PROBABLE MARKETINGSTRATEGIES OF FLYASH BRICKS IN WEST BENGAL BY MADHURI BHATTACHARYA Research Scholar, Dept. of Business Administration, University of Burdwan.
FLY ASHFly Ash, an industrial by product fromThermal Power Plants is proven suitablefor variety of applications as ad mixture incement/ concrete/ mortar/ bricks/ blocketc.Fly Ash as a building material has manyadvantages, like cost effectiveness,environmental friendly, increases instrength and conservation of other naturalresources and materials.
The ash is generally available in forms of FlyAsh, Bottom Ash. About 70-80% of the totalash comes out from boilers along with fluegases are collected by mechanical separators,bag houses or electrostatic precipitators. Thisis termed as “fly ash”. The balance 30-20%“bottom ash” collected at the bottom of theboiler.Out of total ash production, Fly Ashcontributes to a small percentage, majoritybeing Pond Ash and Bottom Ash.
Why Fly Ash based Bricks?According to the report published by the censusin March, 2011, the total population of thecountry was 1,210,193,422. A total of 181billion people increased from the previouscensus of 2001. Presently mostly populatedstates of India are•Uttar Pradesh,•Bihar,•Maharashtra,•West Bengal,•Tamil Nadu, and Madhya Pradesh.
Raw Materials for Fly Ash based bricks•Fly Ash, Sand and Cement (OrdinaryPortland Cement). Or•Fly Ash, Sand, Lime and Gypsum (FAL-G).Consumption of Fly Ash to produce a singlefly ash based brick is 1.250gm. In WestBengal yearly production of fly ash basedbricks is 10 crores approx
Present scenario of Fly Ash based brick industries in West BengalThe Central and State Governments aregreatly concerned about top soil erosionfor the production of massive quantities ofclay bricks for enormous housing needs.The Ministry of Power, Government ofIndia, issued circulars to all concerneddepartment and organizations to promotethe use of Fly-Ash in the production ofbuilding materials.
During the rainy seasons supply of clay bricks arevery difficult. Therefore, in order to fulfill therequired demand there will be a great chance to startmore units in the field of fly ash bricks.In West Bengal, presently 65 nos. fly ash based brickunits are running. There are more 16 units upcomingin 2013. With a single machine 20,000 nos bricksmaking are possible in two shifts/ day.The price of the cement based fly ash bricks islittle bit higher than the lime gypsum basedbricks, but lower than traditional clay burntbrick.
Central Electricity Authority of NewDelhi is monitoring fly ash generation andits utilization at coal/ lignite based thermalpower stations in the country since 1996on behalf of Ministry of Power. They madea report on 90 coal/lignite based ThermalPower Stations of India which generatesFly Ash & utilize them in different areas.Here I only mention the data of WestBengal.
Power utility wise fly ash generation and utilization for 1st half of the year 2011-12Name of Power Nos of Installed Fly ash Fly ash Percentage Utility TPP capacity generation utilization of utilization (MW) (mt) (mt)WestBengal 5 3.33 2.89 86.78Power 3610DevelopmentCorporationLtd.(W.B.P.D.C.L)
FLY ASH GENERATION & ITS UTILIZATION IN WEST BENGALNos of capacity Fly ash Fly ash Percentage of TPP (MW) generation utilization utilization (mt) (mt)12 9156 7.42 5.87 79.11
Level of ash utilization Nos. of Power Stations 100% and more than 16100% Less than 100% and up to 1975%Less than 75% and up to 1460%Less than 60% (for plants 39commissioned before 3rdNov.2009)Less than 50% (for green field 2plants commissioned after 3rdNov.2009).
Sl. Name of Name of Fly ashNo. Thermal Power utilization Power Stations utilities in Percentage1. B.B.G.S C.E.S.C. 100.002. S.G.S C.E.S.C. 100.003. T.G.S C.E.S.C. 100.004. Bakreshwar W.B.P.D.C. 122.09 L5. Bandel W.B.P.D.C. 140.68 L
Power Stations in Ash Utilization Range of lessthan 100% and up to 75% during 1st half of the year 2011-12 in West Bengal areSl. Name of Name of Fly AshNo. Thermal Power utilization Power Stations utilities (%)1. D.P.L D.P.L 90.70 (West Bengal)2. KOLAGHAT W.B.P.D. 99.80 C.L.(West Bengal)
FLY ASH BASED BRICK MANUFACTURING After sundry atleast for 7 days, product will ready for PROCESS delivery Curing of stacked Cement base fly ash bricks by water spraying for 21 days Air dry under covered shed for 24 hours from basic stacking Machine room Mixing zone of composite mortar Raw materials stacking yard (Fly ash, Cement, Sand)
Basic Technical Details of Fly Ash Bases Bricks in Comparison with Clay Burn BricksSl. No. Items Conventional Fly Ash based bricks clay burnt bricks1. Dimension in 250mmX125 190mmX90m 230mmX110 mm(LXWXH) mmX75mm mX90mm mmX752. Colour Red Grey Grey3. Basic Ingredient earth or clay fly ash fly ash4. Density (gm/cc) 1.60-1.70 1.80-1.90 1.80-1.905. Dry weight(in kgs) 3.75-4.00 2.80-2.90 3.3- 3.56. Common building 50-65 70-90 75-100 bricks compressive strength (kg/cm2)7. Water absorption (in 15-25 10-15 10-15 %)8. Breakage 5-7 1/2 percent Less than 1% Less than 1%
9. Efflorescence present negligible negligible10. Eco-friendly NO YES YES11. Mortar saving: N.A 10-15% 10-15% During laying N.A. 25-30% 25-30% During plastering12. Carpet area savings per N.A. 6.8m2 2.80m2 % rmt N.A.13. Brick requirement per % 4951 Nos 5065 Nos 4951 Nos sqm 38,900 Nos 50,000 Nos 40,600 Nos Per % cum14. Labour Cost 20 – 30% 15 – 20% 15 – 20%15. Quality Control Less possible 100% 100%16. Outside plastering must May be May be avoided, ruled avoided, ruled pointing may pointing may be applied be applied17. Water treatment: Labour cost Labour cost nil Labour cost nil Dipping in water before involved(24 use prior brick work hours must)18. Whether qualifies for NO YES YES CMD in terms of Kyoto Protocol
•Maximum Fly Ash is used in cementindustries.•In all over India, only 6.51% of Fly Ash isused in Brick making.•It is clear from the mentioned data is that allmost all the Thermal Power Stations areinvolved in sending Fly Ash to different FlyAsh based brick industries, a eco friendlyconstruction material.
Marketing scenario of Fly Ash Based bricks in West BengalIn west Bengal, mainly direct marketing of Fly Ash based bricksare done by the Manufacturers. On the other side, marketing isalso done by retailers and syndicates. Presently, the users ofFly Ash based bricks are mainly private sectors, and partlyunder taking Govt. sectors. As transportation cost of Fly Ashbased bricks are uneconomic, for this reason in rural areas it ispreferable to install the Fly Ash based brick plants on thoseareas for smooth supply and work shops are highly required inthose brick plants.Awareness is increasing day by day in urban and rural areas. Innear future Govt initiatives are highly required to popularizationof the utility of Fly Ash based bricks and Blocks.
Recommended Marketing strategies in West Bengal:-Production of Fly Ash based brick depends on processtechnologies. So maintaining the quality with quantityis very important.Work shop is required in rural areas to increase theawareness about the fly ash based brick.•In coastal area salinity level is very high. Mostly FlyAsh based bricks are salinity free bricks. With thesupport of Govt, if supply of bricks in those areas maydone in West Bengal then the building strengths ofthose areas will increase and brick will also get thepopularity.
In Sundarban area, many Govt projects are running.There Fly Ash based bricks can be used instead of ClayBurnt bricks.•In city’s popular places, Govt may build small Modelhouses with this Fly Ash based bricks for marketingpurposes.•Ministry of Rural Development through Indira AwasYojana(IAY) undertake the project of housing for ruralpoor with Centrally sponsored scheme where the costshared between the Centre and States on a 75:25 basis. Inthis kind of schemes or Yojana West Bengal state Govt.may use Fly Ash based bricks for housing to reduce thecost.
ConclusionIf Fly Ash bricks can replace 50% of clay bricks then itwill reduce emission of green house gas by 435,000 tonseach year.Fly Ash based Bricks industries needs fragmented marketthat are serviced by plants located in the local area. Thepresent utilization of Fly Ash in the country is nominal ascompared to other advanced countries. Continuous effortis needed to increase the utilization of the Fly Ash in ourcountry. There is a necessity in future for all ThermalPower Stations to utilize as much quantity of ash aspossible to reduce the disposal problems. Bricksconsumption has recorded a three- fold increase in last
India produces a lot of Ash in its Thermal Powerproduction process, but the quality of Ash produced is amajor hindrance in its widespread utilization. The FlyAsh constitutes only a small fraction of the Total Ashproduced, primarily because of the TechnologicalLimitation of the Power Plants which are mostly old andstill produce coarse and Wet Ash which is difficult to usefor construction purposes. Also Wet Ash is difficult tohandle and transport, resulting in formation of huge AshPonds.Good transportation facilities need to be created andorganized for enabling easy availability at point of usefor the Fly Ash based brick industries. Greaterawareness to companies needs to be provided for use ofFly Ash in brick making.
West Bengal Pollution Control Board hadsubmitted a project proposal on “CapacityBuilding for Efficient Utilization of Coal basedThermal Power Plants ash in the State of WestBengal” to the Fly Ash Unit, Department ofScience & Technology, Government of India.Objective of this project is to transfer theKnowledge for effective utilization of Fly Ash inConstructions among the target groups.