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CAPITAL FLOWS AND THEBALANCE OF PAYMENTS MODULE 41
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS ACCOUNTS In the same way economists keep track of the domestic economy using the national income and product accounts, economists keep track of the international transactions using the balance of payments accounts. A country’s balance of payments accounts are a summary of the country’s transactions with other countries. These accounts show payments from foreigners and payments to foreigners.
THE CURRENT ACCOUNTThe first row shows payments that arise from sales and purchases of goods and services.The second row shows factor income (payments for the use of factors of production owned by residents of other countries). This mostly means interest paid on loans from overseas, the profits of foreign-owned corporations, etc. This factor income also includes labor income (wages).
THE CURRENT ACCOUNTThe third row shows international transfers (funds sent by residents of one country to residents of another), such as the remittances sent by Guatemalans working in the United States to their family in Guatemala.These first three rows of the balance of payments accounts are made up of international transactions that don’t create liabilities.
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS ON THECURRENT ACCOUNT These first three rows make up the balance of payments on the current account (or just the current account): the balance of payments on goods and services plus factor income and net international transfer payments. The first row corresponds to the most important part of the current account: the balance of payments on goods and services, which is the difference between the value of exports and the value of imports during a given period.
THE MERCHANDISE TRADE BALANCE The merchandise trade balance (or just trade balance) is often referred to in news reports. This is made up of the difference between a country’s exports and imports of goods alone, not including services. Economists sometimes focus only on the merchandise trade balance, even though it’s an incomplete measure, because data on international trade in services are not as accurate as data trade in physical goods.
THE FINANCIAL ACCOUNTThe fourth and fifth row show payments resulting from sales and purchases of assets, broken down by who is doing the buying and selling.Row 4 shows transactions that involve governments or government agencies, mainly central banks.Row 5 shows private sales and purchases of assets.
THE FINANCIAL ACCOUNTThese last two rows of the balance of payments make up the balance of payments on the financial account (or just financial account). *In the past, this as known as the capital account*These are the transactions that involve the sale or purchase of assets, and do create future liabilities.An example of such an asset is when a bond is sold.
BASIC RULE OF BALANCE OF PAYMENTSACCOUNTING It is a basic rule of balance of payments accounting that the current account and the financial account sum to zero: Current account (CA)+Financial Account (FA)=0 When the current account and the financial account do not add up to zero, this is considered a statistical error. In other words, the flows of money into a country must equal the flows of money out of a country.
CIRCULAR FLOW DIAGRAM OF AN OPENECONOMY This shows the flow of money between national economies:a) Money flows into a country from the rest of the world as:1. payments for exports of goods and services2. payments for the factors of production3. as transfer payments (1, 2, and 3 are the positive components of the current account).4. money also flows into the country from foreigners who purchase the country’s assets. (the positive component of the financial account).
CIRCULAR FLOW DIAGRAM OF AN OPENECONOMYb) Money flows out of a country to the rest of the world as:1. payments for imports of goods and services2. payments for the use of foreign-owned factors of production3. as transfer payments (1, 2, and 3 are the negative components of the current account).4. money also flows out of the country to purchase foreign assets. (the negative component of the financial account).
CIRCULAR FLOW DIAGRAM OF AN OPEN ECONOMY The flow into a box and the flow out of the box are equal. In other words:Positive entries on the current account + Positive entries on thefinancial account = Negative entries on the current account + Negativeentries on the financial account This equation can be rearranged as follows:Positive entries on the current account - Negative entries on thecurrent account = Positive entries on the financial account - Negativeentries on the financial account The current account plus the financial account, both equal to positive entries minus negative entries, is equal to zero.
MODELING THE FINANCIAL ACCOUNT A country’s financial account measures its net sales of assets to foreigners. Those assets are exchanged for a type of capital called financial capital, which is funds from savings that are available for investment spending. Therefore, we can think of financial account as a measure of capital inflows in the form of foreign savings that become available to finance domestic investment spending.
WHAT DETERMINES THESE CAPITAL INFLOWS? We can use the loanable funds model to gain insight into the motivations for capital inflows. Two important simplifications we must make are:1. Assume that all flows are in the form of loans (in reality, capital flows take many forms, including purchases of shares of stock in foreign companies and foreign real estate, as well as foreign direct investment in which companies build factories or acquire other productive assets abroad).2. Ignore the effects of expected changes in exchange rates (the relative values of different national currencies)
WHAT DETERMINES THESE CAPITAL INFLOWS? International flows of capital are like international flows of goods and services. Capital moves from places where it would be cheap in the absence of international capital flows to places where it would be expensive in the absence of such flows.
DETERMINANTS OF INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL FLOWS International differences in the demand for funds reflect underlying differences in investment opportunities. So a country with a growing economy tends to offer more investment opportunities than a country with a slowly growing economy. So a rapidly growing economy may have a higher demand for capital and offer higher returns to investors than a slowly growing economy, in the absence of capital flows. As a result, capital tends to flow from slowly growing to rapidly growing economies.
DETERMINANTS OF INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL FLOWS International differences in the supply of funds reflect differences in savings across countries. This may be the result of private savings rates, which vary widely among countries. This may also reflect differences in savings by governments. In particular, government budget deficits, which reduce overall national savings, can lead to capital inflows.
TWO-WAY CAPITAL FLOWS The loanable funds model helps understand the direction of net capital flows (the excess of inflows into a country over outflows, or vice versa). However, gross flows take place in both directions. A country may both sell assets to foreigners and buy assets from foreigners. The reason why capital moves in both directions is because there are other motives for international capital flows besides seeking a higher rate of interest.
TWO-WAY CAPITAL FLOWS1. Investors may seek to diversify against risk by buying stocks in a number of countries.2. Corporations often engage in international investment as part of their business strategy.3. Some countries are international banking centers, which means that people from all over the world put money into their financial institutions, which then invest many of these funds overseas. The result of these two-way flows is that modern economies are typically both debtors (countries that owe money to the rest of the world) and creditors (countries to which the rest of the world owes money).