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Important scientists

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  • 1. A work lovingly created by Joanne Manaster Cell Biology and Bioengineering Instructor at the University of Illinois-Urbana September 2008
  • 2.
    • I could not decide how to order these slides—by date? Alphabetically? By country of origin? Or by the order we generally present the material in class?
      • I ultimately decided to list the discoverers in order of their birth year. I hope you can get an idea of the flow of science, if even just a little….
  • 3.
    • I am anticipating that those who have a strong biology background will get the most out of these slides. However, there are still things you can pick up even if that is not the case.
      • Especially if you have a good sense of humor!
    • Many, but not all, of you reading this will know what histology is…but just in case you don’t know:
    • If you can see an bodily structure with your eyes, this falls in the category of anatomy .
    • If you use a microscope to view the structure up close, then you would be doing histology .
  • 4.
    • Most histologists are German primarily because they made great microscopes.
      • The Japanese came to study with the Germans and thus they began making great microscopes, too!
    • Even though the French made great strides in early medical research, they were distrustful of microscopes and didn’t make many early histological discoveries
      • And the Russians studied with the French…hence…..
    • Studying histology was first made mandatory for medical students in 1893 by John’s Hopkins Medical School!
  • 5.
    • Photos of the scientists weren’t always available, so I did my best.
      • Expect a few substitutions!!
    • Thanks to Wikipedia for providing the jumping off point for many of the portraits and scientist information!
    • Enjoy!
    • Most histological pictures come from Wheater’s Functional Histology , my favorite text and atlas for this subject.
    • Check out http://www.whonamedit.com for more eponyms.
  • 6.
    • Italian who was one of the founders of anatomy
    • Added to knowledge of anatomy of the ear
      • Eustachian tube connects nasopharynx (throat) to middle ear to equalize pressure
    • Studied development and structure of teeth
    • Found the adrenal glands
    • Feared excommunication from the church if he published his anatomy book, Anatomical Engravings
      • Regardless, it became a best seller about a century later
  • 7.
    • 16 th century Italian anatomist
    • Studied the anatomy of the head and added to what was known about the inner ear
    • Known for the aquaductus Fallopi
      • the facial nerve passage
    • and more famously for the Fallopian tube in the female reproductive tract
    You’re looking at the tube in cross section. The lining tissue is highly folded and the cells lining the inside have cilia to help propel to newly released oocyte to the uterus
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • English anatomist and physician
      • Wrote first thorough account of the glands in the body
        • Adenographia
      • Explained the role of saliva in mastication
      • Discovered the thyroid and gave it that name
        • Thought it was there to make the neck shapely (uh oh, not quite)
      • Found the jelly in the umbilical cord called Wharton’s jelly
        • We now know this a great source of adult stem cells
      • Also found the submandibular salivary gland duct that bears his name.
    Mesenchymal cells: stem cells for all connective tissue –blood, bone, fat, cartilage, dermis, tendon, etc
  • 10.
    • Italian physician
      • Founder of microscopic anatomy and the first histologist
    • First to do the following:
      • Discovered taste buds
      • Discovered capillaries
      • Maybe first to see red blood cells under microscope
      • Chick embryology
      • Discovered that insects don’t use lungs to breathe
    • His name is on the following:
      • Malpighian layer of the skin
        • Term for basale and spinosum layers of epithelium
      • Malpighian corpuscles in the kidney & spleen
  • 11.
    • Dutch physician and anatomist
    • Invented a practical syringe
    • Describe functions of many parts of both male and female reproductive system
    • Collected secretions of the pancreas and gall bladder
    • The Graafian follicle in the ovary bears his name
      • Last stage of oocyte development before ovulation
  • 12.
    • Italian anatomist and physician
      • Made senior consulting physician to Pope Clement XI
    • Studied the kidney and discovered final ducts before the ureters called the Ducts of Bellini
  • 13.
    • Swiss anatomist
      • Author of an important work for veterinary medicine
      • Worked with Johann Conrad Brunner
      • Random fact-
        • he was a Calvinist (and so was Bernoulli)
    • Found discrete tissue areas in the ileum of the small intestine
      • He mistakenly thought patches secreted digestive enzymes
      • Are secondary lymphatic nodules (immune system)
        • All of the purple dots are lymphocytes
      • Ileum is the last part of the small intestine before the colon
        • Not to be confused with the ilium of the pelvic bone
  • 14.
    • English physician
    • Studied microstructure of bone
    • Haversian systems include a central blood vessel and nerve in the Haversian canal , lamellae, lacuna and canaliculi
      • Bone is laid down in calcified layers (like tree rings) (lamellae)
      • Bone cells live in the tiny holes (lacuna) and communicate via tiny channels (canaliculi)
  • 15.
    • Swiss Anatomist
    • Studied both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas
      • Removed the pancreas from a dog and saw the symptoms of diabetes
      • But, unfortunately didn’t make the leap to connect these symptoms to the disease seen in humans-oops!
    • Described the tubuloalveolar glands in duodenum
      • Brunner’s glands secrete an alkaline substance that helps neutralize stomach acid coming into the small intestine
  • 16.
    • German anatomist
    • Found the ampulla of Vater
      • Juncture of pancreatic duct and common bile duct
    • In 1719, he discovered oval shaped organs in the skin with concentric layers of connective tissue with a nerve ending in the center
    • Rediscovered by Filippo Pacini in 1831
    • Corpuscles of Vater-Pacini
  • 17.
    • German anatomist and physician
      • Invented the solar microscope
      • Also invented a reflector to view opaque specimens easily
    • Main histological contribution was discovering the glands of the small intestine and colon-the crypts of Lieberkuhn
      • Main source of various digestive enzymes
  • 18.
    • French physician and professor of anatomy in Paris
    • Discovered the innermost of the cornea’s five layers called Descemet’s membrane
    Johnny Depp He has the same initials As Jean Descemet. He likes to live in France and is seen here with a French style mustache and goatee, and undoubtedly has corneas! For that matter, my initials used to be JD I would like to live in France, will never have a beard and I do also have corneas! I also know more histology than Johnny Depp Just a wild guess on that one!
  • 19.
    • Bohemian physiologist
    • Pioneer in histological techniques
      • First to use something like a microtome
        • Like a mini meat slicer to section tissue
    • Described the Purkinje effect
      • as light intensity decreases red objects seem to fade faster than blue objects of the same brightness
    • Found Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex
    • Found Purkinje fibers of the heart
    • Introduced the term plasma
      • And protoplasm
  • 20.
    • Except for Pacini
      • Because he’s Italian?
      • And it truly just worked out this way! Weird!
  • 21.
    • German Professor of anatomy
      • May have robbed graves to obtain cadavers for his research and teaching
      • Injected red wax into arteries of cadavers to make them easier to view
    • Discovered corneal nerves of eye
    • Discovered canal of Schlemm
      • Collects aqueous humor from anterior chamber of the eye and delivers it to the blood stream
  • 22.
    • German physiologist, anatomist
    • Contributed to the understanding that sympathetic nerves arise from sympathetic and spinal ganglia
    • Found the blood vessel channels in bone called Volkmann’s canals
      • These run perpendicular to the Haversian canals
  • 23.
    • A Scottish anatomist and friend of Charles Darwin.
    • The “Father of Modern Physiology” in Britain
    • Spoke out about using unanesthitized animals for experimentation.
    • Wrote many papers about cilia and its function.
      • Cilia is found atop epithelial cells to help move items in the lumen along
    • Found the collagenous bundles that anchor the periosteum to the bone. (1848)
      • These fibers also anchor teeth to gums
      • Also binds cranial bones so they are firmly attached but moveable
      • His name is befitting the long pointy things he is credited with
        • Probably did NOT invent the Sharpie marker, although that would have been a pretty lucrative idea.
    Cortical bone periosteum Sharpey’s fibers
  • 24.
    • German physician, pathologist, anatomist
      • Wrote Handbook of Systemic Human Anatomy
      • Published papers on new species, the lymphatic system, the development of hair, the formation of mucus and pus, the distribution of epithelia through the human body.
    • Most well known for discovering the loop of Henle in the kidney that connects the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule
      • Henle’s layer : Outer layer of cells of root sheath of a hair follicle.
    • Along with Robert Koch, his student, they clearly defined the four criteria to establish that a bacteria caused a specific disease.
    Cross section through hair
  • 25.
    • German physiologist, histologist and cytologist
    • Developed the cell theory
      • All living things are composed of cells or cell products .
    • Discovered pepsin
      • Digestive enzyme in stomach
    • Invented the term “ metabolism ”
    • Discovered Schwann cell in the peripheral nervous system
      • Provides the myelination and support for axons
    A=axon, My=myelin (black), N=nucleus of Schwann cell
  • 26.
    • Italian anatomist
      • Famous, after the fact, for isolating Vibrio cholerae in 1854 (beating Robert Koch by 30 years)
        • Causative agent of cholera
      • Studied the retina of the human eye
    • Rediscovered the mechanosensory endings in the skin that sense deep pressure called Pacinian corpuscles
      • Or corpuscles of Vater-Pacini to credit the first discoverer
      • Onion shaped structures are always identified correctly by histology students!
  • 27.
    • English surgeon, histologist and anatomist
    • Worked as an opthalmologist
    • Started work young
      • Studied the structure of striated muscle (that was HIM??)
      • At age 25 he discovered the capsule of the glomerulus in the kidney called Bowman’s capsule
      • Also discovered Bowman’s glands in the olfactory mucosa
      • Bowman’s membrane in the cornea of the eye
  • 28.
    • British physician, chemist and microscopist
    • Made advances in public health and food safety
    • Known for discovering the epithelial whorls in the medulla of the thymus (1849)— Hassall’s corpuscles
      • function unclear
      • Also Hassall-Henle bodies:
        • Transparent growths in the periphery of the Descemet membrane of the eye.
    So sorry, couldn’t resist! The similarities are uncanny, but this little Tamarin will never use a microscope.
  • 29.
    • German physician
    • Discovered the innermost membrane of the choroid of the eye that touches the retina called Bruch’s membrane
      • Basement membrane of the pigmented epithelia (layer 1) and the endothelium of underlying capillaries
    • The choroid is layer between sclera (white part) of the eye and the retina
      • Isn’t the retina beautiful up close??
    Sorry, this is not Karl Bruch but Max Bruch , the famous German composer. Click and listen-very romantic Violin Concerto No. 1 in G minor , Op. 26 I like Mendelsohn a touch better, though. Instead of angry rock music to get me through my teen years, I listened to classical almost exclusively!
  • 30.
    • German anatomist
      • Found fibers of neuroglial cells in retina ( Muller’s fibers )
        • They support retinal neurons
    • Also Muller’s muscle
      • Ciliary portion of eye
    • It’s advantageous to be named Muller in science!
    • All of these men are named Muller, the first 3
    • Won Science Nobel Prizes—none are Heinrich, though
    • Hermann Joseph Muller : 1946 NP in med & phys for discovering that x-rays cause mutations.
    • Paul Hermann Muller : 1948 NP in med & phys for finding that DDT kills arthropods
    • K. Alexander Muller : ½ of 1987 NP in physics for studies of ceramics as superconductors
    • Johannes Peter Muller : GREAT German physiologist, amazing synthesizer of knowledge…read his stuff sometime! Many discoveries including some related to the nervous system and embryology…Mullerian duct of developing female reproductive tract named after him.