Presentation prepared for 2 nd National SRI symposium hosted by the State Government of Agartala, with cosponsorship of ICAR (DRD/DRR), CRRI, ANGRAU, NABARD, Tata Trust and WWF, October 3-5, 2007.
This field was harvested in March 2004 with representatives from the Department of Agriculture present to measure the yield. Picture provided by George Rakotondrabe, Landscape Development Interventions project, which has worked with Association Tefy Saina in spreading the use of SRI to reduce land pressures on the remaining rainforest areas. The Ministry of Agriculture technician who measured the yield reported this as 17 t/ha.
SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields >15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
Figures from a paper presented by Dr. Tao to international rice conference organized by the China National Rice Research Institute for the International Year of Rice and World Food Day, held in Hangzhou, October 15-17, 2004. Dr. Tao has been doing research on SRI since 2001 to evaluate its effects in physiological terms.
Two fields of rice growth with normal methods and 3-S. The phenotypical differences are evident, much as seen with SRI.
Picture provided by Mr. Shichi Sato, project leader for DISIMP project in Eastern Indonesia (S. Sulawasi and W. Nusa Tenggara), where > 1800 farmers using SRI on >1300 ha have had 7.6 t/ha average SRI yield (dried, unhusked paddy, 14% moisture content), 84% more than the control plots, with 40% reduction in water use, and 25% reduction in the costs of production.
Picture provided by Dr. Koma Yang Saing, director, Cambodian Center for the Study and Development of Agriculture (CEDAC), September 2004. Dr. Koma himself tried SRI methods in 1999, and once satisfied that they worked, got 28 farmers in 2000 to try them. From there the numbers have increased each year, to 400, then 2100, then 9100, then almost 17,000. Over 50,000 farmers are expecting to be using SRI in 2005. Ms. Sarim previously produced 2-3 t/ha on her field. In 2004, some parts of this field reached a yield of 11 t/ha, where the soil was most ‘biologized’ from SRI practices.
This picture from Sri Lanka shows two fields having the same soil, climate and irrigation access, during a drought period. On the left, the rice grown with conventional practices, with continuous flooding from the time of transplanting, has a shallower root system that cannot withstand water stress. On the right, SRI rice receiving less water during its growth has deeper rooting, and thus it can continue to thrive during the drought. Farmers in Sri Lanka are coming to accept SRI in part because it reduces their risk of crop failure during drought.
Picture provided by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Morang District, Nepal. Again, this is a single SRI plant grown from a single seed.
Picture from Elske van de Fliert, FAO IPM program in Hanoi. Rice plants come from the left and right fields behind the farmer, respectively, after the fields had been hit by a typhoon.
Evaluation and Spread of the System of Rice Intensification in ASIA 2nd National SRI Symposium October 3-5, 2007 – Agartala, India Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD Cornell University, USA
Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, that is the only thing that ever has. -- Margaret Mead
Knowledge/practice of SRI: As of 1999 Madagascar
SRI field in Madagascar, with a traditional variety of rice
Agency for Agricultural Research and Development , Sukamandi
National IPM Program , starting at Ciamis
Farmer Field School Program of the Field Foundation, took over IPM work
Nippon Koei project management team in Eastern Indonesia, from 2002
Yayasan Aliksa Organik SRI
SRI field, 20x40 cm spacing, at Sukamandi rice research center – 9.2 t/ha
SRI vs. non-SRI plants hanging in Nippon Koei office, Jakarta
SRI vs. non-SRI plants in Lombok, under DISIMP
Results of On-Farm Comparison Trials in Eastern Indonesia
Nine seasons: 2002-2006
N = 12,133 Area = 9,429.1 hectares
Ave. increase in yield = 3.3 t/ha (78%)
With reductions in inputs:
40% less water
50% less chemical fertilizer
20% lower costs of production
“ Productivity is increased [with SRI], and at the same time the environment is saved. . . . I want to urge everybody, starting with the Minister of Agriculture and everyone else -- let us support this SRI method with our maximum capacity.” -- Pres. S. B. Yudyoyono speaking at SRI Harvest Festival, Cianjur, July 30, 2007
Center for Study and Development of Cambodian Agriculture (CEDAC)
Support from GTZ, Oxfam America, Oxfam GB and other donor agencies
SRI Secretariat set up within Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
National Development Plan, 2006-10
70,000-90,000 farmers using SRI
Ms. Im Sarim, Cambodia, with rice plant grown from a single seed, using SRI methods and traditional variety -- yield of 6.72 t/ha
Mok Mareth, Minister for Environment, with Koma Yang Saing, CEDAC, at farmer convention promoting SRI in Ro Veang commune
LDS Charities Introduced SRI in Cambodia, 2006-07 season 146 households whose previous average yield was 1.06 t/ha averaged 4.02 t/ha when using SRI methods Hang Hein’s sons (left) transplanted his whole SRI field (0.9 ha) in 1 day ; Hein’s neighbors (right) who used traditional methods of transplanting used more labor per hectare and got lower yields with old methods Hang Hein’s previous yield was 1.2 t/ha -- with SRI methods it was 5.0 t/ha
Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM), affiliate of IIRR
Establishment of SRI-Pilipinas
Universities : UPLB, LSU, etc.
Government agencies : NIA, ATI, PhilRice, Dept. of Agriculture
NGOs: e.g., Save the Ifugao Terraces Movement (SITMo)
RESULTING CROP -- 8.9 T/HA The rice plants are healthy with strong stalks because of the organic fertilizer, soil aeration through intermittent water application, and the 40 cm x 40 cm spacing. With strong stalks, lodging never occurred. From PP by Engr. Bong Salazar, now Deputy Administrator, National Irrigation Administration (NIA)
SAFE: Sust. Agric. & Farming Enterprise Development Group
Syngenta Bangladesh Co. Ltd.
BRF: BD Rice Foundation -- etc.
Evaluation funded by IRRI/BD, 2002-04
Final Evaluation Report on Verification and Refinement of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Project in Selected Areas of Bangladesh (SP 36 02) AM Muazzam Husain, Gopal Chowhan, Proloy Barua, AFM Razib Uddin, ABM Ziaur Rahman Submitted to Poverty Elimination Through Rice Research Assistance (PETRRA) IRRI, Dhaka, Bangladesh June 2004
Metta facilitates Farmer Field School (FFS) in the northern parts of Myanmar – in Kachin State and Shan State Farmer Field School From PP presentation by Dr. Humayun Kabir, Metta Development Foundation to Department of Agriculture in Yangoon, June, 2002
Community Aid Abroad (CAA), Oxfam affiliate in Australia
Started SRI trials in 2001, has continued with them since, now getting some assistance from Ausaid
IRRI office in Laos sponsored trials in 2003 – inconclusive results, since protocols not followed consistently
.…Since the success of the original two-year trials, the SRI method has been extended to more farmers in more regions throughout Laos. The national average rice yield in Laos is 3.27 tons per hectare. Using SRI, farmers have an average yield of 5.05 tons per hectare. This increase means there are fewer ‘rice shortage months’ every year... RICE REVOLUTION IN LAOS From Oxfam International webpage: http://www.oxfam. org/en/programs/development/ easia/laos_rice.htm
National IPM Program took lead in evaluating SRI from 2003
Faculty at Thai Nguyen University and Hanoi Agricultural University have done trials and demonstrations to spread SRI in many provinces
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences now support
FFS farmer in D ông Trù village, Hanoi province, 2005
Reduction in Diseases and Pests Average of provincial trial data from the Vietnam National IPM Program, 2005-2006 * Insects/m 2 Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder 63.4* 107.7* 41.1% 61.8* 122.3* 49.5% Brown plant hopper 542* 1,440* 62.4% 545* 3,214* 83.0% AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7%
Formation of Japan Association of System of Rice Intensification (J-SRI) in April 2007, based at University of Tokyo – research in Indonesia
Special initiative of Shuichi Sato, Nippon Koei team leader of DISIMP in E. Indonesia – good example of international solidarity for SRI spread
J-SRI team visit to Sadang Irrigation System in South Sulawesi, May 2006: 1st prize in Consultants Photo Contest organized by the Tokyo Office of World Bank, and Engineering and Consulting Firms Association of Japan; Prof. E. Yamaji, University of Tokyo, chairman of J-SRI, standing on right