF-waves these signals cause streams of particlesto rain down beyond the horizon far from the transmitter and in theoutermost regions of the atmosphere with very little loss of signal,altering the motion of free electrons and causing electronicrain that influence weather patterns.1 This opens a windowtowards peaceful applicationsbut also military endeavors, as been demonstrated during the Vietnamconflict with operation Popeye.In that respect it is worth tomention that the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Navy and the DefenseAdvanced Research Projects Agency, together with an array of civil partners, haveestablished HAARP in 1995 (test runs), the High Frequency Active AuroralResearch Program. While the military provide technical expertise,management, administrationand evaluation of the program its civil partners are partly responsible for thefunding. According to official sources HAARP is a scientific endeavor aimedat studying the properties and behavior of the ionosphere by means of highpower HF-transmitters aiming to manipulate the Aurora Borealis (Northernlight), with particular emphasis on being able to understand and use it toenhance communications and surveillance systems for both civilian anddefense purposes.114TheHAARP-antenna array at Anchorage, Alaska115http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comThe maindifferences between the Russian or European stations and HAARP are as follows:117Whenfully operational somewhere beyond 2010 the HAARP team will operate an ionosphereheater with an effective ERP well above 1 Giga Watt, in short the mostpowerful facility in the world.116That would actually allow aconcentration of one Wattper cubic centimeter, where its Russian counterparts are only able todeliver amillionth of one Watt.113VLF, getting particles excited, Science News, Society for science and thePublic, December 1982,P.392.114Official HAARP website, http://www.haarp.alaska.edu/haarp/factSheet.htmlus HAARP Cam, recorded on February, 7th 2010, official HAARPwebsite.116HAARP, Joint Program Plans and Activities, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory,Navy Office of NavalResearch, February 1990.117Amendment January 1987 to the original patent application of BernardEastlund for thesubsequently issued U.S. patent number 4,686,605.52http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comDue to its high concentration ofpower HAARP can stab the ionosphere with a morefocused beam, while the others spread it over an increasingly large area as theenergy moves away from the transmitter.The safety limits for VLF-andELF-waves in the HAARP final environmental impactstatement were set a 1000 times higher than the level considered safe in theformer Soviet Union.118119As aresult of these developments in Alaska deputies held a heated discussionabout HAARP in the Russian parliament, the Duma, in the year 2002. They evendrew up an appealto the President Putin and the UN. They demanded to set up an internationalcommission for the investigation of the experiments conducted in Alaska,which hascynicallybeen waved by the U.S. authorities, as HAARP is a pure scientific project.Nevertheless, bearing in mind the outcome of project Sanguine and whenlooking closer at the mission statement of HAARP it is obvious that thesystem is more than a scientific projectwith possible leads for the D.O.D. (U.S. Department of Defense). It isactually a full-blownoperational platform that greatly improves the performance of the U.S.military C3 system(Communications, Control and Command), combining all existing weapon systemsin one device and making all other friendly or enemy systems obsolete.1 ° Inthe NationalDefense Authorization Act for fiscal year 1995 it is even stated that thetransmitter in Alaska, besides providing a world class research facility forhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comionospheric studies, could allow earth-penetrating tomography over de northernhemisphere, permittingthe detection and exact location of tunnels and shelters.121However, during communication withthe public U.S. official sources have always denied that HAARP is a militarysystem and on their official website nothing points in this direction.Moreover the military firmly contest that there is any link between HAARPand patent 4,686,605, a theory that is brought forward by Jean Manning andDr. Nick Begich.122 Thispatent, which has been deposed by Bernard J. Eastlund on behalf of APTI Inc. (ARCO PowerTechnologies Inc.), contains 15 claims, ranging from a method to alter atleast one region above the earths surface with electromagnetic radiationover methods ofproviding artificial particles in the atmosphere excitation of electroncyclotron resonance.123 Ifsuch a device would exist man made earthquakes would be within reach bymanipulating the Schumann frequency through resonance.By the matter of fact many bitsand pieces of evidence do link the N°4,686,605 patent. First of all APTI, asmall company holding an array of patents relating to weather modificationand the initial HAARP contractor, was bought out to E-systems in June 1994124 onlyto be bought out again in April 1995 by Raytheon Corporation - one of the mainsuppliers and biggest contractors in the U.S. Aerospace and defenseindustry.125 A factnot to neglect Is that Raytheon was also an initial and losing bidder forthe HAARP project and the buy out some years later rewarded them instantlywith the Eastlundtechnology plus thecontract.1 6 Soit is pointless to argument that HAARP is civil118 Lt.Col. David J. Dean USAF, Low Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology, AirUniversity Press,Center for Aerospace doctrine, Research and Education, Maxwell AirForce Base, June 1986.119USA and Russia supposedly develop secret meteorological weapons, Pravda,English Edition,September 30th 2005.120Idem as footnote 118.121National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 1995,103rd congress,2nd session, Report103-82,Calendar 459, Report to accompany S.2182, Committee on Armed Services UnitedStates Senate, June14th 1994.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com122Dr. Begich J & Manning J., Angels dont play this HAARP, advances in Teslatechnology, page 17,Earthpulse press, Anchorage, ninth printing, 2007.i*s U.S. patent 4,686, 605 - issued August 11th 1987 to Bernard J. Eastlundand assigned to APTI inc., Method and appartus for altering a region in theEarths atmosphere, Ionosphere and/or Magnetosphere, claims 1, 2 and 11. i2*The New York Times, E-Systems buys ARCO PowerTechnologies", June 30th, 1994.125The Wall Street Journal, Raytheon to acquire E-systems for $64 a share, Page1, April 3rd 1995.126Idem as footnote 122.53technology: it is about the sameas telling that the facility that engineered the first atomic bomb in1945was a pure scientific and peaceful project. Secondly a U.S. Air Forcedocument that unexpectedly emerged in a public library explicitly statesthat it is the intentionto have HAARP transmitting at 100 billions of Watts effective energy andthat we have never seen anything like this on earth.127 Lastbut not least claim 15 of the N°4,686,605patent describes a method of generation of electromagnetic radiation within themagnetic latitudes that encompass Alaska, exactly the same place where theHAARP facility is built.This last bit closes the loop between APTI, Raytheon and the real purpose ofHAARP. The full description of patent 4,686,605 is included in appendix 11.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comOf course HAARP does also open awindow towards civil applications, such as replenishing of ozone holes andbinding of excess C02 inthe lower atmosphere as part of a solution for global climate change butalso for owning the weather and remodeling the ionosphere because thecurrent layer is too unstable for the outcome of strategic militaryoperations. This point of view is clearly underwritten by the Russianenvironmental monitor Valéry Stasenkowho states that HAARP is a very serious issue and that perturbations in themagnetosphere and ionosphere can really impact climate, even on a globalscale.128 Refer toappendix 12 for the full article from the Russian Pravda.Asexplained at the beginning of this paragraph the war of the frequenciesbetween the Americansand the Russians continued well beyond the cold war and well into the 21st century.In 2005 the American meteorologist Scott Stevens accused Russian militaryspecialists for the destruction of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina,although it is questionableif even high power devices as HAARP are capable to unleash such power.However, what to think about the out print of the HAARP inductionmagnetometer, which detects temporal variation of the geomagnetic field(flux), for the period between 10 and 12January 2010? On Tuesday January 12th at16.53 local time (21.53 UTC) Haiti was devastated by an Earth Quake. Theofficial readings of the magnetometer were as follows:129InductionMagnetometer Gakona, AKr0°0.000:00 04:PowerSpectral Density: Bx (mag north)08:00 12:00 16:0010 January 2010http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com(UTC)127A U.S. Air Force document, TechnicalMemorandum #195,presentations from the HAARP workshop onionospheric heating diagnostics, issuedOctober 1991, page 185, Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom AFB.128USA and Russia supposedly develop secret meteorological weapons, Pravda,English Edition,September 30th 2005.129 http://maestro.haarp.alaska.edu/cgi-bin/scmag/disp-scmag.cgi54InductionMagnetometer Gakona, AKPower SpectralDensity: Bx (mag north)r10°0.0http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com0C-.0004:0008:00 12:00 16:0011 January 2010(UTC)20:0000:00InductionMagnetometer Gakona, AKPowerSpectral Density: Bx (mag north)4.0 -|13.0-J1 1http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comÍ :U: "fa|g. -o0.0 -fi:00 12:00 16:0012 January 2010(UTC)Variations in magnetic flux were extreme during the 24-hours preceding theearthquake, acting as a precursor of what was going to happen somewherearound the globe in the nexthours. It is unknown if the U.S. military were fully proficient in decodingthis information at that time in order to initiate an evacuation, whetherinformation has deliberately been held for national interests or even worse.Whatsoever American, Russian or European official sources state it iscrystal clear that weathermodification at the beginning of the 21st centuryis not a hoax nor a conspiracy theorybut an iron truth. It is undeniable that the United States is on top ofresearch in this field and is deliberately withholding vital information onweather modification and possible infringement of international laws ofsovereignty, not only to allied or neutral states but also towards their owncitizens.55http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com5.2.6. the year 1996 - Weatheras a force multiplier: owning the weather in 2025:The titleof this paragraph is also the title of a research paper, presented by ColTamzy J. Houseand his team to the U.S. Air Force on June 17th 1996.It forms part of a group of studieslabeled 2025, designed to comply with a directive from the chief of Staffof the Air Force toexamine the "concepts, capabilities and technologies the United States will requireto remain the dominant air and space force in future".130 Asone might think it is notan isolated publication by some eager and combative military. On thecontrary there are many more projects in this area of interest, such as theresearch paper Alternate futures for 2025: security planning to avoidsurprises that even introduces the concept of aglobal "Pax Americana".131 Whenlooking closer at the individual research papers the only relevantconclusion is that extensive human resources are allocated to U.S. strategic planningand all research papers are closely interconnected and fit into a globalgoal.The research document owning theweather in 2025, combines all the previously obtainedknowledge in the field of weather control and possible developments into the followingoperational capabilities matrix:132DEGRADE ENEMY FORCESENHANCE FRIENDLY FORCESPrecipitationenhancementFlooding of lines of communicationReducerecce effectiveness Decrease comfort level / moralePrecipitation avoidancehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comMaintain / improve lines of communicationMaintainvisibility Maintain comfort / moraleStorm enhancementDeny operationsStorm modificationChoose battle spaceenvironmentPrecipitation DenialDeny fresh water / inducing droughtFog and cloudgenerationIncrease concealmentSpace weatherDisrupt Communications /radar Disable / destroy space assetsSpace weatherImprove communicationreliability Intercept enemy transmissions Revitalize space assetsFog and cloud removalDeny concealmentIncrease vulnerability torecceFog and cloud removalMaintain airfieldoperations Enhance recce effectivenessDetect hostile weatherhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comactivitiesDefend against enemycapabilitiesThis matrix is of particularinterest, because it does not only include known weather manipulationinstruments such as cloud seeding through silver iodide as used in theVietnam conflict and modeling of the ionosphere through HAARP (spaceweather), but alsoprecipitation and storm control by means of cloud or contrail generation.This option will bediscussed in the next chapter.130Col T.M. House and team, Weather as a force multiplier, a research paperpresented to Air Force2025, page ii, Department of Defense School, August 1996.131 Col J.A.Engelbrecht, Jr., PhD and team, a research paper presented to Air Force2025, page 107,Department of Defense School, April 1996.132Refer to footnote 130, page vii.56http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comThis research document is veryclear and provides even the most skeptic climatologist who denies globalweather manipulation by the U.S. and its allies an insight in what to expectin the 21st century:Current demographic, economic and environmental trends will create globalstresses that provide the impetusnecessarv for many countriesor groups to turn weathermodification ability into capability. In the United States weathermodification will likely become part of national security policy with bothdomestic and international applications. Our government will pursue such apolicy, depending on its interests, at variouslevels.133 Theresearch paper does however not specify if current environmental andeconomic crises are deliberately triggered or created in order to achievethe goals as set in thedirective of the U.S. Chief of Staff.The authors of the research papersexplicitly admit that the U.S. forces possess a high capability for fog andcloud modification as well as an average capability for space weathermodification, which reflects the fact that HAARP is not operating at full capacity.134 Inthat respect they have established a core competence road map in order toobtain overall artificial weather control in the year 2025. As water sourcesbecome scarcer in volatile parts of the world the importance ofprecipitation modification for economicas well as defense purposes is likely to increase.1 5 Itis a fact that water will become the most valuable commodity in the nextdecades and control of existing water suppliesautomatically generates the next world power.On top ofthis the research paper also includes a system development road map toweather modification in 2025 with a very precise time line. It includes thefollowing applications:136Introduction of artificial ionospheric mirrors around the year 2000 with avery sharpupraise of such operations as from 2008. One can extrapolate that the HAARPsystem will be fully operational after 2015.Use of chemicals for atmosphericseeding as from the year 2000 in order to obtain Weather Force Support in2015 and fully controllable virtual weather by 2025. The aerospace deliveryvehicles graphic and the graph for the use of chemicals are identical,which indicates a huge increase of spraying actions. It is clear that thesum of all U.S. and NATO military assets are not sufficient to achieve thedesired targets and civil aviation has to be included in order to achievesuccess.Introduction of smart clouds through nanotechnology around the year 2004with anexponential increase of this application after 2010. The same applies to theuse of directed energy - a euphemism for ionospheric heating.A verycurious application is the introduction of Carbon Black Dust (CBD) as fromthe year 2005 - a technology that has to be developed by the DOD accordingto the document.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comAlthough this unclassifiedresearch paper contains a disclaimer that it is a fictional representationof future scenarios and the viewpoints do not reflect the official policy of theU.S. Air Force, DOD or U.S. government its mere existence highlights theambition of the militaryin the field of weather control. As has been adequately illustrated thetechnology for weather manipulation is already in place and the allocationof human resources to such projects is only possible after prior permissionby the DOD, the intelligence services such as the NSA and finally seniordecision makers in the U.S. government itself.Last butnot least there exists also a civil counterpart of the 2025 project, whichis called the Weather Modification Association (WMA). This organization alsopublishes annually ormore frequently the journal of weather modification. Its mission goals is toenable133Idem as footnote 130134Idem as footnote 130, page 32135Idem as footnote 130, page 34136Idem as footnote 13057http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.compersons, political entities andother organizations to make informed decisions about the applicationof weather modification technologies, to provide adequate water supplies andto reduce natural weather hazards.137 Althoughdesigned for beneficial use the mission statementhas a strong resemblance with the operational capabilities matrix on theenhance friendly forces side of the military 2025 project.Anexcerpt of the research paper, which includes the front page, thedisclaimer, the table ofcontents and the different graphics, is included in appendix The bare necessity ofgeo-engineering through cloud generation for survival of the planet (1996 -2010):In thefirst decade of the 21st centurya new development took place on planet Earth: climateis gradually changing and whole eco systemsare endangered as a result of human activity. The former secretary-generalof the United Nations, Koffi Annan, put it crystal clear in the introductionsection of the impressive GE04-document released by the IPCC in 2007:Imagine a world in which environmental change threatens peoples health,physical security, material needs and social cohesion. This is a world besetby increasingly intense and frequent storms, and by rising sea levels. Somepeople experience extensive flooding, while others endure intense droughts.Species extension occurs at rates never before witnessed. Safe water isincreasingly limited, hindering economic activity. Land degradationendangers the lives of millions of people. This is the world today.138 Ina short period of time global warming came on top of many politicalagendas.Between 2003 and the outbreak ofthe credit crunch in 2008 global warming,dwindling natural resources andthe safeguard of the planet in general proved to be avery popular media topic, partlyas a result of the release of the movie xaninconvenienthttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comtruth by AI Gore- who would later become the first billionaire in cap & trade.Although global warming remainsa very controversial subject after the eruption of climategate in 2009 and climate change would be a much more appropriatedescription of thisphenomenon P.M. Della-Marta and his team of Meteoswiss proved through an analysisof 54 homogenised daily maximum temperature series in 15 European countries137Weather Modification Association website,http://weathermodification.org/orgamsation.htm138GE04, United Nations Environment Program, Introduction section, 2007.58thatsummer heat waves have doubled since 1880, both in number of hot days as thelength ofthe heatwaves.139 Hisresearch work confirms data obtained in earlier research papers,such as the Press Therm Climate document, prepared on presidential orderafter theextreme heatwave of 2003 in France that resulted in 14,947 excesscausalities of whom2200 people died in one single day - August 12th 2003.140 Evenwhen putting the effectsof climate gate into account one can logically assume that our quality oflife is in great danger and immediate action is needed to safeguard theplanet.A lot of mitigation scenarios weredeveloped to counter global warming, such as restriction of the variousgreenhouse gasses through regulation and the creation of the profitable cap& trade business, making pollution one of the business fields with thehighest return on investment. As from 2001 more exotic scenarios wereintroduced in the IPCCassessment reports such as iron fertilization in oceans, chemical bufferingand geo engineering -large size and deliberately manipulation of Earth environment through its energybalance and reflection of additional incoming solar radiation back intospace.141However geo-engineering scenariosfor reduction of global warming on a large scale alreadyappear in much older documents, such as U.S. patent 5,003,186 of March 26th 1991,http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comheld by Hughes Aircraft Company. It contains 18 claims to reduce globalwarming through stratospheric seeding with Aluminum Oxide (claim 3 and 12),Thorium Oxide (claim4 and 13) and refractory Welsbach material for reflection of incoming solarradiation (claims 7 and10) with a particle size of 10 to 100 Microns (claims 6 and 16) and dispersedat altitudes between 7 to 13 kilometers (claims 5 and 14).142 Referto appendix 14 for thefull outline of patent 5,003,186.So fargovernment sources systematically deny the existence of operationalatmospheric sprayingschemes in order to cut global warming, but one must bear in mind that theproposed scenario by the IPCC in 2001 is identical to the claims containedin the Welsbachpatent. Moreover Hughes Aircraft Company has been acquired by Raytheon in 1997,which is exact the same company that acquired E-systems and the HAARPcontract.143The exact method of spraying ofthe mix that comprises one of more of the oxides of metals(claims 1 and 11) is not firmly specified in patent 5,003,186, although onepossible method ofdelivery is briefly described in the section background of the invention:one proposed solution to the problem of global warming involves the seedingof the atmosphere with metallic particles. Onetechnique proposed to seed the metallic particles was to add the tinyparticles to the fuel of jet airlines, so that the tiny particles would beemitted from the jet engine while the airline was as it cruising altitude. Whilethis method would increase the reflection of visible light incident fromspace, the metallic particles would trap the long wavelength blackbodyradiation released from the earth. This could result in the net increase inglobal warming. It is therefore an object of the present invention toprovide a method for reduction in global warming due to the greenhouseeffect which permits heat to escape through the atmosphere.144139Doubled length of Western European Summer Heat Waves since 1880,Della-Marta, P.M., M. R.Haylock, J. Lutherbach, and H. Wanner 2007, Journal of Geophysical research,volume 112, D15103,doi:10.1029/2007JD008510 - published August, 3rd 2007, Federal Office ofMeteorology andClimatology Meteoswiss, Zurich140Press Therm Climat,142:25-30. Data for Dijon-Longvic Airbase, Centre MétéorologiqueDépartemental de la Côte dOr, Dijon, 2005.141IPCC Third Assessment Report, Climate Change 2001,working group III: mitigation, section 4.7Biological uptake in oceans and freshwater reservoirs, and geo-engineering,http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comGRID-Arendal, 2003.142U.S. patent 5,003,186, Stratospheric Welsbach seeding for reduction ofglobal warming, March 26th1991.143Raytheon Company and Hughes Electronic Defense Business (Hughes Aircraft) tomerge, creating$21 billion enterprise - combination creates a world leader in defenseelectronics, Raytheon pressrelease, Raytheon Company Corporate Communication, New York, January 16th,1997144Idem as footnote 142, page 1. 59145However a recent research paper byDavid L. Mitchell and William Finnegan dated October30th 2009 shines a newlight on atmospheric seeding by aircraft, with two possible methodsof delivery:The seeding material, comprised ofa pressed composite of reagent Bismuth metal,Aluminum and Gilsonite (natural Hydrocarbon) could be either dissolved or suspendedin the jet fuel of commercial airliners and later burned with the fuel tocreate seeding aerosol.Alternatively the mix could bedirectly injected into the hot engine exhaust, which shouldvaporize the seeding material, allowing it to condense as aerosol in the jet contrail.In this respect it is noteworthy that the Secretary of the U.S. navy is in possessionof patent 3,899,144, dated August 12th 1975,claiming the invention of specificcontrail generation apparatus for producing a powder contrail having maximumradiation scattering ability for a given weight material.146 Thehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comseeding material in thisdocument again consists of 85% metallic particles and 15% colloidal Silicaand Silica gel in order to produce a stable contrail that has a residenceperiod of 1 up to 2 weeks as the Mitchell and Finnegan surveyclaims.147 Referto appendix 15 for the full text of patent 3,899,144.As discussed in the case study inparagraph 3.3.2 the KC135 and possible the AWACS aircraft are alreadyequipped with pods to enable spraying operations. The question arisesif the higher gas emission ratios than those in civil aviation are not partof this type of deliverymechanism for geo-engineering.Thus basically the first methodwith direct injection through jet fuel is primarily designed for civilaviation, since delivery of the mixture through pods would involve direct cooperation of airline staff, management, crews, maintenance personnel andgenerally attract media attention. This is also the basic argument that isbeing used by websites thatdeny the existence of chemtrails, such as contrail science.148 Thisis very true, since thevery nature of such an operation would involve intense co-operation at alllevels. However, the Dutch Airport Portal website, supposed to be a platformfor professional pilots, contains a lot of postings referring to sprayingschemes with product X-432 (a Barium derívate).149 Itcontains even excerpts from a companys operating manual and suggestionsthat KLM, thenational Dutch carrier, is a partner in the spraying program. Some considerthis portal as a hoax, but one can only wonder why so much energy is used togenerate such rubbish that has no purpose. Furthermore the nomenclatureis similar to standard operating procedures (SOP) and airplane checklists asused in commercial aviation. Refer to appendix 16 for a printout of some ofthe postings on this website.K / ------------------ —--------------_loUf/tûioPv/-.. IUUMU----- .~--------------, ,I Taking into account that Barytineused as a tracer for measurement of sea currents as part ofglobal climate modelihttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comP50 Takinginto account that Barytine C14 ising151 it_____ ,.__ _ . r ,............................ ,.- 151•.145 MichellD.L. & Finnegan W., Modification of Cirrus clouds to reduce global warming,Desert ResearchInstitute, Reno, USA, October 30th 2009.i« U.S. patent 3,899,144, Powder Contrail Generation, August 12th 1975.147Idem as footnote 145.148Contrail science, chemtrail plausibility study, http://contrailscience.com/chemtrail-plausibility-study/149 http://www.airwork.nl/hulletinboard/showthread.pho?t=6001&page=3150• / i»151 ModélisationClimatique Globale, PNEDC,page 60, Institut National des Sciences delUnivers, CentreNational de laRecherche Scientifique. 2005.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com60comes atno surprise why such large quantities are ordered. Refer to appendix 17 for differentscreenshots of the order confirmation.On top of this comes a map withspraying schemes in Europe, which has been released by Kevin Martin, ameteorologist working for the Ontario Weather Service in 2008. Later onsuch maps displaying intended spraying schemes for Europe, Australia and theUnited States appeared onthe Southern California Authority website. Currently this section of thewebsite has been shut down since January 6th 2010for unknown reasons.This map shows the Europeanspraying scheme for June 6th 2008.152The spraying schemes seem to be organized in a logical pattern so that thewhole of Europe is covered in a 3-day period:http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com152 Bycourtesy of Kevin Martin, meteorologist.61/o /sf/tûhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comThe last maps with sprayingschemes on the Southern California Authority website, January 6th 2010.153105The existence of such documentshighlights the discrete but heavy involvement of governmentsat top level in climate control projects, which are hidden for the publicfor the obvious reasonthat the actual state of the planet is much worse than admitted throughmedia channels. Indeed, scientists are seeking to counter with an everlouder sounding voice of climate engineering the scenario of a 3°C-increasein surface temperature, coupled with a more than doubled C02 outputby the year 2100 - data that has been transmittedto the IPCC in 2005.154 Accordingto Mark Lynas, author of the book six degrees,the critical mass to induce cataclysms on planet Earth is a temperatureincrease of 2.5°C. Oncebeyond this point very volatile and unstable weather conditions on a globalscale are expected, triggering unseen social unrest and martial law, chronicshortages of water and food and widespread destruction - especially in lowlying areas. This is exact the type of scenarios that various governmentsare trying to prevent by meansof geo-engineering though production of artificial Cirrus clouds in order tokeep the temperatureincrease within limits, thus enabling continuation of business on the planetas usual.A press statement, released onSeptember 4 2009 by 5 top economists including 3 Nobellaureates just before the opening of the later (deliberately) torpedoedCopenhagen top climatesummit, in which climate engineering is considered as the most cheap and153 http://www.scwxa.org154Idem as footnote 151, page 63.155Lynas Mark, Zes graden, onze toekomstop een warmere planeet, pages 129-193, Uitgeverij Jan VanArkel, Utrecht, 2008.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com62rapidresponse to global warming, confirms this point of view.156 Stratosphericaerosol insertionreceives a rating very good in the list of possible options. All carbontaxes, whichare now at the political negotiation tables, are considered as poor anduseless for the safeguardof the planet - although they are a pretty good business. The full pressstatement is included in appendix 18.At the time of public release ofthis research paper in May 2010 our investigation team comes to theconclusion that climate control programs, controlled by the military butgovernments are silently implemented in order to avoid the worst casescenarios they obviously do not want. The two basic instruments aretemperature control through generation of artificial clouds and manipulationof the ionosphere through ionosphere heaters. Both remain basically militarycombat systems with the option to go into the offensive if deemed necessary.However since several ionospheric heaters are installed on various placesaround the globe one can assume that there is wide cooperationbetween governments in order to reach the climate targets by 2025:controlling the weatherand thus the planet.Last but not least one can ask whystaff of the university of East Anglia has deliberately manipulated climatedata for the sake of the IPCC? Accidentally or not the beginning of thefalsification of data series starts at the beginning of atmospheric seedingand the operational cycle of HAARP... It is also an interesting path toinvestigate if Climate Gate ishttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comnot an accident, but a well planned maneuver to gradually prepare the globalpopulation for theirfuture on the planet.5.3. MODUS OPERANDI FOR CLIMATEMODELLING THROUGH MODIFICATION OF CIRRUS CLOUDS:5.3.1. Technique ofmodification of Cirrus clouds:It has been adequately illustratedthat Cirrus clouds do have a significant impact on temperature andprecipitation on a specific spot on Earth. If one combines this knowledgewith strategic plans and scientific studies as described in previous chapterit is only a matter of time before climate modeling through modification ofCirrus clouds will be used on a large scale, whether for peaceful ormilitary purposes.As explained in paragraph 4.2.2aircraft engine emissions that develop into contrails, which form men madeCirrus under specific conditions, posses a global warming potential.Although they reflect incoming sunlight they also trap the long wavelengthblackbody radiation released by the Earth, thus resulting in a net increaseof global warming.157Thereforeit is imperative to develop a reliable technique that permits heat escapethrough the atmosphere, taking into account the albedo characteristics ofthe planet.Both U.S patents 5,003,186 forstratospheric seeding and 3,899,144 claiming a powder contrailgenerator for radiation scattering, as well as the research work of David L.Mitchelland William Finnegan claim that global warming can be reducedby seeding the upper atmosphere by the following combination of metallicparticles:156Top economists recommend climate engineering, Press statement, September 4th2009, CopenhagenConsensus Centre.157U.S. patent 5,003,186, Stratospheric Welsbach seeding for reduction ofglobal warming, Backgroundof the invention, March 26th 1991. 63U.S. patent 5,003,186,http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comStratospheric Welsbachseeding158U.S. patent 3,899,144 Powdercontrail generation159D. Mitchell and W. Finneganresearch paper: modificationof Cirrus clouds160One of more oxides ofmetals (not specified),particlesize 10 to 100uAluminum oxideThorium oxideWelsbach material85% Ti02(e.g.Dupont R-931,median particle size 0,3u)15% colloidal Silica (e.g. Cabot S-101 Silanox, median particle size0,007u)Silica gel (e.g. Syloid 65, average particle size 4,5u)A pressed compositemixture of Bismuth tri-iodide(Bil3), potassium perchlorate(KCI04), Aluminum (AI) andgilsonite (anatural hydrocarbon)As explained in the previouschapter the delivery mechanism is aviation. The stratospheric Welsbachpatent suggests particle seeding by dispersal from aircraft at an altitudeon the order of 10 km, but this is within the troposphere where airlinersroutinely cruise- except at polar latitudes.161 D.Mitchell and W. Finnegan are even more specific about this: "with thedelivery process already existing, this geo-engineering approach may beless expensive than other proposed approaches."162 Thisimplies that the mechanism forwidespread spraying of metallic particles through commercial aviation isalready in place since a considerable long time. The other proposedapproaches may be the technology as claimed in patent 3,899,144, iron oceanfertilization of 1975 or even HAARP (1991 ). Refer to appendix 19 for thefull text of this research paper.Adding tiny metallic particles toaviation fuel Jet A-1 or the military JP-8 or JP8+100 have a specificpurpose. They are characterized by wavelength dependent emissivity orhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comreflectivity, in that said materials have high emissivity in the visible andinfrared wavelength region and low emissivity in the near infrared region.Such metals are also referredto as Welsbach material in the 5,003,186 patent. By seeding these metals inthe upper troposphere and stratosphere the particles remain suspended forsome time in the air and provide by their nature a mechanism for convertingthe blackbody radiation in the nearinfrared region into radiation in the visible and infrared wavelength sothat the heat energy may be reradiated out into space, thus reducing globalwarming due to the greenhouse effect.163On thequestion if this technique is adequate for reduction of global warming onecan only statethat the primary examiner of the patent bureau only delivers U.S patents ifthe inventors can sufficiently demonstrate that the invention effectivelyworks. Moreover secrecyorders may be issued if they are deemed detrimental or vital to nationalsecurity. In some casesthe government can even confiscate a patent (John Doe). A list of militarypatents, secrecy orders and John Does for the period 1988-2009, as well asan example of secrecy order letter, are contained in appendix 20.A lastconsideration is that the metal particles must remain suspended in theatmosphere fora considerable long time in order to be effective. Patent 5,003,186 claimsthat the particlesmay remain in suspension for up to one year.164 D.Mitchell and W. Finnegan use the same logic with a much shorter residencetime (1 up to 2 weeks) but far sufficient toproduce artificial Cirrus clouds that enable climate modeling withtemperature and precipitation as instruments.158idemas footnote 157159U.S.patent 3,899,144, Powder Contrail Generation, August 12th 1975.i60 Michell D.L. &Finnegan W., Modification of Cirrus clouds to reduce global warming, DesertResearchInstitute, Reno, USA, October 30th 2009.161 Idemas footnotel57.i" Idemas footnote 160.i63 Idemas footnote 157.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comi64 Idemas footnote 157, page 5.64An argument that is used in almostall these publications is cost effectiveness hence atmospheric seedingthrough aviation seems to be the cheapest option for geo-engineering. Itcomes at no surprise that the number of complaints of civilians about persistentCirrus clouds and conspiracy theories such as chemtrails are on theincrease. In the scope ofthe extensive U.S. weather modification project through history it is clearthat Hughes Aircraft Company must have performed extensive testing beforethe patent was awarded and implementation of this technology is alreadyfinalized - cost effective, efficient on short term, with or without activeco-operation of air crews, in short perfect.5.3.2. Legal aspects of climatemodeling through aviation:Thequestion arises about the legal aspect of these spraying actions, especiallyin Europe sinceit may be an infringement of the sovereignty of the airspace of differentcountries. For example the Belgian airspace (FIR and UIR EBBU) consists ofthe national territory, partof the North Sea and Luxemburg.165 Althoughall aircraft that emit a mixture of exhaustgases and metallic particles legally operate in controlled airspace on aprior approved flight plan the consideration has to be made if formation ofmen made Cirrus clouds over France that drift within Belgian airspace wouldpresent a violation of the law. However, as long the existence of thetechnique of cloud generation through contrails is officially denied this isnot an issue.In the United States things arequite simple since it is a vast country and spraying is consideredlegal according public law.16 Rather intriguing is the spacepreservation act proposal of 2001, which was rejected on April 19th 2002after an unfavorable executive commentreceived from the DOD. As a result of this seeding the atmosphere throughaviation can be considered as legal in this country. The unrevised proposalincluded a permanent ban on exotic space weapons, which included ultra lowhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comfrequency weapons, environmental & climate weapons and chemtrails - the onlyexisting document where this phenomenonis explicitly mentioned.167 Thebill was re-written in less unusual language withomission of these exotic weapons before submission to the committee.Websites that systematically deny the existence of climate manipulationprograms state that congressman and sponsor Dennis Kuchinich did not evenwrite the bill or read a documentwritten by UFO-enthusiasts until too late.168However it shinessome light on theprofessionalism that reigns in some government circles. A copy of theunrevised Space Preservation Act is included in appendix 21.Sprayingprograms in Russia and the Peoples Republic of China are legal since theyare standardprocedure for major political rallies and parades.Some interest groups however doput the legality of geo-engineering as a solution for global warming intoquestion. One of them is the ETC-group, a technology watchdog with HQ inCanada. They warn against the rollout of geo-engineering as plan B after thefailure of the Copenhagen climate summit in 2009 and point out that BillGates and Richard Branson are very keen to experiment with fast, cheap andimperfect geo-engineering technologies - no matter what happens to thisplanet. According to the ETC-group the very fast developing geo-engineeringlobby has no mandate and no right to manage solar radiation on behalf ofanyone.169 That isvery much true. Refer to appendix 22 for the full text of the ETC Group newsrelease.165AeronauticalInformation Publication Belgium and Luxemburg CD-rom, AIP section ENR,issued by Belgocontrol, 2010.166U.S.Public law 95-79, title VIII, Sec. 808, July 30th 1977.167HR2977:Space perservation act of 2001,107th congress 2001-2002.168 http://contrailscience.com/kucinich-chemtrails-and-hr-2977/i69 Top-downplanet hackers call for bottom-up governance, ETC Group news release,February 11th, 2010. 65http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com5.3.3. Safety and healthaspects of climate modeling through aviation:According to D. Mitchell and W.Finnegan seeding the atmosphere with aerosols containingoxides of metals as part of a geo-engineering project have some drawbacks:170Increase of the rates of strategicozone destruction.Higher costs of injecting sulfurcompounds into the atmosphere.Decreasein solar radiation altering the hydrological cycle with more frequent droughts.Change in sky color from blue towhite.Lesssolar power.Change inprecipitation patterns have already been covered in paragraph 4.3,confirming thatclimate modeling projects through aviation should be approached in a muchmore cautious way. Ozone depletion is a fact, which could effectively becountered if HAARP was to be used for more peaceful purposes. The change ofcolor is probably the more frequent appearance of a milky sky, which is atotally unacceptable prospect if geo-engineering is to be used on a globalscale.According to official governmentsources, such as the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances &Disease Registry (ATSDR), materials such as Aluminum that is used in theaerosol mix are alwayspresent in virtually all food, air, water and soil and therefore exposure is usuallynot harmful and there are no known carcinogenic effects.171 Thesame logic applies when researching the effects of Barium.172 Thequestions arises how extremely highconcentrations of Aluminum and in a lesser extend Barium, measured in thecenter ofParis (for example PTE = Paris Tour Eiffel) in November 2008 and included inappendix 23 should beinterpreted as there are no fixed standards to determine an alarm level forthis type of contamination.However there is ample evidencethat aircraft engine emissions - even without the addition of an aerosol mix- pose a threat to public health, although its effects are minimized by theindustry as a result of corporate profit, conflicts on interests and ineffectivecontrol by government and regulating authorities.173 Theaerotoxic syndrom, whichhas first been recognized in 1999, affects an increasing number of flightcrews and cabin personnel.It is a term that encompasses the following symptoms observed by crews whohave been exposed to hydraulic fluid, engine oils or mists as a result ofthe circulation of bleed air in the pressurized cabin:174http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comSymptoms of dysfunction inneurological function, immediately after intense exposure, including loss ofpositional awareness, vertigo and loss of consciousness. If these symptomsoccur to a pilot there is a significant aviation safety problem.Symptoms of skin, eyes, nose andrespiratory irritation immediately after exposure. Further exposuresexacerbate the symptoms, often leading to other respiratory andcardiovascular effects.Symptomsof gastrointestinal discomfort immediately after exposure. While theserecede with cessation of exposure there is a suggestion that nausea anddiarrhea canpersist.170Michell D.L. & Finnegan W., Modification of Cirrus clouds to reduce globalwarming, Desert ResearchInstitute, Reno, USA, October 30th 2009.171ToxFAQ for Aluminum, Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry,September 2008.172ToxFAQ for Barium, Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, August2007.173 www.aerotoxic.org/index.php/about-aerotoxic-syndrome,Is the aviation industry adressing theissue.174Winder C, Fonteyn P. And Balouet J-C, Aerotoxic syndrome, a descriptiveepidemiological survey ofaircrew exposed to in-cabin contaminants., J Occup Health Safety - Australia& New Zealand 2002,18(4)321-338. 66^Some symptoms of impairment ofneurophysiologic function immediately after exposure, such as headache,dizziness, disorientation and intoxication. These symptomsbecome more debilitating after time with loss of cognitive function and memoryproblems emerging.General symptoms of exhaustion tohttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comchronic fatigue, with suppression of the immunitysystem with food intolerance, allergies and chemical sensitivities (MCS orMultiple Chemical Sensitivity) some time after exposure.The aircrews in this survey hadincidences of symptoms at much higher rates than population backgrounds,suggesting that they were unhealthier than the general population. However,since pilots and cabin crew undergo routine medical checks the levelof fitness and health in such individuals should be better than populationnorms.175 Variousgovernments and regulating authorities have commissioned research on this subject,but so far have not been able to conclusively prove a link betweencontaminated cabin air andchronic health problems.176 Thefull text of this research paper is included in appendix 24.As the aerotoxic syndrome is ajoint result of leakage of hydraulic fuels and engine oils there is otherevidence that jet fuel itself is detrimental to health. Extensive animaltesting on monkeys, rats, mice and dogs by the U.S. air force in 1993 -exposing them to then now obsolete JP-4 and JP-7 jet fuels showed decreasedliver weights, red blood cell fragility, depressed activity, infertility andan increase in inflammations that sometimes resultedin cancer and subsequent death.177 Referto appendix 25 for an excerpt of this survey.There are no research papers released on the health effects of JP-8 orJP-8+100 military jet fuels but one can assume they are identical to thosedescribed in the 1993 paper.Theseresearch papers illustrate that aircraft engine emissions, whether combinedwith aerosolsor not, are a concern for public health and action should be taken by the scientificsociety to perform additional research on the effects of nano sizedparticles on humansand in general our eco-systems.175 Idemas footnote 174, page 336.176Idem as footnote 174.177TP76-c2 Fuels on animals, Jet fuels JP-4 and JP-7, Health effects, 1993. 676. CONCLUSIONS ANDRECOMMENDATIONSThesecretary of defense may conduct tests and experiments involving the use ofchemical and biologicalagents on civilian populations.Publiclaw of the United States, Law 95-79, title VIII, Sec.808, July 30th 1977.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com686.1. CONCLUSIONS ANDRECOMMENDATIONS:Whencombining the knowledge of the formation of contrails, the effects of Cirrusclouds on climate, the historical records of weather manipulation programs,the scientific studies ongeo-engineering through modification of Cirrus clouds, the available andpatented technology coupled with reactions of pilots on the internet one canonly come to the following conclusions:1. Manipulationof climate through modification of Cirrus clouds is neither a hoax nor aconspiracy theory, but currently the best option in geo-engineeringconsidered by decision makers to counter global warming. The impact ofproduction of artificial Cirrus clouds on temperature and precipitationpatterns is supported by adequate hard scientific evidence.2. Theambition of the United States is to control the weather by the year 2025,both for civil and military purposes (offensive and defensive strategies).This research papercontains a proven track record to support that statement.3. Thetechnology to organize spraying actions on a global scale is widelyavailable. Bothcivil and military aviation is used for that purpose. The mix, containingoxides of metals and chemical components, can either be dispersed throughspecial designed pods or directly incorporated into the jet fuel. Thisresearch paper is well documented in this respect.4. Sincethe patents are owned by the main defense contractor for the U.S. armedforces (Raytheon) or the U.S. department of defense itself and given thehistory recordit is obvious that current climate manipulation programs are organized and directedby the United States government.5. Thespraying actions in Europe are only possible with prior approval and intense co-ordinationon top government level and industry on executive level. The general publicis intentionally kept unaware of the existence of such projects.6. Althoughthe spraying actions may be considered legal these actions may have a potentialdetrimental effect on health. There is sufficient scientific evidenceavailable in this research paper to support this thesis.It is notthe purpose of this research paper to give a moral appreciation of thesehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.comactions. Neverthelessthe investigation team unanimously comes to the following recommendationsfor the future:a) ArtificialCirrus clouds should be classified as a separate cloud genus by the WMO.Additional scientific research with the effects on nature and public healthon this subject should be considered. Results -whatever the outcome- shouldbe made public.b) Itis unacceptable that the Awacs aircraft fleet under NATO operates under aLuxemburg civil registration without complying with civil aviationregulations. This is a flagrant violation of the law and this should becorrected in the near future. Given the very unfavorable engine emissionratios of this aircraft retrofitting of these engines should be consideredas soon as practical.c) Whenconsidering a legal case it is better to sue an industrial group, such asRaytheon, rather than a government agency. It is clear for us that theresponsibility of Raytheon in this respect is far reaching with the creationof a monopoly in climate modeling and weather as a geo-engineering ormilitary instrument.If possible an international ban should be placed on such weapons.d) Althoughthe existence of weather modification projects have been illustrated in anadequate way in this research paper it is now the duty of a seriouspolitician on any level to make enquiries to the government for publicrelease of these spraying schemes through aviation. It is mandatory thatsuch statement should include the reasonwhy such operations are conducted. It is not an option to hide behind themotive of national security. 69The investigation grouphas performed the research meticulously with maximum integrity J andwe hope that our intervention will reveal the truth about climatemanipulation, exposing the real reasons to the general public, which has thebasic right to know. We also hope this research paper will contributetowards a more peaceful world. Last but not least we thank the Belfort groupfor its courage and wish them maximum success in public divulgence of thisdocument.In the name of our planet, AgentOrangehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
    • CheckTheEvidence.com70http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54