Dialogue between the conscious and unconscious aspects of the psyche enriches a person, Jung believed.
Without this dialogue, he believed the unconscious processes can weaken or even jeopardize the personality.
Jung came up with the idea of Individuation .
The term for personal development that involves establishing a connection between the ego and self .
Ego centre of consciousness
Self centre of total psyche (includes conscious and unconscious)
According to Jung, there is constant interaction between the two. They are not separate but part of the same system.
Individuation is the process of developing wholeness by integrating all the various parts of the psyche.
Introversion and Extraversion
Jung found that people can be characterized as either primarily inward-oriented or primarily outward-oriented.
Introvert – more comfortable with the inner world of thoughts and feelings
Extravert – feels more at home with the world of objects and other people
There is no pure introvert or extrovert, Jung claimed they are two processes that alternate.
However, each individual tends to favor one or the other attitude.
Introversion and Extraversion cntd.
Introverts see the world in terms of how it affects them
Extroverts are more concerned with their impact upon the world
There is also a balance between conscious and unconscious emphases on these qualities
If you take an extravert, you will find his/her unconscious has an introverted quality because all the extraverted qualities are played out in his consciousness and the introverted are left in the unconscious.
Introverts are more interested in their own thoughts and feelings; their inner world
Introversion and Extraversion cntd
One danger for such people is that as they become immersed in their inner world, they may lose touch with the world around them.
Extroverts are actively involved in the world of people and things
They tend to be more social and aware of what is going on around them
They need to guard against becoming dominated by external events and alienated from their inner selves
Ex). The workaholic business executive that has no understanding of feelings or relationships is a perfect example of unbalanced extraversion.
The functions: Thinking, Feeling, Sensation, Intuition
There are 4 fundamental psychological functions according to Jung:
Generally, one of the functions is more conscious, developed or dominant.
Thinking and feeling are alternative ways of forming judgments and making decisions
Thinking concerned with objective truth, judgment, and impersonal analysis.
Thinking asks “what does this mean?”
Thinking types are the greatest planners; they tend to stick to plans and abstract theories even when confronted by new evidence.
Feeling is focused on value
Includes judgements of good vs. bad and right vs. wrong
Feeling asks the question “what value does this have?”
Sensation and Intuition
Sensation and intuition are ways of gathering information, as distinct forms of making decisions.
Sensation refers to a focus on direct sense experience, perception of details, and concrete facts : what one can touch, see and smell. Sensing types tend to respond to the immediate situation and deal effectively and efficiently with all sorts of crises and emergencies. They generally work better with tools and materials than other types do.
Intuition is a way of comprehending perceptions in terms of possibilities, past experiences, future goals and unconscious processes.
It asks the question, “What might happen, what is possible?”
Strongly intuitive people add meaning to their perceptions so rapidly that they often cannot separate their interpretations from their raw sensory data.
Intuitives integrate new information quickly, automatically relating past experiences and relevant information to immediate experience.
Because it often includes unconscious material, intuitive thinking appears to proceed by leaps and bounds.
Jung's theory of a personal unconscious is quite similar to Freuds idea of the unconscious. However, Jung considered the personal unconscious to be a "more or less superficial layer of the unconscious." Within the personal unconscious are what he called "feeling-toned complexes." He said that "they constitute the personal and private side of psychic life." 3 These are feelings and perceptions organized around significant persons or events in the person's life.
Jung believed that there was a deeper and more significant layer of the unconscious, which he called the collective unconscious, with what he identified as archetypes
Archetypes, he believed were innate, unconscious, and generally universal. Jung's collective unconscious has been described as a "storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from man's ancestral past, a past that includes not only the racial history of man as a separate species but his pre-human or animal ancestry as well.“
Collective Unconscious continued
There are some experiences that show the effects of the collective unconscious more clearly than others: The experiences of love at first sight, of deja vu (the feeling that you've been here before), and the immediate recognition of certain symbols and the meanings of certain myths, could all be understood as the sudden union of our outer reality and the inner reality of the collective unconscious.
Examples – musicians, spiritual experiences of mystics
The contents of the collective unconscious are called archetypes . Jung also called them dominants, images, mythological or primordial images, and a few other names, but archetypes seems to have won out over these. An archetype is an unlearned tendency to experience things in a certain way.
Sexual and life instincts are represented in this part of Jung’s systems
This is part of our prehuman, animal past when our main concerns were survival and reproduction, when we were not self conscious.
Dark side of ego and the evil we are capable of
Greek for 'mask'.
Jung uses the word for self-image with which we face the world.
The persona is based on your superior function in life (the function that will best serve one in meeting the world's demands).
When your persona is forced upon you, as when your parents push you into academic achievement, forcing you to build a thinking-based persona, whereas your natural (God-given) superior function was the feeling function or intuitive function, etc.
The Animus or Anima is the idealistic image of man or a woman. Carl Jung’s dream psychology notes the Animus or Anima as the unconscious expression of one’s inner feminine or masculine personality.
Anima – each man’s unconscious image or understanding of women.
This includes parts of his personality that he rejects because they are unacceptable in society
The anima is the man’s female side and the door to his creativity.
Animus – each woman’s understanding and image of men in her unconscious
It includes aspects of her personality that are inconsistent with what we think of as femininity
The animus is a woman’s male side and the key to the creativity of her unconscious mind