Istanbul ecrea 2012 presentation_crowd

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This is our presentation for the ECREA Conference held in Istanbul on November 2012. Our research is being addressed at challenging the notions of popular crowd terms like 'crowdfunding' or …

This is our presentation for the ECREA Conference held in Istanbul on November 2012. Our research is being addressed at challenging the notions of popular crowd terms like 'crowdfunding' or 'crowdsourcing' and showing its limits regarding participatory media production. This presentation took place as a part of the Digital Culture and Communication workshop.

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  • The previous definition challenges the idea of outsourcing problems, which traditionally define Crowdsourcing through the idea of ​ ​ task performance (Howe 2006). Thus, the artistic activity is covered by this definition. So, talk about crowdsourcing as a production model is surpassed. This distinction (Kleeman in Estelles & Gonzalez, 2012) is interesting in reference to the interests of the collaborative crowd. In the case of the artistic or audiovisual production, interest elements obey to different motivations ranging from the recreational to the social, the autopromotional, learning…. Anyway always refer to a certain kind of literacy without necessarily entering the professional field (basically amateurs). As the definition includes money conttribution as part of the voluntary tasks asked by the crowdsourcer, Crowdfunding projects are considered under Crowdsourcing definition even the collaboration is very well defined like the pledge contribution.
  • In order to carry out the empirical analysis of the case studies we designed a questionnaire divided in six dimensions of analysis … … These dimensions allow us to contrast the discourses on participation and collaboration with the real dynamics that occur in these projects and, more importantly, with the generated outputs. These dimensions also are powerful tools to draw comparisons between projects.
  • The ten case studies were selected to obtain an overview of several cases in both strategy and results, different approaches to the nature of collaboration and the relationship between promoters and participants.
  • Loose consideration of community: we tick the community box if the notion of community is integrated in the project discourses. Communities are not crowds. Co-creation:agreement between a project promoter and a collectivity of engaged users, willing to contribute to significant parts of the project, in an environment of transparency and mutual recognition (Deuze, 2008; Banks and Potts, 2010). Communities: growing number of participants, mutual engagement, interaction dynamics, motivational, value generation, participatory and sharing practices, common goal, different levels and areas of expertise (adapted from Lewis, Pea & Rosen, 2010)


  • 1. In the crowd: articulating participation in complex media productionAntoni Roig, Jordi Sánchez-Navarro, Talia Leibovitz(Universitat Oberta de Catalunya/ IN3)ECREA: 4th European Communication Conference, Istanbul, 24-27 October, 2012
  • 2. Research frameworkOur interest in participation and collaboration practices incomplex media project like films and TV series heavilyrelying on the web and social media.Observation that ‘crowd is used as an all-purpose tag torefer to any kind of participation and engagement inprocesses of media production.Evidences that popular crowd terms in media, likecrowdsourcing and crowdfunding do not encompassdiversity of creative practices involved in participatorymedia production.Need for a critical approach
  • 3. Starting positionCrowdsourcing is a biased concept, coming fromeconomics, which emphasizes: - Problem solving - Economical efficiency - Embedment of consumer into product. - Tasks - Organization through calls or contests. - Hierarchy - A content/ provider relationship
  • 4. Starting position…and neglects - Decision-making processes - Participant recognition as creative agent - Creation of a community. (Deuze, 2008; Carpentier, 2011)
  • 5. Research objectivesContrast of established notions of crowdsourcingwith actual participatory media productionpractices.Identification of limits of crowdsourcing models inmedia production.Outlining of further categories and featuresrelated to participatory media production.
  • 6. Work-in-progress researchIdentification of broad and established conceptualization ofcrowdsourcing (Estellés and González, 2012).Critical evaluation of definition in relation to media creationOutline of a questionnaire for case analysis based onparticipatory practices in media production (connected toprevious research).Comparative analysis of ten cases according to the followingcriteria:  Use of participatory discourses  Relevance according to scope and significance  Geographical, organizational and structural variations.
  • 7. Crowdsourcing is a type of participative online activity inwhich an individual, an institution, a non-profitorganization, or company proposes to a group ofindividuals of varying knowledge, heterogeneity, andnumber, via a flexible open call, the voluntary undertakingof a task. The undertaking of the task, of variablecomplexity and modularity, and in which the crowd shouldparticipate bringing their work, money, knowledge and/orexperience, always entails mutual benefit. The user willreceive the satisfaction of a given type of need, be iteconomic, social recognition, self-esteem, or thedevelopment of individual skills, while the crowdsourcerwill obtain and utilize to their advantage what the user hasbrought to the venture, whose form will depend on the typeof activity undertaken (Estellés & Gonzalez 2012)
  • 8. Crowdsourcing in media creationCrowdsourcing is not just about outsourcingproblems, not a production model.The crowd is made up of users and consumerswith a wide array of motivations.Crowdfunding practices can be included incrowdsourcing.
  • 9. Questionnaire designSix dimensions: 1) Self-presentation of the project (discourses) 2) Explicit aims and rules 3) Outline of production processes (what is opened) 4) Union bonds among participants (community) 5) Mechanisms of participation (how it is opened) 6) Legitimation of participants’ outcomes (user output)
  • 10. CasesEmpire Uncut (US) Collaborative filmmaking, remixIron Sky (Fin-Ger) Task-based filmmaking and community engagementThe Cosmonaut (Sp) Crowdfunding and community engagementA Swarm Of Angels Open source filmmaking and crowdsourcing(UK)El dietista (Sp) crowdfundingLost Zombies (US) Co-creation based on social networkingThe entertainment Celebrity-mediated co-creationexperience (Nl)Life in a day (UK-US) crowdsourcingGesamt (Dk) Celebrity-mediated collaborative filmmaking, remixArròs Movie (Sp) Crowdfunding and collaborative filmmaking
  • 11. Comparative analysis Re-appropriation Money Community Co-creation WorkLife in a day x xGesamt x x xArròs Movie x x xEl dietista xLost Zombies x x xEntertainment x x xexperienceEmpire Uncut x x xThe Cosmonaut x x xIron Sky x x xA Swarm of Angels x x x x x
  • 12. Conclusions•Discourses on communities are ubiquitous, but it doesn’tmean that an actual community is being fostered.•Crowdsourcing doesn’t take into consideration theempowerment of a community: they are looking forengagement with a potential audience instead•Crowdsourced projects are not necessarily co-creation; andwhen it happens, it is usually restricted.•All cases analyzed present some sort of hierarchical structure•Maximization of participation: COMMUNITY+CO-CREATION+WORK.
  • 13. Future research•Emphasis on motivations: why collaborate?•What kinds of ‘WORK’? What possible categories could weidentify?•Which are the mechanisms for building actual communities?•Systematization of cases: towards a taxonomy of crowd-based media projects.•What do we mean as ‘significant parts’ in co-creationprojects?•Financial sources and copyright issues.
  • 14. Any que s- Thank you!! tion s ?