CheckTheEvidence.comCase Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail ScienceThis is a text-searchable version of the Belfort...
CheckTheEvidence.comI have already delivered this ‘Case orange’-document in an outprintcopy personally to the Brussels hea...
CheckTheEvidence.comCASE ORANGECONTRAIL SCIENCE, ITS IMPACT ON CLIMATE ANDWEATHER MANIPULATION PROGRAMS CONDUCTEDBY THE UN...
CheckTheEvidence.coma new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by thelights of perverted science.Wins...
CheckTheEvidence.comHAARP HighFrequency Active Auroral Research ProgramHC      HydrocarbonsHMSOHer Majestys Stationary Off...
CheckTheEvidence.com1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:This unclassified research paperhas been compiled on request of the Belfort Group...
CheckTheEvidence.comgovernment bodies write the thesis of chemtrails off as a hoax.Nevertheless it is proven that the exis...
CheckTheEvidence.com2. NOMENCLATURA:A distinction is made betweencontrails, distrails, wingtip vortices and chemtrails. In...
CheckTheEvidence.comthe bottom. A veryimportant feature is that these early contrails are short lived. Howevermodern jet a...
CheckTheEvidence.comhold more moisture, so the relative humidity drops below 100% even for thesame absolute moisture densi...
CheckTheEvidence.comA U.S. AirForce F-22 Raptor executes a supersonic flyby at low altitude, producingpronounced wingtip v...
CheckTheEvidence.comScience, Britt R.R., Editorial Director, June 30th 2009, Picture by courtesyof DOD/Petty Officer 1stCl...
CheckTheEvidence.com3. CHARACTERISTICS OFCONTRAILS:3.1. PREVIOUS SURVEYS ABOUTCONTRAILS:Meteorologists ignore and even den...
CheckTheEvidence.comLauritsen R.G. performed a very interesting survey immediatelyafter the 9-11 attacks in 2001, when all...
CheckTheEvidence.com      143.2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OFCONTRAILS.3.2.1. Standards formeasurement:In order to understand w...
CheckTheEvidence.comcommercial aviation fly on JET A-1, while aircraft used for defenseoperate on a different fuel that pr...
CheckTheEvidence.comand AEE-300 - Emissions Division Office of Environment and Energy FederalAviation Administration, FAA ...
CheckTheEvidence.comand another 46 substances including Benzene. The most importantcompounds of Hydrocarbon engine emissio...
CheckTheEvidence.comEthylene0,770Acrolein0,061Formaldehyde0,572l-butene0,044Acetylene0,211Glyoxal0,044Propene0,1511,3-Buta...
CheckTheEvidence.comBenzene0,030The other 41 compounds have aweight below 0,030 mmole per mole. Full test results are incl...
CheckTheEvidence.comJP-4 AvtagUSAirforce, NATO CodeF-4050/50Kerosene - Gasoline, phased out in 1996 in favor of JP-8.JP-5U...
CheckTheEvidence.comCelsius). This makes fires much more likely in the event of an accident. Soengine designers sought to ...
CheckTheEvidence.comMilitarypersonnel who work with it complain that it is difficult to wash off andcauses headachesand ot...
CheckTheEvidence.comw MIL-DTL-83133F11 April 2008 Superseding MIL-DTL-83133E 1 April 1999Detail Specification Turbine Fuel...
CheckTheEvidence.com3.3.1. Regulatory standards:Engine emissions for civilaircraft are regulated. The UK Civil Aviation Au...
CheckTheEvidence.comSmoke Number (SN)83,6 x (F<*>)0274 or50, whichever is lower; and Fco = rated engine outputHydrocarbons...
CheckTheEvidence.com23Aircraft Engine Speciated Organic Gases: Speciation of Unburned OrganicGases in Aircraft Exhaust,Ass...
CheckTheEvidence.comOutline25The introductionof these regulatory levels was a good move to wipe out obsolete commercialjet...
CheckTheEvidence.com25 AirNavigation (Aircraft Noise) Regulations, Statutory rules 1984 N°188 asamended, February 22nd2002...
CheckTheEvidence.comPW4084 (Boeing777)28JT3D-3B(KC135/ B52H)29CFM56-3C (APEX test)30Smoke Number SN (standard50)10,5054,50...
CheckTheEvidence.com34,3053,1The test results have to beinterpreted as follows:a) Thedata obtained with the CFM56-3C-1, la...
CheckTheEvidence.com30 ICAOEngine Exhaust Emissions Databank, Subsonic Engines, CFM56-3C-1, October,1st 2004.213.3.2.3. Pr...
CheckTheEvidence.comNote theflag of Luxemburg on the tail section and underneath the wing of this E-3Aat GeilenkirchenAFB....
CheckTheEvidence.com22this.373.3.2.4. Percentage ofmilitary traffic in global aviation:Althoughthe majority of air traffic...
CheckTheEvidence.comon behalf of the military then we can assume that the military segment topsabove 10% at regularinterva...
CheckTheEvidence.comREVIEWED BY:AO4. EFFECTS OFCONTRAILS ON CLIMATENo more than a few decades remainbefore the chance to a...
CheckTheEvidence.comappear at a much lower altitude than at the equator.Due to the sparse moisture at ahigh altitude, Cirr...
CheckTheEvidence.com25Changes in the Cirrus cloud coverin percentage between the two periods 1992-199941and 1984-1991.4.1....
CheckTheEvidence.com41 Idemas footnote 40.42 KinneS., Cirrus Clouds and climate, NASA Ames Research Center webpage.26Thegr...
CheckTheEvidence.comCirrus clouds have thus a stronggreenhouse effect, which may outweigh their Albedo effect losses. As t...
CheckTheEvidence.comare created in the contrail mainly by freezing of exhaust aerosols.Scavenging of exhaust particles and...
CheckTheEvidence.com4.1.4. Impact of aviation onthe formation of men made Cirrus:Beforediscussing the possible impact of c...
CheckTheEvidence.com46 Isthere a trend in Cirrus cloud cover due to aircraft traffic?, F. Stordal et al., Atmos.Chem. Phys...
CheckTheEvidence.comamount of Cirrus clouds, which can be attributed to air traffic increases by1-2% per decade. Aviation ...
CheckTheEvidence.comt o fo y //*Pi/GLOBALREGIONALLOCALCOMMUNITYHEALTH IMPACThttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms   Powere...
CheckTheEvidence.comCarbon DioxideContrailsSulphur DioxideNoise exposurePulmonary diseaseCirrus cloud formationAcidificati...
CheckTheEvidence.comNitrogen OxidesPotential loss of habitatAirport pollutionBuilding damageRadiation exposureClimate chan...
CheckTheEvidence.comeducationperformanceGlobal warmingContrails and formation of Cirrusclouds were thus in 2004 already kn...
CheckTheEvidence.com52Sauser R, Climate impact by aviation and minimising it by operational means,DLR-Insttitut für Physik...
CheckTheEvidence.comThis survey, performed by David J.Travis, Andrew M. Carlton and Ryan G. Lauritsen, released in final f...
CheckTheEvidence.com       312010 due to the volcano eruptionin Iceland. It is too early to assess the quality of the surv...
CheckTheEvidence.comChemical formulaGWP 100 year time horizonCarbon DioxideC021MethaneCH421Nitrogen OxideN20310Perfluorobu...
CheckTheEvidence.comPerfluorocyclobutanec-C4F88700Sulphur HexafluorideSF823900The GWP of greenhouse gases isquite high. Ac...
CheckTheEvidence.com59Whiteleg J and Cambridge H, Aviation and Sustainability, StockholmEnvironment Institute, 2004,page 1...
CheckTheEvidence.comprecipitation is much more likely in low-pressure areas where frontalsystems areallowed to slip in. Ho...
CheckTheEvidence.comIt is clear that there is arelation between these parameters, but scientists have failed to quantifyth...
CheckTheEvidence.com60 StickleyA.B., An evaluation of the Bergeron-Findeisen precipitation theory, MonthlyWeather Review,O...
CheckTheEvidence.comavailable energy increases precipitation. Beyond that point, increasing theaerosol load even further, ...
CheckTheEvidence.com66Booker C, Climate change: this is the worst scientific scandal of ourgeneration, Daily Telegraph,Nov...
CheckTheEvidence.comchanging cloud cover and subsequent temperature drop in the upper layer of thetroposphere, hurricane a...
CheckTheEvidence.com5. CONTRAILSAND WEATHER MANIPULATIONIf the ionosphere is greatlydisturbed, the atmosphere below is sub...
CheckTheEvidence.comSponsorship through government agencies with a far-reaching commitment of captainsof industry.Actually...
CheckTheEvidence.com71Internet phenomenon. Apparentlyit has cross-fertilized itself. A comparison of Internet hitsfor chem...
CheckTheEvidence.com170.000+1851,8%Videos212347.800+2251,5%News522+440%Forums38110.000+289.473,7%This reveals a number ofi...
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science
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Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science

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By doing so you will be able to see and read the basic text of 70 pages with 177 footnotes. If you should be interested in receiving the appendices, please let me know.



We would like to ask you to spread this document as broadly as possible to your politicians, administrations, press, policy, justice, fellow-fighters, a.o.



The fight for a world without chemtrails will not be easy, but now we have a peacefull weapon which offers evidence based prove that the phenomenon is not internet gossip or conspiracy theory but – to put it blatantly – that we are being sprayed.



This has been going on for years and it’s not going to stop ! According to the conference of 18-22 th February of the AAAS they are planning to put to 20 million tons of aluminium into the atmosphere !



I have already delivered this ‘Case orange’-document in an outprint copy personally to the Brussels headquarter of UNO and Nato and eight embassies (USA, UK, Germany, France, Iran, Russia, China, Venezuela).



I have send it by email to all pressagencies, to all embassies, in short to everyone who should be interested in this very important information.



As you know on August 17 th of 2009 I personally lodged a complaint with the Belgian Justice department against the intentional and systematically spraying of heavy metals, chemical substances and virological filth into our atmosphere. As a result there is since October 2009 an ongoing investigation into this matter.

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  • Tell you what, hope all associated with like the idea of melting in hell b/c God will have a very special demise planned for that lot....
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  • tell you what, all associated with, I hope they love the thought of melting in hell, b/c God will have a very special demise for these creatures, that is for sure!!!!
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Transcript of "Case Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail Science"

  1. 1. CheckTheEvidence.comCase Orange - Belfort Group Report on Contrail ScienceThis is a text-searchable version of the Belfort Groups report on Contrails, Chemtrails and Weather Modification. Theoriginal PDF is large, and not currently text-searchable. I therefore made this page, using OCR software (OpticalCharacter Recognition), which is searchable, though there may be some garbled words or sections - and the formattinghas not been fully preserved from the original document..There is a message below from Peter Vereecke who has been instrumental in getting this document compiled.08 June 2010Dear chemtrailfighters from all over theworld,On Saturday 29 th of May the Belgian Belfort-group organised inGhent an international symposion on the subject :The illegal spraying of harmfulsubstancesin the atmosphere by airplanesalso known as ‘chemtrails’:THE TRUTHBased on the positive reactions we received and also ourown feeling it was a success. You can see the whole event via this link:http://www.ustream.tv/channel/belfort-testOne of the highlights was certainly the presentation of"CaseOrange", a scientific report, which has been compiled on behalf ofthe Belfort-group and of humanity by a team of experts withrelevant aviation background. This is very important : the authorsare inside experts. They know what they are talking about !The document consists of 300 pages. As it is tooexpensive for us to send it in a copy-version and as it not possible to send itin attachment because the pdf-file is too heavy I ask you to download it viathis link :http://www.belfort-group.eu/sites/default/files/page/2010/05/COpart1.pdfBy doing so you will be able to see and read the basictext of 70 pages with 177 footnotes. If you should be interested in receivingthe appendices, please let me know.We would like to ask you to spread thisdocument as broadly as possible to your politicians, administrations,press, policy, justice, fellow-fighters, a.o.The fight for a world without chemtrails will not beeasy, but now we have a peacefull weapon which offers evidence based prove thatthe phenomenon is not internet gossip or conspiracy theory but – to put itblatantly – that we are being sprayed.This has been going on for years and it’s not going tostop ! According to the conference of 18-22 th February of the AAAS they areplanning to put to 20 million tons of aluminium into the atmosphere!http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  2. 2. CheckTheEvidence.comI have already delivered this ‘Case orange’-document in an outprintcopy personally to the Brussels headquarter of UNOand Nato and eight embassies (USA, UK, Germany, France, Iran, Russia, China, Venezuela).I have send it by email to all pressagencies, to allembassies, in short to everyone who should be interested in this very importantinformation.As you know on August 17 th of 2009 I personally lodged a complaintwith the Belgian Justice departmentagainst the intentional and systematically spraying of heavy metals,chemical substances and virological filth into our atmosphere. As a result there is since October 2009 anongoing investigation into this matter.I am now also prepairing to lodge two additionalcomplaints: - with the International Courtof Justice,The Hague - the European court of humanrights, StrassbourgI will do so not only on behalf of the Belfort-group butalso of you all.Finally I would like to draw your attention to a veryintresting new intiative of the Lightworkers World. They are planning a worldwide protestaction against chemtrails on June 24 th.You can read all about it on their website:http://lightworkersworld.com/events/01/mass-action-event-chemtrails/I would like to conclude this email with the chorus linesof our anthem, a very powerfull and encouraging song of Leonard Cohen:Ring the bells that still canringForget your perfect offeringThere is a crack in everythingThat’show the light gets inKeep the good work going, my dear friends and bravefighters !Yours sincerely,- PeterVereecke -Former mayor of EvergemFounder Belfort-groupE-mail : peter@belfort-group.euBelfort-groupp/a Hooiwege 209940 EvergemBelgiumhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  3. 3. CheckTheEvidence.comCASE ORANGECONTRAIL SCIENCE, ITS IMPACT ON CLIMATE ANDWEATHER MANIPULATION PROGRAMS CONDUCTEDBY THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIESCompiled for the Belfort Group, Hooiwege 20 B-9940 Evergem BelgiumIf we can stand up to them, allEurope may be free and the life of the world may move forwardinto broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world, includingthe United States,including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss ofhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  4. 4. CheckTheEvidence.coma new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by thelights of perverted science.Winston Churchill, This was theirfinest hour speech to theHouse of Commons, June 18th 1940.LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS:AFBAir Force BaseATPAirline Transportation PilotATSDR Agencyfor Toxic Substances and Disease RegistryAWACSAirborne Early Warning and Control SystemBKN Brokenclouds°C DegreesCelsiusCi CirrusCc CirrocumulusCOCarbon MonoxideDLRDeutsches Institut für RaumfahrtDODDepartment of DefenseDTR DiurnalTemperature RangeECMElectronic Counter MeasuresELF ExtremeLow FrequencyEPA EnvironmentalProtection AgencyFAA FederalAviation AdministrationFIR FlightInformation Regionft FeetGWPGlobal Warming Potentialhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  5. 5. CheckTheEvidence.comHAARP HighFrequency Active Auroral Research ProgramHC HydrocarbonsHMSOHer Majestys Stationary OfficeHz HerzICAO InternationalCivil Aviation OrganizationIPCCInternational panel for Climate ChangeKg KilogramKW KilowattLbs PoundsNASA NationalAir and Space AgencyNATO NorthAtlantic Treaty OrganizationSALTStrategic Arms Limitations TalksSet ScatteredcloudsSN SmokeNumberSOP StandardOperating ProcedureUEA Universityof East AngliaUIR UpperInformation RegionUSSRUnion of the Socialist Soviet RepublicsVLFVery Low FrequencyWMOWorld Meteorological Order1. EXECUTIVESUMMARYhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  6. 6. CheckTheEvidence.com1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:This unclassified research paperhas been compiled on request of the Belfort Group, a Belgian environmentalwatchdog. It highlights the specific problems associated with contrailsemitted by aircraft, the manipulation for geo-engineering or defensepurposes of someof these trails by the United States government and the subsequent effect onquality of life. In orderto force public debate on the subject this document has not only beentransmitted to embassies of states that organize weather manipulationsprojects, news agenciesand interest groups in this field but also to organizations in countriesthat are not considered asallied forces by the United States and NATO.Contrails are not the harmlessemissions of aircraft at high altitude that only have an esthetic impact onthe sky as meteorologists suggest. They do not only contain huge amounts ofwater vapor, but also significant amounts of Carbon Dioxide, Nitric Oxide,Sulfur Oxide and soot that have a significant impact on public health. Inthat respect it is noteworthy that derogations for emissions of Hydrocarbonsand Carbon Monoxide have beengranted for engines of some military aircraft, which exceed civil regulatorylevels in a verysignificant way. Chapter 3 contains a detailed description how contrails areformed, itsdetailed chemical composition plus a very interesting case study of theKC135 tanker & E-3 Sentry(AWACS) aircraft, the latter being operated on a Luxemburg registrationwithout complying to civil standards.Persistent contrails have a devastating impact on eco-systems on Earth. Theydevelop in menmade Cirrus cloud that can cover a significant part of the sky. It isscientific evidence that those aviation-induced clouds already occupy 3 to5% of the sky in Europe and this figure increases by 1 to 2% per decade. Asthese types of clouds are not classified assuchby the WMO, the World Meteorological Organization, there is obviously notendency to research thissubject thoroughly and subsequently civil aviation authorities and otherhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  7. 7. CheckTheEvidence.comgovernment bodies write the thesis of chemtrails off as a hoax.Nevertheless it is proven that the existence of these persistent contrailshas a negative impact on temperature and they can alter precipitationslevels. It also induces the dehydration of the stratosphere. Chapter 4provides a summary of the most striking results of scientific research onthis subject.Given theextensive history record of weather manipulation projects, conducted mainlyby theUnited States armed forces, the relationship between men made contrails andits impact on different climatologie parameterscreates a scientific basis for a weather manipulation system. Chapter 5contains a detailed overview of the major weather modificationoperations in human history, starting from relatively innocent endeavorssuch as cloud seeding withsilver iodide over ionospheric heating to large-scale geo-engineeringprojects through commercial aviation. Patents, previously classifieddocuments, order forms for Barium and maps with daily spraying schemesirrevocable denote the existence of a global military sponsored andgovernmental approved project for alteration of the upper troposphere forglobal control purposes. The technical details, including the nature of theseeding material and its possible impact on public health, are alsoincluded in chapter 5.Finally the investigation group,which wants to remain anonymous until further notice, comes to the finalconclusion that atmospheric seeding for the sake of military interests anda global business model has a devastating impact on eco-systems on thisplanet and quality of lifein general. This practice is therefore considered as unacceptable.82. NOMENCLATURAGive me along enough lever and a place to stand on and I will move the earth.Archimedes (287 - 212 B.C.)http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  8. 8. CheckTheEvidence.com2. NOMENCLATURA:A distinction is made betweencontrails, distrails, wingtip vortices and chemtrails. In this researchpaper only contrails and chemtrails are subject to an in-depth study.2.1. CONTRAILS:Contrail isthe contraction of the words condensation and trail, the condensation ofengine exhausts. The word dates back to World War II and contrails wereconsidered as a nuisance as they attracted enemy fighters in the fray.B-17 heavybombers are on their way to Schweinfurt, emitting substantialamounts of contrails. German pilots could easily pickout the exact position of individual planes by their contrails.1Incontrary to popular belief contrails are not exclusively formed by jetaircraft, but also by propellerdriven airplanes, providing that their operating altitude is suitable fortheir formation. This phenomenon is temperature related. As temperaturedrops with 2°C/1000 ft altitude gain in a standard atmosphere and a cold airparcel can only hold very limited water vapor any hot exhaust fumesautomatically condense into artificial clouds. This usually happens above26,000 ft where the ambient temperature is below -40°C.As can be noticed on the pictureabove the intensity of the contrails vary with altitude / temperature,the bombers on the top right emitting heavier contrails than the planes athttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  9. 9. CheckTheEvidence.comthe bottom. A veryimportant feature is that these early contrails are short lived. Howevermodern jet aircraft with more powerful engines and high turbine temperaturesemit more persistent contrails, which usually trail for 20-30 miles along.Contrailsfrom a Quantas Boeing 747, Australia (Source: Wikipedia, contrails)1 Air& Space Power Chronicles, Schweinfurt - the battle within the battle for the8th US Air Force, Capt. D. Reichert, USAF10Contrailsmay have strange shapes and even be horizontally dispersed over large areasby jet streams, strong winds in the upper atmosphere that exceed a velocityof 100 knots.2.2. DISTRAILS:A distrail is the abbreviation fordissipation trail. When an aircraft passes through a thin, stable cloud,even when the conditions for the production of contrails are not met, itproduces a tunnel like path through that cloud.Distrails are created as a resultof the elevated temperature of the exhaust gases absorbingthe moisture from the cloud. Clouds exist where the relative humidity is100% and temperature and dew point are thus equal, but by increasing thetemperature, the air canhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  10. 10. CheckTheEvidence.comhold more moisture, so the relative humidity drops below 100% even for thesame absolute moisture density, thus causing the visible water droplets inthe cloud to be converted back into water vapor.Thispicture shows a contrail that changes into a distrail at the top right,cutting througha layer of Altocumulus clouds.2.3. WINGTIP VORTICES:Airplanes fly as a result of anequilibrium of lift, drag, mass and thrust. When a wing generates lift itcauses a vortex to form at the wingtips and sometimes also at the trailingedges of the wing flaps. It causes wake turbulence, which is quitepersistent and potentially dangerous to other, mostly smaller planes. Thehigher the angle of attack of the wing the higher the lift coefficient willbe with stronger vortices in the end. High angles of attack in commercialaviation are achieved in landing configuration (flaps & landing gear down)or during initial climb after take off (high thrust & body angle).The reduction in pressure andtemperature across each vortex can cause water to condense and make thecores of these wingtip vortices visible. The effect is more common on humiddays and in anticyclones with strong temperature inversions. These visiblecores contrast with contrails and distrails, the latter being produceddirectly behind the engineat higher altitude.Military aircraft travelling attransonic speed and making high performance maneuvers mayproduce a vapor cone or Prandtl-Glauert singularity as a result of a suddendrop in air pressure,sometimes nicknamed the shock collar or shock egg.2 Contrailscience Home Page, http://contrailscience.com/contrail-to-distrail/11http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  11. 11. CheckTheEvidence.comA U.S. AirForce F-22 Raptor executes a supersonic flyby at low altitude, producingpronounced wingtip vortices and a shock egg.2.4. CHEMTRAILS:Chemtrail is the contraction ofchemical trail and is used by some sources to denote intentionalspraying by airplanes for military or political purposes and that may beharmfulto public health. A more general name is aviation smog,which combines contrails, distrails and chemtrails. Authors referring tochemtrails claim that this phenomena is much more persistent than contrailsand when sprayed in a grid it is able to cover vast areas.Althoughofficially denied by government sources many countries performed tests for cloudseeding to either generate precipitation where it was needed or to preventprecipitation where it is unwanted. At this moment only the Russian andChinese governments admit that they use particular matter in order tomanipulate weather patterns.4Thispicture shows an interesting combination of contrails (right hand side),distrails (bottom left) and possibly chemtrails (left hand side) overBelgium in the vicinity of Brussels, September 2009. Note that the contrailshave spread overa large area.3 Livehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  12. 12. CheckTheEvidence.comScience, Britt R.R., Editorial Director, June 30th 2009, Picture by courtesyof DOD/Petty Officer 1stClass Dejarnett, U.S. Navy.4 MichaelsJay, Meteorology News, 19th October 2009, Moscow testing cloud seeding123.CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTRAILSThe intuitive spirit is a giftfrom God. The rational brain is its servant. We have created a society thatworships the servant and has forgotten the gift.Albert Einstein (1879-1955)13http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  13. 13. CheckTheEvidence.com3. CHARACTERISTICS OFCONTRAILS:3.1. PREVIOUS SURVEYS ABOUTCONTRAILS:Meteorologists ignore and even deny the effects of aviation on the weather,stating that contrailsand in a lesser extend distrails only have an esthetic influence on the waythe skylooks. As they do not induce precipitation nor reduce the visibility oraffect sunshine they are not worth mentioning in a weather bulletin. On afew occasions meteorologists refer to it as veil shaped clouds, actuallymaking the public belief that its origin is natural andnot human. Because contrails are not considered as a weather phenomenonthere are subsequently very few scientific surveys covering this topic.Appleman was the first in 1953 topresent charts that forecast the likelihood of contrail formation based uponthe temperature profile of the 700-100-Hectopascal layer where commercialjets usually operate.5 Pilieand Jiusto in 19586, Scorer and Davenport in 1970 7 andHanson & Hanson in 19958 modifiedhis work. They identified a unique range withinwhich a contrail should theoretically form.However, the lack of field teststo verify these models and the fact that contrails have beennoted to form and spread during conditions deemed unfavorable according tosome of the modelsdescribed above. With the introduction of new technology, such assatellites, more accurate surveys were within reach. This resulted forinstance in the development of a new empiric model developed by Travis topredict widespread occurrences of contrails -.But even with the aid ofgeostationary satellites it proves extremely difficult to predict formation,size and life span of contrails that may remain isolated or cluster ingroups. Extensive survey is mandatory in order to understand fully thenature of contrails. However there is an economic drawback to this, asaviation is the backbone of fast transport and commerce spanning the globe.Any survey can potentially be turned down by lobby groups that do not wantto see unwanted attention unleashed on an ignorant publicwith undesirable side effects of aviation. Officially science does not workthat way, but in practiceresearchers generally do not bite the hand that feeds them. This is also whycontrails are politely classified as veil clouds.Travis D.J, Carleton A.M. andhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  14. 14. CheckTheEvidence.comLauritsen R.G. performed a very interesting survey immediatelyafter the 9-11 attacks in 2001, when all commercial aviation was stuck onthe ground for a period of3 days. It was probably the only opportunity to perform a comparative study.The results were only released two years later and proved the evidenceof jet contrail influence on climate,10 althoughit was suggested by some other researchesthat the sky was unusually clear during that period.1Theresults of some of these surveys are used in the next paragraphs.5 Appleman,H., 1953: The formation of exhaust condensation trails by jet aircraft. Bull. Amer. Meteor.Soc, 34,14-20.6 Pilie,R. J., and J. E. Jiusto, 1958: A laboratory study of contrails./. Meteor., 15,149-154..7 Scorer,R. S., and L. J. Davenport, 1970: Contrails and aircraft downwashj. FluidMech., 43, 451-464..8 Hanson,H. M., and D. M.Hanson, 1995: A reexamination of the formation of exhaust condensationtrails byjet aircraft. J. Appl.Meteor., 34, 2400-2405.9 TravisJ.T, An Emperic model to predict widespread occurences of contrails,American MeteorologySociety, Volume 36, Issue 9, September 1997.10Travis D.J., Carleton A.M. and Lauritsen R.G, Regional variations in U.S.diurnal temperature range forthe 11-14 September 2001 aircraft groundings: evidence of jet contrailinfluence on climate, Journal ofClimate, Volume 17, March 1st 2004.11Kalkstein and Balling Jr., Climate Research, 26,1-4, 2004http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  15. 15. CheckTheEvidence.com 143.2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OFCONTRAILS.3.2.1. Standards formeasurement:In order to understand what isbeing done, we first have to understand some basic concepts.A jet engine is an internal combustion engine, just like an automobileengine is. In a jetengine, the fuel and an oxidizer combust (or burn) and the products of that combustionare exhausted through a narrow opening at high speed.12The substances contained in acontrail depend on the following parameters:Enginetype, its by-pass ratio and its pressure ratio & rated output: newer technologyis usually much more environmentally friendly.Type of fuel: modern jet enginefuel is primarily kerosene, which is a fossil fuel. However a distinctioncan be made between civil and military operations. Civil airplanes used inhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  16. 16. CheckTheEvidence.comcommercial aviation fly on JET A-1, while aircraft used for defenseoperate on a different fuel that provides optimal viscosity, heat sink andthermal stability in any operational theatre ranging from arctic toequatorial.13In this respect it is noteworthy that NATO-forcescurrently use JP-8 (Jet Propellant 8),a relative new fuel type whose additives are legally protected by a patent.14Powersetting: at take off power and cruise setting combustion is optimal, burning morethan 99% of the fuel through complete combustion to carbon dioxide andwater. At idle conditions, much less fuel is consumed and, in the interestof maintaining stable combustion at lower power conditions, some sacrificein combustionefficiency occurs even though this inefficiency is still only a percent or so.Any combustion inefficiency of Hydrocarbon fuel will result in emissions ofsome combination of CO and incompletely oxidized Hydrocarbons, as well assomecarbonaceous particles.Maintenance standards and engine age: older engines or retrofitted powerplants (e.g. upgrade to stage III of obsolete DC-8 aircraft in the years2000 and beyond) emitsignificantly more pollutants than newer designs. Nano sizedmetal particles12Picture by courtesy ofAerospaceweb.org.13Shawn P. Heneghan and William E. Harrison III, JP8+100:the development of high thermal stabilityfuel, Aerospace Mechanic Division, University of Dayton, OH and USAF WrightLaboratories, N. WrightPatterson AFB, OH, 6th international conference on stability and handling ofliquid fuels, Vancouver,October 13-17 199714Aircraft Engine Speciated Organic Gases: Speciation of Unburned OrganicGases in Aircraft Exhaust,Assessment and Standards Division Office of Transportation and Air QualityU.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agencyhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  17. 17. CheckTheEvidence.comand AEE-300 - Emissions Division Office of Environment and Energy FederalAviation Administration, FAA publication. May 2009.15originating as a result of wearmay also appear in the contrail. The same problem occurs in countries wheremaintenance standards are somewhat lower.3.2.2. Chemical composition ofjet aircraft emissions:Burningfossil fuels primarily produces the following gaseous emissions:15Carbon Dioxide (C02).A largeamount of water vapor (H20) that immediately freezes upon contactwith thefree air. This makes the contrail visible for the human eye.Nitricoxide (NO) and nitrogen oxide (N02), which together are called NOx.Sulfur Oxides (S02).Soot.However very few tests have beenperformed in order to assess and evaluate a detailed chemicalcomposition in terms of Hydrocarbons (HC) of contrails. Of special interestis the survey of the USEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA)of May 2009, which uses data from a set of studies initiated by NASA calledAircraft Particle Emissions experiment (APEX). This project was supported bya wide range of sponsors (NASA, FAA, CARB, EPA, DoD ...) and focusedattention on commercial aircraft Particulate Matter (PM) emissions.The main objective of the APEXresearch was to characterize both gaseous and particulateemissions to advance the understanding of emissions from commercial aircraftengines.APEX1 was conducted in April of 2004 with a NASA-owned DC-8 aircraft equippedwith CFM-56-2C1 engines. APEX2 was conducted in August 2005 for typical in-useaircraft engines (CFM56 engines on B737 aircraft), APEX3 testing wasconducted in October and November of 2005 spanning a range of engines from asmall business jet, through a modern regional turbofan, a single-aisletransport turbofan, to a large high bypass ratio turbo fan, representingfive different engine types, some measuring more than one example. In allstudies, exhaust plumes were sampled at the engine exit plane and severaldownstream measurement locations.Test results on the CFM56-3engines running on JET A-1 fuel revealed that the most important compound Inemissions is Ethylene, followed by Formaldehyde, Acetylene,Propene, Acetaldehydehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  18. 18. CheckTheEvidence.comand another 46 substances including Benzene. The most importantcompounds of Hydrocarbon engine emissions on a molar basis are as follows:16is NASA Facts, Glenn Research Center, Article FS-2000-04-010-GRC,Safeguarding our atmosphere, Glenn Research reduces harmful aircraftemissions.16ShawnP. Heneghan and William E. Harrison III, JP8+100:the development of high thermal stability fuel, Aerospace Mechanic Division,University of Dayton, OH and USAF Wright Laboratories, N. Wright PattersonAFB, OH, 6th international conference on stability and handling of liquidfuels, Vancouver,October 13-17 1997 . 16CompoundEmissionRatio (mmole/ mole)CompoundEmissionratio (mmole/ mole)http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  19. 19. CheckTheEvidence.comEthylene0,770Acrolein0,061Formaldehyde0,572l-butene0,044Acetylene0,211Glyoxal0,044Propene0,1511,3-Butadiene0,044Acetaldehyde0,135http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  20. 20. CheckTheEvidence.comBenzene0,030The other 41 compounds have aweight below 0,030 mmole per mole. Full test results are included inappendix 1, page 6.3.2.3. Impact of fuelspecifications on aircraft engine emissions:17.Incommercial and military aviation the following fuel types are being used :FUELTYPEAPPLICATION FIELDREMARKSJET A-1Commercialaviation and some air forces not being a NATO-member (e.g. AustrianAF)Jet fuelas analyzed in paragraph 3.2.2. nowadays also used in recreationalaviation & flight training, referred to for fiscal purposes as AeroDiesel.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  21. 21. CheckTheEvidence.comJP-4 AvtagUSAirforce, NATO CodeF-4050/50Kerosene - Gasoline, phased out in 1996 in favor of JP-8.JP-5USNavy, NATO CodeF-44Still inuse in naval operations, highest flash point, higher than JET A1and JP-8.JP-7US AirForceSpeciallydesigned for supersonic operations above Mach 3 (Example: formerSR-71 Blackbird)JP-8US AirForce, NATO CodeF-34ReplacingJP-4, transition should be completed by the year 2010.Aircraft operators are constantlyrefining their fuels to deal with specific performance concerns.A major problem with gasoline is that it has what is known as a low"flashpoint." This is thetemperature at which it produces fumes that can be ignited by an open flame.Gasoline has a flashpoint of around 30 degrees Fahrenheit (-1 degreehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  22. 22. CheckTheEvidence.comCelsius). This makes fires much more likely in the event of an accident. Soengine designers sought to develop engines that used fuels with higherflashpoints.The U.S. Air Force during the1990s switched from JP-4 to JP-8 because it had a higher flashpoint and wasless carcinogenic, among other things. By the mid 1990s, the Air Forcefurther modified JP-8 to include a chemical that reduced the buildup ofcontaminants in the engines that affected performance. JP-5 has even ahigher flashpoint than JP-8, but its high cost limits its use to aircraftcarriers. JP-8 has a strong odor and is oily to the touch, which makes itmore unpleasant to handle and less safe in some ways.17 AirBP, the history of Jet fuel, www.bp.com.17t o /o Ç/t oevhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  23. 23. CheckTheEvidence.comMilitarypersonnel who work with it complain that it is difficult to wash off andcauses headachesand other physical problems.18Market isbig and ever increasing with the military operations in Iraq, Afghanistanand the restlessefforts on war on terror. About 60 billion gallons (227 billion liters)were used worldwide by the late 1990s, with the U.S. Air Force, Army, andNATO using about 4.5 billion gallons (17 billion liters). It is also used tofuel heaters, stoves, powered electric generators, and combat vehicles. TheM1 Abrams battle tank also uses JP-8 in its gas engine turbines. The use ofa single fuel for most military applications would greatly simplify wartimelogistics.A latest development is JP-8+100,a version of JP-8 with an additive that increases its thermal stability by56°C (100°F). The additive is a combination of a surfactant, metaldeactivator, and an antioxidant. It was introduced in 1994. The additivereduces coking andfouling in engine fuel systems. Commercially, this additive is used inBoeing aircraftoperated by KLM, andin police helicopters in Tampa, Florida. It is also used as fuel forCanadian CF-18 Hornets.Of special concern is thecomparison between JET A-1 and JP-8 / JP-8+100. Officially thefuel types are similar, except that the military variant contains additionalicing inhibitor,corrosioninhibitors, lubricants, and antistatic agents.19 Apatent protects the exact compositionof additives of JP-8, which is quite obvious in order to prevent espionageandtransfer of technology to hostile parties.20 Neverthelessit is possible to establish a comparison between Jet A-1 and JP-8+100 asseveral civil organizations are part of the engineering program.More thaninteresting is the conclusion of the 6 International Conference onStability and Handlingof Liquid Fuel, held in October 1997 in Vancouver, Canada. In this paper theeffects of the selected additives in JP-8+100 are examined on propertiesthat are unrelated to thermal stability characteristics. For instance thecomparison between Jet A-1 and JP-8of additive Specific Aid 8Q405 is of special interest.21 Fora given concentration theconductivity of JP-8 jet fuel is much higher, which underlines theusefulness of the proposed additives. However one can logically assume thataircraft engine emissions will also significantly increase as a result ofthese additional icing inhibitor, corrosion inhibitors, lubricants, andantistatic agents. Official tests results have never been released by the USgovernment, which is also the beneficiary of the patent.The full paper of the 6l InternationalConference on Stability and Handling of Liquid Fuel, aswell as the detailed specifications of military aviation fuels are includedin appendix 2.18www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Evolution ofTechnology/fuel/Tech21.htmhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  24. 24. CheckTheEvidence.comw MIL-DTL-83133F11 April 2008 Superseding MIL-DTL-83133E 1 April 1999Detail Specification Turbine Fuel, Aviation Kerosene Type, JP-8 (NATO F-34),NATO F-35, and JP-8+100(NATO F-37).20 USpatent 20050274063 - jet fuel additive concentrate composition and fuelcomposition andmethods thereof, filed June 13th 2003, published December 15th 2005.2i B. Dacre and J. Hetherington, Electrical Conductivity of HITTS AdditivePackages for the JP-8+100Program, Rutherford Laboratory, Royal Military College of Science, Swindon,UK, 1997, Table 1, page325.18REVIEWED BY:AO3.3. AIRCRAFT EMISSIONREGULATIONS:http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  25. 25. CheckTheEvidence.com3.3.1. Regulatory standards:Engine emissions for civilaircraft are regulated. The UK Civil Aviation Authority publishes adatabank with information on exhaust emissions of only those aircraftengines that have enteredproduction. Engine manufacturers, who are solely responsible for itsaccuracy, provide this information based on a test run. It was collected inthe course of the work carriedout by the ICAO Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) buthas not been independentlyverified unless indicated. The UK CAA is hosting this Databank22This already reveals twoon behalfof ICAO and is not responsible for the contents, weaklinks:Themanufacturer provides data, based on few tests. Its reliability is notverified byany agency. Therefore one must rely entirely on the quality system of thatcompany.Militaryaircraft are actually exempted from this regulatory system as some aircraftare equipped with engines that are no longer used in commercial aviation.23 Althoughaircraft equipped with older engines mostly do not have a noise certificateand are subsequently denied landing rights on civil airports they can stillcross our airspace and land on AF Bases where those restrictions do notexist.As ICAO only publishes standards &recommended procedures, which must be integratedinto national legislation, some countries can promulgate derogations on emissionregulation.The regulatory standards are thosefound in the Standards & recommended procedures of the ICAO, Annex 16,Volume 2 (subsonic engines), Part III and include a standard for smoke,unburned Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx):PARAMETERREGULATORY LEVELS24http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  26. 26. CheckTheEvidence.comSmoke Number (SN)83,6 x (F<*>)0274 or50, whichever is lower; and Fco = rated engine outputHydrocarbons (HC)Dp/Foo = 19,6;and Dp = mass in grams of any pollutant emitted during thereferencelanding and take off.Carbon Monoxide (CO)Dp/F°o = 118Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)Variable level in function of engine age and engine pressureratio,ranging betweenDP/ Fœ =40 + 2FTo* (production before 31-12-95)And DP / Fco = 36 + 1,6[]o° (enginepressure ratio 82,6 ormore)And Yl00 = enginepressure ratioRefer toappendix 3 for a detailed explanation of these parameters.22ICAO Aircraft Emissions Engine Databank, UK CAA, Updated Julylôth 2007.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  27. 27. CheckTheEvidence.com23Aircraft Engine Speciated Organic Gases: Speciation of Unburned OrganicGases in Aircraft Exhaust,Assessment and Standards Division Office of Transportation and Air QualityU.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agencyand AEE-300 - Emissions Division Office of Environment and Energy FederalAviation Administration, FAA publication. May 2009, page 3.24ICAO Aircraft Emissions Engine Databank, chapter 7, regulatory standards, UKCAA, UpdatedJulylôth 2007.193.3.2. CaseStudy: civil versus military engine emissions.3.3.2.1.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  28. 28. CheckTheEvidence.comOutline25The introductionof these regulatory levels was a good move to wipe out obsolete commercialjet Aircraft, unless the engine were retro fitted and upgraded to stage III. Furthermorethe databank includes data of engines, which do not have to comply with theemission standards, but instead received wide derogations. This clearlyshows that this system is not fail safe, as it leaves too many backdoors.In order to make apoint let us examine more closely 3 different engine types:a) ThePW4048, new generation, which equips the Boeing 777.b) TheJT3D-3B that is still used on KC135 and B-52H bombers.c) TheCFM56-3C as used on the NASA APEX research as set in paragraph 3.2.2.Engine tests on the Pratt & Whitney PW4084 as used on the Boeing 777 wereperformed from April 26th till May 2nd 1994 for the measurement of data forthe ICAO data bank.26The KC135tanker, which is the military version of the Boeing 707, is equipped withJT3D-3B engines,tested between 1972 and 1974. Another version, the E-3 Sentry, better knownas theAwacs (Airborne Early Warning and Control System), is equippedwith TF33-PW100A of Inter Turbine Technologies, which are not included inthe ICAO Aircraft Emissions Engine Databank227http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  29. 29. CheckTheEvidence.com25 AirNavigation (Aircraft Noise) Regulations, Statutory rules 1984 N°188 asamended, February 22nd2002, Office of Legislative drafting, Attorny-Generals Department,Canberra, Australia.26Boeing Photo, credit K63367-0527 ImageCourtesy of the United States Department of Defence20PV3.3.2.2. Test resultsComparison of aircraft emission data as obtained on the test data sheetbetween the threeengine types reveals quite interesting information:PARAMETERhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  30. 30. CheckTheEvidence.comPW4084 (Boeing777)28JT3D-3B(KC135/ B52H)29CFM56-3C (APEX test)30Smoke Number SN (standard50)10,5054,509,9Hydrocarbons HC (standard19,6)2,90303,904,3Carbon Monoxide CO (standard118)19,50288,1065,7Oxides of Nitrogen NOx(standard42,69 for KC135; 79,38 for B777; 23,35 for theAPEX testengines)62,80http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  31. 31. CheckTheEvidence.com34,3053,1The test results have to beinterpreted as follows:a) Thedata obtained with the CFM56-3C-1, labeled in green color in the table, acts asreference. This engine type meets all regulatory standards and will be usedto establish the HC-emissions by the other engine types.b) Olderaircraft such as the KC135 tanker and the strategic bomber B-52H do emit substantialamounts of gaseous emissions. The NOx value of the JT3D-3B engine is lowerthan the data for the Boeing 777 engine due to its lower engine pressureratio. To put in simpler words: the more engine power available the higherthe emission of Nitrogen will be. This is considered as normal.c) Forsome unknown reasons derogation for the JT3D-3B engine has been granted inthe ICAO data sheet (see appendix 3): 395,4 for the HC-parameter and 328,2for CO. This is in fact anincrease of a very roval 2017,6% for the emission of Hydrocarbon and 278.2%for Carbon Monoxide.d) Ifone extrapolates the test results as published in paragraph 3.2.2 for theCFM56-3C engine the actualweight of each chemical compound is magnified by an unknown factor. One canassume that for instance the emission of Ethylene could well exceed ahundredfold the test data of 0,77 emission ratio in mmole / mole (seeappendix 1). There is no doubt that operation of airplanes with suchobsolete engines has a negative influence on public health.e) Apartfrom some minor airline companies on remote places the JT3D-3B engine isexclusively in use in military forces that are not subject to anyrestrictions of that kind.Although no data is available for engines used on the E-2 / E-3 SentryAwacs model one can assume that its emissions are similar, because some airforces such as the Royal Air Force, the French Arméede lAir andthe Saudian forces already have retrofitted their E-3s with morecontemporary CFM-engines.Copies of the ICAO documents forthe 3 engine types can be found in appendix 3.28 ICAOEngine Exhaust Emissions Databank, Subsonic Engines, PW4084, July, 18th2007.29 ICAOEngine Exhaust Emissions Databank, Subsonic Engines, JT3D-3B, October, 1st2004.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  32. 32. CheckTheEvidence.com30 ICAOEngine Exhaust Emissions Databank, Subsonic Engines, CFM56-3C-1, October,1st 2004.213.3.2.3. Production numbersof the KC-135 Stratotanker:In orderto know if excessive emissions of these military aircraft are statisticallysignificant onemust assess how of them have been build and the percentage of militarytraffic in global aviation. Production of the KC135 ceased in 1965. In1988 Boeing Company performeda mid life upgrade on 746 airplanes, clearly denoting the long activeservice of that airplane.31About 410 airframes have been upgradedsince with CFM56 engines.32Additionally a batch of 33 E-3Sentry aircraft has been build of whom 17 are in use in NATO forces. Theseaircraft, which have not been retrofitted with CFM-engines33,operate mainly from Geilenkirchen AFB (German - Dutch border) with amultinational crew under Luxemburg flag with apparently a civil registrationnumber. The reason for this is quite complex. In summary official NATOsources state that it is not possible to use markingsof all member countries and they had to find a member nation whoselegislation in this area was sufficiently accommodating to provide the ForceCommander with enough latitudeand flexibility to make up his crews as required and organize maintenanceoperations.34 ThusRegistration of the E-3As with NATOs smallest member nation, Luxemburg, wasproposed.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  33. 33. CheckTheEvidence.comNote theflag of Luxemburg on the tail section and underneath the wing of this E-3Aat GeilenkirchenAFB. Its registration number is a civil LX-code. This airplane is still equippedwith older TF33-PW100A engines (credit: official NATO AWACS website).It isquite intriguing that airplanes with a Luxemburg (semi) civil registrationdo not need to complywith the ICAO engine emission databank and can do things at their ownconvenience. Furthermore Mr. D. Rumsfeld, former minister of defense underthe Bush administration,declared that an upgrading program of the B-52 and KC-135 would only bepartly implemented as a result of cost cutting programs.35 ANATO survey suggests that theAwacs aircraft are sustainable beyond 2025. 6These old aircraft with high HC- and CO-emissions are likely to stay in theair for a while. The fact that Geilenkrichen AFB will not be closed in theyear 2025 as planned but even see its runway extended underlines3i Boeing Integrated Defence Systems website, Stratotanker overview.32 CFMNews, USAF expands CFM56-2-powered RC-135 fleet, July, 22nd 2002.33 CFMNews, USAF expands CFM56-2-powered RC-135 fleet, July, 22nd 2002.34Official NATO Airborn Early Warning and Control Force website www.e3a.nato.int,E-3A Component,FAQ, Question 14 Why is there a red lion on the tail?35 GlobalSecurity, SECAF lays out case for tanker upgrade, Master sgt S. Elliott, AirForce Print News, March 7th, 2003.36 NATOAirborne Early Warning and Control Program, US Air Force Maj. Gen. G.Winterberger, NAEW&C Force Commander and P. McCaffrey NAPMA, Plans andEvaluation Division, March 2nd, 2005.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  34. 34. CheckTheEvidence.com22this.373.3.2.4. Percentage ofmilitary traffic in global aviation:Althoughthe majority of air traffic on this planet is civilian, military operationsrepresent almostthe most important segment in aviation38:Fractionof each Segments Daily Tr«rffi012 3 4 5 6B 9 10 111? 13 14 15 16 W 18 13 ÜÜ ¿182 S3 Local HourAccording to the Eurocontrolstatistics military traffic is actually the biggest segment between 8 AM and3 PM. Of course not all military traffic consists of KC-135 tankers and E-3Sentry aircraft, but one must bear in mind that very substantial resourcesin an Air Force are used to keep the Defense Force (Multi Role Units &Ground units in crisis zones) operational and this includes a lot oflogistics in the form of transport wings. This does not only include modernaircraft as the C-17 Globemaster but also obsolete planes asthe Lockheed C-130, which is still in use in many Air Forces and is notsubject to study in thissurvey.However,when taking into account that some part of civil cargo traffic is performedhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  35. 35. CheckTheEvidence.comon behalf of the military then we can assume that the military segment topsabove 10% at regularintervals.3.3.2.5. Conclusions of thistest case:The logical conclusion obtained bycombining the data as mentioned above is that the militarysegment is statistically important and that airplanes with excessive HC-,CO- and NOx-emissions arestill widely used, although airplanes such as the KC135 and E-3 complywith ICAO-Standards and Recommended Procedures.This is actually unacceptable inthe view of the efforts being made by civil operators in orderto comply with environmental requirements. Efforts should be made bypoliticians to phase outthose aircraft equipped with engines that do not meet the basic regulatorylevels as set in the ICAO. This encompasses the workforce of about 300KC-135 in the United States and all of the E-3 Sentry aircraft based atGeilenkirchen. In this respect it is a total contradiction that theseaircraft are allowed to operate under a Luxemburg LX-registrationnumber, bearing in mind that its engine types are even not listed in theICAO-databank.37 De Limburger,Limburgs dagblad, Basis Awacs blijft ook na 2025 gewoon open, December15th,2009.38Eurocontrol Trends in Air Traffic, Volume 5, Dependent on the dark: cargoand other night flights inEuropean Airspace, 2009.23http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  36. 36. CheckTheEvidence.comREVIEWED BY:AO4. EFFECTS OFCONTRAILS ON CLIMATENo more than a few decades remainbefore the chance to avert the threats we now confront will be lost and theprospects for humanity immeasurably diminished. We, the undersigned membersof the world scientific community, warn all humanity what lies ahead. Agreat change in the stewardship of the Earth and life on it is required ifvast humanmisery is to be avoided and our global home on this planet not to beirretrievable mutilated."WorldScientists, warning to humanity", document signed by1600 senior scientists from 71 countries, published in Time,Planet of the Year, November 18th 1992,Publication rejected by the New York Times and WashingtonPost as not newsworthy244. EFFECTS OF CONTRAILS ONCLIMATE:4.1. Effects of contrails oncloud formation:4.1.1. Characteristics ofCirrus clouds:Cirrus clouds (WMO abbreviation Ci) areformed in a natural way when water vapor freezesinto ice crystals at altitudes above 8000 meters (26,000 ft) in the higherpart of thetroposphere. The exact altitude depends also on the heightof tropopauze, the boundary with the stratosphere and the higher levels ofearths atmosphere. That means that Cirrus clouds in polar regions willhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  37. 37. CheckTheEvidence.comappear at a much lower altitude than at the equator.Due to the sparse moisture at ahigh altitude, Cirrus clouds are very thin. Fall streaks, sometimesalso called Virgae, form when ice crystals fall from Cirrus clouds. Thechange in wind with height and how quickly these ice crystals fall determinethe shapes and sizes the fall streaks attain. Since ice crystals fall muchmore slowly than raindrops, fall streaks tendto be stretched out horizontally as well as vertically. Cirrus streaks maybe nearly straight, shaped like a comma, or seemingly all tangled together.As wind velocity increases with altitude they may be spread over largeareas. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of jet streams, whichsplits the cells of the different tropopauze layers. Sometimesone can even see the clouds moving fast from the ground.39There are other cloud typesassociated with Cirrus such as the Cirrostratus (WMO abbreviationCs) and the Cirrocumulus (WMO abbreviation Cc), but these are generally relatedto incoming frontal systems and are further omitted from this survey.AlthoughCirrus clouds look thin they may occupy a significant part of the sky up to30% andeven more in some areas - in meteorological terms called scattered (SCT)up to broken (BKN). Transmittance of direct and diffuse sunlight is about80%.Global map of average Cirrus cloudcover based on the ISCCP cloud database for the period 1984 - 1999 (in %cloud cover)39WMO website, Meteoroligical Codes for high altitude clouds.40Is there a trend in Cirrus cloud cover due to aircraft traffic?, F. Stordal et al., Atmos.Chem. Phys., 5,(2005)21555-2161.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  38. 38. CheckTheEvidence.com25Changes in the Cirrus cloud coverin percentage between the two periods 1992-199941and 1984-1991.4.1.2. Impact of Cirrus cloudson climate:The climate of the Earth resultsfrom an energy balance between absorbed sunlight and radiative losses ofheat from Earth and its atmosphere to space. Clouds are an importantmodulator in this balance. Clouds reflect sunlight back toward space, whichreduces the solar energy available to the Earth - also called the Albedoeffect. Clouds also reduce radiative heat losses to space (greenhouseeffect). Which of these two opposing processesdominates depends on many parameters including cloud particle composition,cloud structure, cloud cover, and cloud location. Changes to only one ofthese parameters can havesignificant implications for climate.42http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  39. 39. CheckTheEvidence.com41 Idemas footnote 40.42 KinneS., Cirrus Clouds and climate, NASA Ames Research Center webpage.26Thegreenhouse effect is weak for low altitude clouds, so their Albedo effectdominates and they cool the Earths climate. Incontrast, cold high altitude Cirrus clouds may either coolor warm the climate.This will prove to be a key element whether to determine if weathermodification programs are being conducted on the planet in order to reduceglobal warming.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  40. 40. CheckTheEvidence.comCirrus clouds have thus a stronggreenhouse effect, which may outweigh their Albedo effect losses. As theimportance of both opposing effects depends critically on little understoodCirrus properties, theoretical calculations of the climatic effects ofCirrus are controversial. The main uncertainty stems from a currentinability to calculate the scatteringof sunlight in Cirrus clouds, since they contain a multitude of ice crystalshapes and sizes, and areirregular in structure. Even more, Stefan Kinne of the NASA Ames ResearchCenter states clearly that the Cirrus Albedo effect is severelyunderestimated by calculations.43Thisproves that knowledge in this field of science is quite limited andextensive research ismandatory in order to fully understand the impact of Cirrus clouds onclimate. In this respectit is noteworthy that evidence of thin Cirrus clouds in the Stratosphere hasalready been established.444.1.3. Development of contrailsinto Cirrus clouds:Contrails, a man made phenomena,are not listed as such in the WMO cloud coding. In thehigh cloud section of the document the only possible link with contrails isthe Cirrus in the form ofhooks, filaments, or both, progressively invading the sky - WMO code 0509,section 4. Refer to appendix 4 for the full cloud coding as provided by theWMO.Because contrails are not listedin the WMO decoding table there is logically no instrumentto catalogue them or to make them an inherent part of a weather forecast(TAF in aviation). Whencontrails turn into Cirrus clouds they are just incorporated in the actualweather report (METAR in aviation). As there are no instruments formeasurement most meteorologists just limit their impact on climate as beingonly esthetic.Not all contrails develop intoCirrus clouds and if they do, what is the exact scientific base? Well,aircraft emissions as explained in paragraph 3.2.2. are actually aerosols, microscopicparticles suspended in the air.45 Theyact like seeds: water molecules can condenseor freeze on to them to form cloud particles.Sulpheric Acid (H2S04)increases as a result of gas-phase oxidation processes. Soot particlesbecome chemically activated by adsorption and binary heterogeneousnucleation of Sulphur Trioxid (S03, a chemical compound ofSulphur and Oxygen) and H2S04 inthe presence of H20,leading to the formation of a partial liquid H2S04/H20coating. Upon further cooling, volatile liquid H2S04/H20droplets are formed by binary homogeneous nucleation, whereby the chemi-ionsact as preferred nucleation centers. These aerosols grow in size bycondensation and coagulation processes (clotting).Coagulation between volatile particles and soot enhances the coating andforms a mixed H2S04/H20-soot aerosol, whichis eventually scavenged by background aerosol particles atlonger times. If liquid H20 saturation is reached in the plume, acontrail forms. Ice particleshttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  41. 41. CheckTheEvidence.comare created in the contrail mainly by freezing of exhaust aerosols.Scavenging of exhaust particles and further deposition of H20leads to an increase of the ice mass. The43Kinne S., Cirrus Clouds and climate, NASA Ames Research Center webpage.44Keckhut P., Hauchecorne A., Bekki S., Colette A., David C, and Jumelet C,Evidences of thin Cirrusclouds in the stratosphere at mid-latitudes, Service dAeronomie/InstitutPierre-Simon Laplace, CNRS,Verrieres leBuisson, France,Received: 28 December 2004 - Accepted: 17 January 2005 - Published: 21June 200545NASA Facts, Glenn Research Center, Article FS-2000-04-010-GRC, Safeguardingour atmosphere,Glenn Research reduces harmful aircraft emissions. 27contrailpersists in ice-supersaturated air and may develop into a Cirrus cloud.Short-lived andpersistent contrails return residual particles into the atmosphere uponevaporation. The scavengingtimescales are highly variable and depend on the exhaust and backgroundaerosol size distributionsand abundances, as well as on wake mixing rates.Thismeans that the formation of contrails not only depend on the amount of HC-,CO and NOx engine emissions but also on the fuel type being used. In thisrespect it is likely that older engines operating on fuels with additionaladditives as highlighted in the case study producemore persistent contrails.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  42. 42. CheckTheEvidence.com4.1.4. Impact of aviation onthe formation of men made Cirrus:Beforediscussing the possible impact of contrails on climate one has to assess themost popularflying routes as well as the projected evolution of aviation on the globe.The most congested trafficpatterns are situated between the East and West coast of the United States,overhead the North Atlantic and between major cities in Europe. When we lookat the trend in commercial aviation the number of flights may well double inthe next ten years. In order to avoid airspace saturation on the busiestroutes Air Traffic Control agencies such as CANAC in Brussels anticipatedthis development by introducing new transponders(Mode S) in November 2009 to allow smaller separation standards between airplanes.-30--W-190-70 -eo 3ingtoit46This map shows the distances flownwith aircrafts for the year 2000 between 9800 and 11600 m altitude.It shows also 10 regions from which a correlationbetween aircraft density andCirrus trends has been analyzed and proven.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  43. 43. CheckTheEvidence.com46 Isthere a trend in Cirrus cloud cover due to aircraft traffic?, F. Stordal et al., Atmos.Chem. Phys., 5, (2005)21555-2161.28XM Xtl MM »<71W0 IMS IMSThis graph showsthe projected growth in freight in freight ton kilometers (FTK), accordingto estimation from Boeing Corporation in 2002.47The predictedincrease in air traffic for the year 2009 has been hampered by the worstfinancial crisis since the great depression in the thirties, but it still atits 2007 level - an increase of about 28% in comparison to the year when theabove graphics have been designed.According to theQuantify Project Group, which studies the climate impact of transportsystems in Europe, the amount of Cirrus clouds tends in general to decreaseon our planet, except inregions with high air traffic. For Europe it is estimated that thehttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  44. 44. CheckTheEvidence.comamount of Cirrus clouds, which can be attributed to air traffic increases by1-2% per decade. Aviation induced cloud cover is maybe 3-5% over Europe.48According to thesame source there are trends observed that increase in Cirrus cloud coverand in the fuel used by aircrafts go parallel. However, the consumed fuelincreases over the years less fast (33% for 1992 to 2000) than the distancetraveled by plane (+44%) since engines became more efficient. Military airtraffic has also significantly increased since the second Gulf war and thesubsequent war on terror - putting reserve squadrons of the National Guardwith older technology back in action.Whiteleg andCambridge from the Stockholm Environment Institute even expressively statesthat aviation poses a threat on different stakeholders:49On global level:affecting whole eco-systems.Regional: e.g. theEuropean theatre.Local: e.g. livingin the vicinity of Frankfurt airport.Community: livingin the immediate surrounding of Frankfurt airport.Health impact:possible diseases on all levels.47 WhitelegJ and Cambridge H, Aviation and Sustainability, Stockholm EnvironmentInstitute, 2004.48 EU FP6Integrated Project Quantify, Quantifying the climate impact of global andEuropean TransportSystems., 2006.49Whiteleg J and Cambridge H, Aviation and Sustainability, StockholmEnvironment Institute, 2004,page 15.29http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  45. 45. CheckTheEvidence.comt o fo y //*Pi/GLOBALREGIONALLOCALCOMMUNITYHEALTH IMPACThttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  46. 46. CheckTheEvidence.comCarbon DioxideContrailsSulphur DioxideNoise exposurePulmonary diseaseCirrus cloud formationAcidificationOzoneSleep disturbanceDVT - DeepVeinThrombosishttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  47. 47. CheckTheEvidence.comNitrogen OxidesPotential loss of habitatAirport pollutionBuilding damageRadiation exposureClimate changeReduction in biodiversityLocal traffic congestionRural disturbanceOzone depletionParticulate matter (PM)Poorerhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  48. 48. CheckTheEvidence.comeducationperformanceGlobal warmingContrails and formation of Cirrusclouds were thus in 2004 already known problems. However no action of anykind has been taken to solve this issue. The situation is even worse:international aviation emissions are excluded from the Kyoto Protocol andtherefore aviation enjoys the freedom to continue to pollute theatmosphere. It has now beenrecognized by the UK government (HMSO, 2004) that if aircraft emissions aretaken into account, it will not be able to meet its target of 60% reductionin greenhouse gases by theyear 2050."50There are other hints that anyeffort to reduce jet engine air emissions and subsequent pollution issystematically torpedoed for the sake of global economy. For instance the Reutersnews agency reported on November 23rd 2004that local air pollution agencies in theUnited States were pulling out of talks with the U.S. Environmental Agencyand the Federal Aviation Administration after 5 years of work with noacceptable results. The aim of this voluntary program was to develop ascenario for reduction of pollution and particulatematter (PM) of jet aircraft.51 Recentlysome new surveys have been conducted inorder to develop acceptable scenarios with a minimum financial impact oncompanies for contrail control. For instance Robert Sausen of theDLR-lnstitute for physics of the atmospherein Germany suggested a change in cruising altitude of commercial airplanes, withthe best option a reduction of 6000 ft.5 Howeverreducing the cruising altitude would signify a noticeable increase in fuelconsumption. It does not come as a surprise that these initiatives are keptsilent for the sake of return on investment, which is very low to negativein the sector (Start with a big fortune in aviation to acquire a smallone).It isundeniable that aviation has a significant impact on climate and somescientists agree thatit has not been quantified. Sausen even describes in this survey the levelof scientific50Same source as footnote 48, page 17.51Truth in aviation: efforts to reduce jet engine air pollution take a setback, Newsletter of the RegionalCommission on Airport Affairs, December 2004.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  49. 49. CheckTheEvidence.com52Sauser R, Climate impact by aviation and minimising it by operational means,DLR-Insttitut für Physikder Atmosphere, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, meeting on environmental impactof air traffic, Brussels,May 3rd 2007.30knowledge on Cirrus clouds andcontrails as poor. Refer to appendix 5 for an updated aviation radiativeforcing for the year 2000.A different pathway is theintroduction of a carbon tax on aviation operations. Besides the fact thatit would be a very profitable operation for some interest groups it is clearthat many airline companies would be forced to file for bankruptcy if acarbon tax would be levied on their operations, resulting in a net loss of 4million jobs in the United States alone.53 Alsoother countries such as Australia and India have objected against such tax andeven if the European Community votes such a law it would not only be delayedsignificantly by rearguard battles, but low cost flying would certainly be athing from the past.Bearing in mind that the Copenhagen summit in 2009 wasdeliberately torpedoed by the main industrial nations with the United Stateson top one can only conclude that the ongoing scenario is to develop optionsthat ensure Business as Usual. Even the Kyoto Protocolcan be considered as mere occupation therapy for the development of alucrative cap & tradesystem.4.2. EFFECT OF CONTRAILS ONTEMPERATURE:4.2.1. Variations in the dailytemperature range as a result of contrails:Although it is clear that aircraft emissions have animpact on climate it is quite difficult to measure this, because aviation isjust part of everyday life. However there has been one small window ofopportunity to perform a reliable scientific survey, at the time that all commercialflights within the U.S. airspace were grounded for a period of 3 days afterthe events of 11 September2001.54http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  50. 50. CheckTheEvidence.comThis survey, performed by David J.Travis, Andrew M. Carlton and Ryan G. Lauritsen, released in final form 2years later (!), revealed a departure of average diurnal temperature range(DTR) from the normal values derived from the 1971 - 2000 climatology datafor the indicated 3-day period in 2001. DTR values for 11 to 14 Septemberduring the grounding period, measured at stations across the United States,showan increase of about 1,1 °Cin comparison with the normal values.55This increase is larger than anyduring the 11-14 September period for the previous 30 years,giving ammunition to critics who state that weather conditions at thisspecific period were veryextraordinary and no scientific based conclusions could be taken. However evenmore surprising is the fact that the 11-14 September increase in DTR wasmore than twice thenational average for regions of the United States where contrail coveragehas previously been reported to be most abundant, such as the Midwest,Northeast and Northwest regions.56In thesubsequent days after September 14th whencivil flight operations resumed there wasa temperature drop of about 0,8°C, denoting the return to normalconditions. This underlines the impact of contrails on global surfacetemperatures with a noteworthy coolingdown effect, especially reducing the maximum day temperatures. A new proofthat aviationsignificantly affects climate emerged after the massive grounding in Europein53 Kreutzer D,Ph.D., The economic impact of cap and trade, testimony before the energy andcommercecommitee U.S House of Representatives, April 22, 2009.54Nature, Volume 418, August,8 2002, Contrails reduce the daily temperaturerange, a brief intervalwhen the skies were clear of jets unmasked an effect on climate.55Travis D.J., Carleton A.M. and Lauritsen R.G, Regional variations in U.S.diurnal temperature range forthe 11-14 September 2001 aircraft groundings: evidence of jet contrailinfluence on climate, Journal ofClimate, Volume 17, published March 1st 2004.56DeGrand J, Carleton A.M., Travis D.J. & Lamb, P.J. Appl. Meteorol,39,1434-1459, published in 2000.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  51. 51. CheckTheEvidence.com 312010 due to the volcano eruptionin Iceland. It is too early to assess the quality of the survey, but theKings College in London claims that airports are air polluters.The fullpaper covering the regional variation in U.S. diurnal temperature rangeduring the 9-11 events, the summary from the magazine Nature as well asthe press release of April»nd22 ,2010 from the Kings College London can be viewed in appendix 6.4.2.2. Global warming potentialof aircraft engine emissions:After the first reports ofClimate Gate, the deliberate manipulation of weather data for IPCCpurposes that emerged on the surface during the Copenhagen summit forclimate change in 2009,one can even wonder if there is any global warming at all57.Climate change is a more appropriate term.Nevertheless the potential of global warming of gaseous emissions fromaircraft engines isnot to be neglected. Global warming potential (GWP) is the impact agreenhouse gas has on global warming expressed over a 100-year time period.The GWP of each greenhouse gas depends on its ability to absorb heat in theatmosphere. By definition, C02 isused as reference case, with a GWP of 1.Globalwarming potential values enable an increase or reduction of any of thegreenhouse gasesto be expressed as an equivalent reduction of C02over a 100-yearperiod. Table 4.2.2-1 lists the GWP of the greenhouse gases covered by Kyotoas well as those others related to aviation emissions:58Greenhouse gashttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  52. 52. CheckTheEvidence.comChemical formulaGWP 100 year time horizonCarbon DioxideC021MethaneCH421Nitrogen OxideN20310PerfluorobutaneC4F107000http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  53. 53. CheckTheEvidence.comPerfluorocyclobutanec-C4F88700Sulphur HexafluorideSF823900The GWP of greenhouse gases isquite high. According to the study of the Stockholm Environmental Instituteaviation emissions account for around 3.5 per cent of mans contributionto global warming from fossil fuel use. By 2050, this percentage could growto between 4 per cent and15 per cent (IPCC data from1999 and provided the data is not corrupted byClimate Gate.)59However this global warming potential is not realized ascan be concluded in the post 9-11 survey. There are three possible reasonsfor this:57Climate change: this is the worst scientific scandal of our generation,Daily telegraph, November 28th2009.58Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995: The Scienceof Climate Change(Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996), Table 2-9, "RadiativeForcing of Climate Change,"p. 120.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  54. 54. CheckTheEvidence.com59Whiteleg J and Cambridge H, Aviation and Sustainability, StockholmEnvironment Institute, 2004,page 1732 APPROVEDThe cooling down effect due to theformation of contrails and subsequent Cirrus outweighs the Global WarmingPotential of the gaseous engine emissions. There are no known scientificstudies on this topic.Additional additives have been incorporated in jet fuel in order to counterglobal warming.A combination of both scenarios.As willbe explained in a different paragraph several patents and scientificresearch papersexist for cloud seeding in an attempt to counter global warming.4.3. EFFECT OF CONTRAILS ONPRECIPITATION:4.3.1. Precipitationprinciples:Precipitation occurs when thefollowing conditions are met:- There must be moisture in theair. A cold parcel of air can contain less moisturethan warm air. Relative humidityincreases when the air parcel is adiabatically cooled(e.g. orographic lifting) or moisture is added to that parcel (e.g. air mass pickingup moist from an ocean) or a combination of both.- Condensationnuclei, such as dust particles, must be abundant.- Thedroplets or ice crystals must be heavier than the updrafts. Mounting aircurrentsare a result of instable air (cold air moving in over a warmer surface) and producecumuliform clouds, the Cumulonimbus or Thunderstorm being its supreme form.The higher the updrafts the more violent the precipitation will be. Instable weather conditions the droplet tends to fall as soon as it is formeddue to the limitedupdrafts.Moreoverhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  55. 55. CheckTheEvidence.comprecipitation is much more likely in low-pressure areas where frontalsystems areallowed to slip in. However thermal thunderstorms may develop at any placeon earth,except at the poles where temperatures do not permit this. A new developmentin climate change is theintroduction of super cells with deep rotating updrafts that bust throughthe stratosphere, with extensive hail and extreme turbulence as a result.The crash of Air France flight 447 on its way from Riode Janeiroto Paris in June 2009 with the loss of 224 lives is probably attributed tothe presence of such cell on its flight path.4.3.2. Relation betweencontrails, air temperature and precipitation:Thequestion arises if contrails and their switch into men made Cirrus have animpact on precipitation.In that respect 3 counter posing elements have to be distinguished:a) Jetengine emissions with extensive aerosol production deliver quite somecondensation nuclei on which droplets can form. This increases theprobability of additional precipitation.b) Howeveras shown in the survey in paragraph 4.2.1 a significant temperature drop isnoted due to the formation of contrails. As cold air can contain lessmoisture than a warm parcel of air precipitation could decrease.c) BecauseContrails are formed in the upper part of the troposphere the subsequent reductionin temperature could trigger additional instability in the atmosphere. Forexample an ascending air particle in a Cumulonimbus cloud would indeed meetalmost no resistance when nearing the tropopauze because it is always warmerthan the surrounding air. As a result it will bust through the tropopauzeand enter the stratosphere. Only the isothermal layer in the stratosphereprevents the thunderstorm shooting much higher. To put it in differentwords: contrails may inducethe formation of super cells. Very limited scientific field research hasbeen 33performedon that topic, but this conclusion is only a matter of logic.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  56. 56. CheckTheEvidence.comIt is clear that there is arelation between these parameters, but scientists have failed to quantifythe parameters. This is nothing new in meteorology: since the introductionof the Bergeron-Findeisen precipitation theory in 1935 it has beencontinuously evaluated and criticized60,but scientists can still not determine why a single cumulus develops into athunderstormwhile its neighbor doesnt.The same applies in thisdiscussion. A survey by Yun Qian and his colleagues, published in 2009,revealed long-term observational data that both the frequency and amount of lightrain have decreased in eastern China for 1956-2005 with high spatialcoherency and this as aresult of increased aerosol concentration in the atmosphere.61 Aviationhas not been particularly targeted in this survey, but aircraft engineemissions have to be considered as a variant on this.Professor D. Rosenfeld of theInstitute of earth Sciences at the Hebrew university of Jeruzalem(Israel) has come up with a surprising finding to the disputed issue whetherair pollution increases ordecreases rainfall. The conclusion of the study group is as follows: bothcan be true, depending on local environmental conditions. The amount ofaerosols is thecritical factor controlling how the energy is distributed in the atmosphere.62 According tothis survey they followed the energy flow through the atmosphere and the wayit is influenced by aerosols and other airborne particles. On this planetthere is indeed an interactionof energy between the different cells within the troposphere in order toobtain a life sustainingtemperature (15°C in the International Standard Atmosphere at sea level).Aerosolsact twofold: on one hand they act like a sunscreen reducing the amount of energyreaching the ground. Accordingly less water evaporates and the air mass at groundlevel stays cooler and drier, with a reduced tendency to rise and formclouds.FigureI: Ice cloud microphysical modelAerosols act as a sunscreen with asubsequent reduction of energy reaching the ground. Some sources refer tothis phenomenon as global dimming.63http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  57. 57. CheckTheEvidence.com60 StickleyA.B., An evaluation of the Bergeron-Findeisen precipitation theory, MonthlyWeather Review,October 1940.« Qian, Y., D. Gong, J. Fan, L. R. Leung, R. Bennartz, D. Chen, and W. Wang(2009), Heavy pollutionsuppresses light rain in China: Observations and modeling,/. Geophys.Res., 114, D00K02,doi:10.1029/2008JD011575.62Rosenfeld D, Does air pollution increase rainfall?, Hebrew University ofJeruzalem, September 5th2009.63 geo.arc.nasa.gov/sge/jskiles/fliers/gif_folder/imagelO/imagelOa.gif34On the other hand, without naturalaerosols such as dust particles there would be no cloud droplets becausethey act as gathering points for air humidity, the so called condensationnuclei as explained in the previous paragraph. When the droplet is formed,energy is released in the form of heat during the condensation process. Thisenergy level for the evaporation - condensation process is significantlyhigher than during the freezing / melting process (540 Calories /g versus 80Calories /g). Due to the released heat the air parcel gets lighter than thesurrounding air and is allowed to rise further. However, if there is asurplus of these condensation nuclei as a result of natural activity (e.g.Vulcan eruption) or mens intervention (e.g. industrial pollution,contrails), the droplets never reach the critical mass needed to fall toearth as precipitation becausethere is just not enough water to share between all the aerosol particles.Furthermore with a rising numberof droplets their overall surface increases, which on turn increases theamount of sunlightreflected back to space with subsequent cooling and drying of the Earth.In a nutshell the study of Prof.Rosenberg shows the following: with rising pollution, the amount ofprecipitation at first rises, then maxes out and finally falls off sharplyat very high aerosol concentrations. Of even more interest is hisconclusion: The practical result isthat in relatively clean air, adding aerosolsup to the amount that releases the maximum ofhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  58. 58. CheckTheEvidence.comavailable energy increases precipitation. Beyond that point, increasing theaerosol load even further, lessens precipitation. This opens of course aninteresting window towards future climate control by regulating the amountof aerosols that are released in the upper troposphere. To put it in thewords of Prof. Rosenberg: The determination of this issue is one withsignificant consequences in an era of climate change and especially in areassuffering from manmade pollution and water shortages, including Israel.This is indeed very true: domestic water supplies are the emerging assets onEarth. The outline of the survey of Prof. Rosenberg can be found in appendix7.4.4. OTHER EFFECTS OFCONTRAILS:4.4.1. Dehydration of thestratosphere due to contrails:Theextreme dryness of the stratosphere is believed being caused byfreeze-drying of air asit enters the stratosphere through the cold tropical tropopause.Sedimentation of ice crystals in the thin Cirrus may provide a significantdownward flux of water vapor. It has also recently been suggested thatgravity waves generated by convection may drive the formationof ice clouds in the lower stratosphere and that precipitation of crystalsin these clouds may serveas a stratospheric dehydration mechanism.6A quiteintriguing article appeared on the USA Today website on January 28th 2010in the veryevening hours, stating that water vapor may flatten the global warmingtrend.65This statement has first beenpublished in the Science Journal by senior scientist Susan Solomon of theNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Boulder, Colo. Solomonwas also a co-chair of one of the groups within the Intergovernmental Panelon Climate Change that putout the definitive forecast of global warming in 2007. The fact that theIPCC got stuck in one of the greatest climate scandals revealed by the Daily telegraphon November 28th 2009,also better known as Climate Gate with huge fraud of climatologie databy Prof. Phil Jones of the University of east Anglia (UEA) over long years66,does not improve credibility of any panel member.In this respect it is noteworthythat the UK Information Commissioners Office that leads64 Jensen,E. J., 0. B. Toon, L. Pfister, and H. B.Selkirk (1996), Dehydration of the upper troposphere andlower stratosphere by subvisible Cirrusclouds.65Doyle R., water vapor may flatten the global warming trend, USA Today withcontribution ofAssociated Press, January 28th 2010.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  59. 59. CheckTheEvidence.com66Booker C, Climate change: this is the worst scientific scandal of ourgeneration, Daily Telegraph,November 28th 2009. 35the investigation decided that theUEA failed in its duties but said that it could not prosecute those involvedbecause the complaint was made too late.67 Althoughit looks that Climate Gate will end in the bin as a result ofadministrative red tape and carefully plannedlobby work, a new leak has already emerged on January 30th 2010when the Daily Telegraph (again) published that the UN expert panel claimson climate change are based on a students dissertation and an article in amountaineering magazine.68At a closer look the claim in Mrs.Solomons 10/10/10 paper goes even further: 10% decreasein water vapor at 10 miles above our heads during the last 10 years hasslowed down the rate of earths warming by 25%.69 Thequestion where the water vapor went to, remains open. But according to thissurvey it is surprising how big the impact is of such small change (10%!)in water vapor on the surface climate. But according to that survey thisisnt an indication that predictions on global warming are overstated: "Thisdoesnt meanthere isnt global warming," notes Solomon. "Theres no significant debatethat it is warmer now thanit was 100 years ago, due to anthropogenic (man-made) greenhouse gases."No onecan be surprised that this survey has been ridiculed as a hoax in theaftermath of ClimateGate. However when combining the study material obtained by Jensen in 1996 withthe very recent survey by Mrs. Solomon it is obvious that there is a linkbetween the occurrence of natural plus man made Cirrus clouds near thetropopauze, the dehydration ofthe stratosphere and the flattening of the global warming trend. When thisknowledge is linked with the surveys of previous paragraphs it becomescrystal clear that aerosols emittedby aircraft engines have a significant impact on precipitation patterns andsurface temperatures.4.4.2. Other factors affectingclimate change:Althoughchanges in precipitation patterns, surface temperature and stability of theair massare quite measurable parameters there might be other intangible factors:One ofthe most obvious side effects of the formation of contrails is the impact on astronomy.One has seldom a clear sky available for observation in areas with dense airtraffic.Withhttp://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  60. 60. CheckTheEvidence.comchanging cloud cover and subsequent temperature drop in the upper layer of thetroposphere, hurricane activity may be increased as a result of the releasedinstability. It is noteworthy that storms and major floods have more thantripled since1981.70 No apparentrelationship between aircraft engine emissions, aerosols,contrails and hurricane activity has been established yet on ascientifically basis.It isaccepted that knowledge on man made Cirrus cloud is relatively poor and that studyof the impact of contrails on the Stratosphere is only in its initialphases. However one can assume that it might have an impact on higher layersand the ozone layer. Ozone depletion does not only occur as a result ofindustrial activity, butalso due to multiple nuclear tests conducted in the 20thcentury.67Webster B., Scientists in stolen E-mail scandal hid climate data, LondonTimes, January 28th 2010.68Gray R. And Lefort R., UN Climate change panel based dims on studentdissertation and magazinearticle, Daily Telegraph, January 30th 2010.69Solomon S., ten percent decrease water vapor in the stratosphere slowsearths warming trend, theScience Paper, January 28th 2010.70Global Environmental Outlook, GE04 Environment for Development, UnitedNations EnvironmentalProgramme, 2007. 36http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  61. 61. CheckTheEvidence.com5. CONTRAILSAND WEATHER MANIPULATIONIf the ionosphere is greatlydisturbed, the atmosphere below is subsequently disturbed."Charles A. Yost, author of"Electrical forces applied to basic weather phenomena", 1992.375. CONTRAILS AND WEATHERMANIPULATION:5.1. FROM CHEMTRAILS TOGEO-ENGINEERING:5.1.1. Scientific basis for aweather manipulation system:In theprevious paragraphs it has been clearly denoted that man made contrails dohave a significantand measurable impact on temperature and precipitation on the planet.Especially the data obtained by Professor D. Rosenfeld (see paragraph 4.3.1)proves to be quite solid to sponsor a weather manipulation theory, sincealtering the aerosol doses in the atmosphere can either increase or decreaseprecipitation patterns.Thisopens a window on a scientific basis in order to produce scenarios tocounter global climatechange, providing that the designers of that system bear the followingconsiderations in mind:Development of a reliable matrixof aerosol ingredients versus field conditions.Engineering of a efficient, reliable but low cost system in order to seedthe atmosphere.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  62. 62. CheckTheEvidence.comSponsorship through government agencies with a far-reaching commitment of captainsof industry.Actually all elements - except thereliability factor - are in place in order to justify the creationor even the existence of such a system: advanced technology is at hand andfinancing the system through cap & trade systems ensures nearly unlimitedfunding. If operated forthe benefice of mankind a weather modification could solve manyenvironmental issues, such as reversing desertification and avoid the worstconsequences of a global climate change.However,from a military point of view the organization owning the property rights ofsuch a system also has capability to manipulate temperature andprecipitation patterns of other nations,and this at very low cost. Imagine what could happen if such a system fallsin the hands of a rogue state: it would change global dominationpatterns. Therefore it is unimaginable that civilians run a weathermodification system if it came into existence.Conspiracy theories flourishnowadays as never before. It is of no surprise that stories of weathermanipulation systems, such as chemtrails and HAARP, already have foundtheir way to the Internet.Policy makers write these off as a hoax, because there is no hard scientificevidence for their existence. And if they exist, they are kept secret -which is quite obvious. However it is common knowledge that governmentpolicy annex history is manipulated at the discretion of the manipulatedstate. There are countless examples of this in human history and ClimateGate is without doubt also one of them. All these elements necessitate acloser look to the chemtrail phenomenon, starting from its origin. This iscovered in the next paragraph.This chapter will furthermore notonly prove that weather manipulation through contrail formationis not that fictional, but will also produce evidence through patents andresearch documents thatthis system is in place and fully operational.5.1.2. Conspiracy theorycharacter of chemtrails:With the huge explosion ofaviation traffic during the last 10 years it was a matter of time beforesomeone would question the ever-increasing amount of contrails. The firstreference to production of contrails for specific purposes as described inparagraph 2.4, seemsto date from an article by William Thomas dated January 8th,1999. In that text the suspiciousof three people about contrails is recounted. Soon afterwards this man wasinvited onto a popular radio show at that time (Art Bell), marking thebeginning of a real 38http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  63. 63. CheckTheEvidence.com71Internet phenomenon. Apparentlyit has cross-fertilized itself. A comparison of Internet hitsfor chemtrails between the years 2004 and 2010 is as follows:7220042010Change in %Google791.0001.260.000+59,3%Blogs4828152.000+3148,3%Images9180http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54
  64. 64. CheckTheEvidence.com170.000+1851,8%Videos212347.800+2251,5%News522+440%Forums38110.000+289.473,7%This reveals a number ofinteresting developments:Attentionby the general public for the chemtrail phenomenon has increased significantlyduring recent years.Images on the Internet withcontrails and / or chemtrails have skyrocketed.Mainstream news does not hook inon the existence of chemtrails.http://www.checktheevidence.co.uk/cms Powered by Joomla! Generated: 11 November, 2012, 20:54

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