Test Taking• What to do if you don’t know the answer to thequestion:• Do you THINK you may have an IDEA aboutwhat the answer is? THEN PUT IT DOWN• Do you have no idea what the answer is?– Then at least TRY to answer the question. DON’TLEAVE IT BLANK! Read the question and use wordsfrom the question to make it sound like you knowwhat you’re talking about. SERIOUSLY!
Primary Sources vs Secondary Sources• What is a Primary source?– A first hand ORIGINAL account, record, orevidence of an event• What are some examples of Primary Sources?– Oral History, photographs, newspapers, journals
Primary Sources vs Secondary Sources• What is a Secondary Source?– An account, record, or evidence that was from aPrimary Source• What are some examples of SecondarySources?– Textbooks, a magazine article about a previousevent
Timelines• Tests may ask you to interpret time lines• Remember that years go BACK to ZERO, andthen start counting “up” again (think ofnegative numbers)• The years we live in now are known as“A.D.”, the years before year zero are known as“B.C.”
•776B.C.FirstOlympicGames•323B.C.AlexandertheGreatdies•40B.C.RomeConquersEgypt•126A.D.Hadrian’sWallisbuilt•455A.D.VandalsAttackRome•989A.D.TangDynastyinChinaEnds500 250 0 250 500 1000BC AD
Timelines• Which of these events happened first?135 B.C. first slave revolt in Italy206 B.C. Han Dynasty Established in China
How old would Augustus be ifhe were alive today?60 30 0 3032B.C.–AugustusBorn-Today’s Year + The year he was born = his age(or how long ago it happened)2013 + 32 = 2,045 Years Old!
Renaissance• The Renaissance cameafter the Middle Ages.• Renaissance is a Frenchword that meansrebirth.• It was a time ofpolitical, social, economic & cultural change.• People again becameinterested in AncientGreek and Roman“stuff.”
Renaissance• The Renaissance began inFlorence, Italy. Fromthere it spread north tothe rest of Europe.Why?1. People were interested inAncient Rome-Italy washome to Rome.2. Many Italian city-stateshad money.3. Wealthy merchantpromoted education &the arts.
Renaissance• People began questioning religion andturned to science for answers.• The humanists believe that educationshould awaken creativity!• The main areas of study were; grammar,speech, poetry, history, Greek, & Latin.
The Reformation• Martin Luther– Angry the church was corrupt and selling“Indulgences” – paying off sins for a free pass toheaven– People would not fight against it because they wereafraid of Excommunication – when a priest said yoursoul would never go to heaven– Luther posts his “95 Thesis,” a list of complaintsabout the church, on the door of WhittenburgChurch
The Reformation• King Henry VIII– Wanted to get a divorce from his wife, church wouldnot allow it– Henry started a new church so that he could divorce– This took power away from the church
The Reformation• Johannes Gutenberg created the printingpress in the 15th century.• The printing press enabled people tocommunicate and learn about other places inthe world• During the American Revolution, the printingpress played an important role in spreadinginformation and promoting the causes of thecolonists
Inquisition• The Inquisition: Around 1232, church officials weresupposed to seek out and punish people suspectedof not obeying the church.• Heresy is any act or action against the church orchurch beliefs. A heretic is someone who commitsan act of heresy.• Once tracked down, if a heretic confessed, theywere punished. Punishment was quite severe.Punishment ranged from loss of property, toimprisonment, to death. If a heretic did notconfess, they were tortured until they did confess.There was no escape. According to the Church,these punishments were necessary to save thesouls of heretics.
Age of DiscoveryWhy did Europeans Explore?1. Trade Routes Europeans wanted tofind Trade Routes to get to Asia andother places2. Renaissance curiosity about otherlands and peoples3. Monarchs (Kings and Queens) seekingnew sources of wealth4. Technological and Weaponry advances.5. Fame and fortune.
Age of DiscoveryImpact of European Expansion1. Native populations killed byEuropean diseases.2. Influx of gold, and silver intoEurope created global inflation[“Price Revolution”]3. New products introduced across thecontinents [“Columbian Exchange”].4. Deepened colonial rivalries.
Age of DiscoverySlave Trade• Between 1450 and the late 1800s, it is estimated thatbetween 10-15 MILLION Africans were kidnapped and soldinto slavery.• At first, European colonists attempted to use NativeAmericans as a work force, but that did not work very well.Native Americans knew the land and could run away• The Portuguese soon discovered that Africans were used tomore tropical climate conditions and would be betterworkers• Many captured people died on the ships sailing to the NewWorld. Conditions were terrible.• The Slave Trade was incredibly profitable and incrediblycruel. In some cases, entire villages were captured.
Effects of the Age of Discovery• Europeans moved into new areas(Americas, Asia, Africa)• Europeans introduced not only new plants andanimals, but culture(religion, clothing, language, etc. – Think aboutwhat language Mexicans and Americans speakstoday!
Mercantilism• Mercantilism – Idea that a nation’s existencedepended on power, and power depended onwealth• Wealth – money and assets (things worth money)
Mercantilism• To gain wealth, a country would capturecolonies• Colony – a territory that is controlled by a“parent” country
Mercantilism• Raw Materials - An unprocessed naturalproduct used to Manufacture Goods• Manufactured Goods – a “final product” madefrom raw materials
Scientific Revolution• A time when RELIGION was replaced by SCIENCE• Printing press spread new ideas• Age of Exploration fueled a great deal ofscientific research because of technologyneeded for navigation
Scientific Revolution• Method - A particular way of doing something• People started using the Scientific Method totest their THEORIES
Scientific Revolution• Galileo – found that objects fall at the samespeed regardless of weight, and said the Earthwas not the center of the universe• Newton – developed the law of Gravity andmotion
The Enlightenment• A time when the use of reason (logicalthinking) and science were applied to political,social and economic problems.• Thinkers, or “Philosophes, wrote about natural laws,or laws that govern human behavior
The Enlightenment• Thomas Hobbes believed that Man gives uprights for order to enter into a social contract– an agreement to give up man’s natural stateto live in organized society.• John Locke believed that Every man hasnatural rights-rights belonging to allhumans (life, liberty and property)
The Enlightenment• Voltaire believed in free speech, civil rights,and religious freedom• Jean Jacques Rousseau believed that peoplewere naturally GOOD, but corrupted from anunequal society. People should give up rightsfor the common good. Rousseau’s ideashelped spark the French Revolution
The Enlightenment• Adam Smith – Believed that governmentshould not interfere with business
English Civil War• Kings in Europe ruled by DIVINE RIGHT – thebelief that the power to be king was given bygod• People in England were fed up with bad kingsand had a revolt.• This led to the English Civil War
English Civil War• Oliver Cromwell, who became leader after thewar, was very harsh• Things were so bad people wanted a king back• Cromwell was overthrown and Charles IIbecame king. Charles II passed laws that gavethe people more rights and freedoms.
French Revolution• France was ruled by 3 ESTATES. There werefew rich people, but they were allowed morevotes than the common man.• This angered the French people, and theyrioted
French Revolution• In 1788, rioters storm the Bastille – a prisonfort in Paris that is a symbol of power• The king attempts to flee, but is captured
French Revolution• After the king was overthrown, people withinFrance fought for power• During this time, many people were executedby the Guillotine• The Revolution ended the Monarchy, andended slavery in the French colonies
Industrial Revolution• The industrial revolution was an extremechange in the way goods were produced• Goods used to be hand made, but machinesnow replaced human labor
Industrial Revolution• New energy sources were created to powermachines– Water, Steam, Electricity, Oil• People began using more metals and mineralsfor production and power– Aluminum, Coal, Copper, Iron
Industrial Revolution• Transportation Improved– Trains• Communication Improved– Telegraph
Industrial Revolution• Factory System of Production invented• Before the factory system, people lived where theyworked, and generally worked from their homes• Factory machines were too big to keep in homesnow, so large buildings were built to put them in• Now people traveled to the factories to work forthe day, and then went home at night
Industrial Revolution• People moved from farms to the cities so theycould work in the factories• A new Middle Class was created• Rich business owners were at thetop, managers and factory owners were in themiddle, and the workers on the bottom
Industrial Revolution• Because of factories, there were now moregoods, and more variety
Causes of World War I• Militarism - Building up weapons and forces toget ready for war– Germany was competing with the UK to buildbattleships– British were threatened and built more weapons
• Alliance - Agreement or promise to defendand help another country– By 1914 All major countries were linked byalliances, which would lead to a world warCauses of World War I
• Imperialism - When one country takes overanother territory to try to build up an Empire– All major countries were competing for coloniesand territoryCauses of World War I
• Nationalism – having pride in yourcountry, willing to defend it– People were very proud of their country andwould fight to protect itCauses of World War I
Interwar Period• Treaty of Versailles (BRAT)– Germany had to accept Blame for starting the war– Germany had to pay Reparations for damage doneduring the war– Germany was forbidden to have submarines orairplanes. They could only have an Army of100,000– Germany lost Territory in Europe
Interwar Period• The Economy in Europe was very bad afterWorld War I, and caused a depression• The war was bad, but the following depressionmade Germans and other people very angry• Why was there a depression?– Many factories destroyed and many people killedduring the war
Causes of World War II• Why did World War II start?– Germany wanted back what she lost from WWI –Revenge– Appeasement : Great Britain and France gaveHitler land without fighting for it– Germans were angry at the Treaty of Versaillesand said it was unfair– Hitler was racist (cause of the Holocaust)
World War II• Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany’s problem• Hitler killed millions of Jews during theHolocaust
World War II• Isolationism - At the start of the war, the USwanted to remain neutral• The U.S. were sending Britain weapons andsupplies
World War II• The U.S. became involved in the war after theJapanese bombed Pearl Harbor on December7, 1941• Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, Japan• Allied Powers – Britain, U.S., Russia (SovietUnion)
World War II• The United Nations was a group created in1945 to help prevent future conflict• After the war, only two nations were still strong• United States and Soviet Union were now theonly superpowers left in the world