Surveillance and Use of ICT for Social Control in Different Cultures: Emerging Trends in Europe, Iran and other Countries


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FP7 RESPECT Project: Steering Committee Meeting

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Surveillance and Use of ICT for Social Control in Different Cultures: Emerging Trends in Europe, Iran and other Countries

  1. 1. Surveillance and Use of ICT for SocialControl in Different Cultures: Emerging Trends in Europe, Iran and other Countries Fatemeh Ahmadi Zeleti Tampere University of Technology FP7 RESPECT Project Steering Committee Meeting June 13, 2012
  2. 2. Coverage• Government• Police and Security (Hardware and Software)• Road Traffic Control• Airport Control• Healthcare Technology• Other forms of surveillance
  3. 3. Surveillance and Use of ICT for Social Control Iran
  4. 4. Government: National Internet in Iran• Government moving ahead with plans for National Internet (From 2011). Functional by August 2012• Aggressively restrict Internet freedom, Blocks access to outside world• Creating thier own ’clean’ Internet• Is heavily requlated by the government• Government determine the websites to be accessible• Creat national electronic main service and search engine (Ya Hagh)• Content available in national Internet is tightly controlled• Close all citizens access to International Internet => Proxy and VPN• Allow Banks, ministeries and big companies continue accessing to International Internet => Discrimination
  5. 5. Government: Filtering in Iran• Filtering/ sensorship• All Social Networks• BBC, VOA, CNN and …• Youtube, Yahoo messenger, Skype, MSN• All outside Iranian websites• In 2006, 6000 websites and blogs had been filtered• In 2009, 5 million websites and blogs had been blocked
  6. 6. Government: March 2012: China vs. Iran• Government surveillance• China sold a sophisticated surveillance equipment to Telecommunication Company in Iran• 98.6 million Euro contract, how despite tightening global sanctions signed in December 2010• Illustrates, Iran manage to obtain the technology• Iran uses the equipment to track possible dissenters at home by monitoring personal landline, mobile and Internet communications of potential dissidents
  7. 7. Government: Media and communication• During the protests in 2009, the government began more strictly monitoring Skype, which made it difficult to keep in touch with people over the Skype• Citizens use proxies to communicate• Citizens (protesters) use mobile phones to tell the stories from the street to outside world• Mobile phones protestors are using are not safe and authorities can easily track them
  8. 8. Government control over the Media • TV, Radio, Cinema and Internet are not privately owned (Tightly controlled by the government) • No private ISPs (who uses Internet? How many bytes or GB is used?) • A special court has authority to monitor the print media and may suspend publication • Information detrimental to the national interest are banned • All media facing censorship, dictatorship and suppression • Iranian Cinema Under Siege
  9. 9. State Media Control Extends To Provinces, Airwaves• Iranian government steer public perceptions through media restrictions are not limited to mainstream newspaper• They curb access to foreign satellite broadcasts• Use of radar and camera in air control
  10. 10. RFID and automated toll system• RFID is now used for automatic toll payment• Government control over the citizen’s travelling• Use of the technology to spy on people and control their social and political movements
  11. 11. Police + 10 • Police +10 offices in every Zone in big cities • Offer police e-services: Issue of passport Enforcement services (Bill payment) Identification services License Family services Public services Military services Fuel Card Services Car numbering and registration
  12. 12. Surveillance and Use of ICT for Social Control Other Examples
  13. 13. EU data retention directive• The EU Data retention directive• Enabling law enforcement authorities to ascertain the identity of a person using a public network to communicate by mobile, fixed line, email, or internet telephony• Landline and mobile companies + ISPs are collecting info• Numbers called, time and duration of call, customer name except the content - would have to be recorded and stored for between six months and two years• Police and security agencies can request access to details, with permission to access the information granted only by a court• For access to be granted to stored data under the EU directive, a request must meet requirements under Section 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
  14. 14. Australia Follows EU Example• Following the EU data retention directive• Australian government surveillance powers over its citizens• ISPs asked to store the browsing and calling logs of Australian subscribers for three months at a time• On Sep 01, 2010, Western Australian judge made it legal for Wilson Parking (a private company) to have unrestricted access to 10,000 names in the Dept of Transports database to seek out parking offenders and fine them
  15. 15. March 2012: France vs. Google• Google controls all user’s activities• Sending user’s information of one service to another service• By login -> Google controls the activities -> identifys the interest -> sends email and ads to your gmailGovernment of France: Google is Vague and incomprehensibleFrench regulatory agency criticizes Google about French user’s privacy
  16. 16. Police and Security (PS): CCTV• CCTV Cameras (Video Surveillance) 5 to 10% growth in the coming 4 to 5 years (Video Surveillance & VCA Group IMS Research: Italy) Switching to IP Cameras (IP Security) SD to HD CCTV as a service Future focus is on access control and security than security equipment (Samsung)
  17. 17. PS: CCTV ExamplesUSA: SkyWatch (Police State of America) Mobile CCTV in Dartford (Available for hire for anti-social behavior in social events)Westminster Police in London: Mobile CCTV -> black spotsareas -> busy and winding streets -> keen to use latestmobile tech => creating tailored mobile CCTV (IP Cameras,excellent quality) unit (Van) to dramatically improvesurveillanceCCTV UK Market in 2010 for the security equipment was1.2 Billions Dollars (Gary Wong of IMS Research)
  18. 18. PS: ChinaChina: CCTV Cameras (fast-growingsurveillance industry)CCTV in entire countryWatch over University campuses,Hospitals, Mosque, TheatersControl political and religious dissidents(The New York Times)Loksag, a Tibetan Buddhist monk inGansu Province said quote “ There arevideo cameras all over our monastery,and their only purpose is to make usfeel fear.” (The New York Times)
  19. 19. PS: Face Recognition• Face Scanner & Facial Recognition Scan-> Capture-> Upload-> Recognized USA: FBI’s Operational Technology Division (Operation failure in FBI (Resolution, Position, Lighting, Image detail and System Maintenance) Australia: “Potent Tool” by Australian Federal Police for linking criminals to crime. Australia is at the forefront in FR technologies
  20. 20. PS: Face-Tek USA, Australia and Taiwan: Face-Tek face recognition core technology -> Integrating R&D from USA, Australia and Taiwan Access control system Identification system (1:N)* Verification system (1:1) GateKeeper (Application access control)+* Login control system*
  21. 21. PS: NotiFace II  NotiFace II: Face recognition surveillance system Analyses the input from CCTV cameras Compare the image with database Recognize Can distinguish the visitor as VIP, stranger or in blacklist with different warning alarm Applications: (Taiwan) Law Enforcement, Airports, Casinos, Clubs, Sport arenas, Banks & Buildings requiring high
  22. 22. PS:IZENSE • Voice / Speech Recognition IZENSEs voice recognition technology Hong Kong, China Mainly for mobile phones ‘Listen to discrete commands Understand conversations Current tech: Lie Detector Expected Future: Integration of IZENSEs tech with lie detector tech Expected users: Police, Private investigation surveillance, HR (Job Interview), Law enforcement,
  23. 23. PS: ThermoVison• Thermal Imaging and Sensors USA Department of Defense and Military : ThermoVision 2000/3000 Series. QWIP Sensors 20 KMs, day/ night sensor, mapping software, GPS, digital magnetic compass, intelligent alarming, control with Windows Based Software Console
  24. 24. PS: Smarter Surveillance• Software for Smarter Surveillance Software that automatically detect human motion, behavior, facial expressions and generates a running commentary of what’s happening .HERMES (Human-expressive representations ofmotion and their evaluation in sequences) project:Team of researchers from five European countriesFunding from the ICT strand of the EU’s SixthFramework Programme for research
  25. 25. Road Traffic Control (RTC): CCTV• CCTV CamerasFinland: CCTV and Road ManagementTool (Finnish Transport Agency)Working with IBM to built a single view ofroad and traffic info. One single view andutilizing this complete view to analyzeinfo.
  26. 26. RTC: Iran Secret police car surveillance, Speed recognition camera and police surveillance parked, CCTV cameras, Gas station Still high road traffic injuries in Iran 30,000 people die annually Main Supplier: Middle East ITS (Dubai, Tehran)
  27. 27. RTC: Auto-Driving Car• Auto-Driving Car (Toyota)Designed by GoogleFirst used in Nevada, USANo accidentNevada Police had to change thedriving rules and regulation on April 2012California is now changing the drivingrules in order to use the carUses:Camera(Detects movements), Radar system, GPS and Lasersystem
  28. 28. Airport Control• Body Scanning Technology Anti-Terrorist Security System Does not recognize face Still does not cover all the risksUSA: Available in at least 19 US airportsEU: Limited use in European airports(limited to passengers approval)
  29. 29. Healthcare Technology• Personal Health System (PHS) PHS2007 Research is funded by FP7 Use of ICT in PHS and enable distance monitoring Monitor-> Diagnose-> Treat Patients visit clinic or hospitals when they are already so illICT offers:New generation of lightweight monitoring systemsPatient can wear while going about their daily businessSystem provide:Reliable data, transmit them to remote locations
  30. 30. Other Surveillance Tech• NFC (Near Field Communication) Control over the crowded areas, restaurants, hotels, hospitals and etc.Duty: Personal info reading (ID card),payment, ticketing, booking, data andinfo sharing, access control
  31. 31. Other Form of Surveillance• Research plan is sent to FP7: ICT• Automated Software System and ArchitectureSoftware surveillance Monitoring the behavior and activities of software or service users Add and remove feature
  32. 32. Conclusion• People are the objects of surveillance• I do not mind if others are the subject to surveillance, but I do mind if I am the subject. (If I am an honorable citizen, then surveillance is an unnecessary action and may even be insulting)• Not knowing whether there is surveillance, what the scope of that surveillance is, who is carrying out the surveillance and what will be done with the data can make people feel uncomfortable• However, public and society suppose to benefit from surveillance by the authorities
  33. 33. Conclusion• Technology Export Control: Surveillance Technology (ST) sales should be closely monitored (Monitoring approach differs in different countries)• No sales of ST to repressive regimes (Syria: People will die earlier)• Local trade shows and conferences to be held to increase public awareness and education• More regulation on who should sell and buy• Tighter regulation in less developed countries
  34. 34. Thank you for your kind attention I welcome your questions, Suggestions and Comments! Fatemeh Ahmadi Zeleti