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The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,
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The Value of Waves – Neil LAZAROW,

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  • 1. Why is the coast valued?• The coastal zone contains a wide range of climatic, geographical and oceanographic regions, which accommodate a rich store of biological diversity: – Good source of food – Rainfall – Land is suitable for a wide range of uses (incl strategic) – Climate – Demand for coastal real estate – Transport – Leisure – Energy and manufactured water production – Free-rider principle embraced• Close to half the world’s population live on or near the coast and this could grow to 2/3’s by 2030.• Much of human economic activity is intrinsically linked to coastal margins (e.g. Martinez et al. estimate that the coast produces 77% of total global ecosystem services, valued at $US25.8 trillion (2007 dollars)).• Increasing development and population growth is placing increasing dependency on coastal resources.
  • 2. Total Economic ValueRaybould (2006) Adapted from Bateman and Langford (1997) and Turner (1999)
  • 3. Year / Location Type Value Context1973, Hawaii Market approximation $US13M p/a Estimated annual expenditure, including medical1984-1998, California Market approximation $US300,000 Mitigation for loss of surf break1990-1999, California Non-market (travel cost) $US16M p/a Lost recreation opportunities from oil spill1999, Mt Maunganui Non-market (willingness to $NZ500,000 p/a 50 new surfers each time the wave breaks pay)2001, Pleasure Point, Non-market (travel cost $USD6.2M University studyCalifornia2001, Cornwall Market approximation £21M p/a User survey to estimate value of surfing to Cornwall2004, Geraldton Future market value $AUD1.3M p/a Estimated value of proposed artificial surf break to town2006, Costa Rica Inbound visitor survey $US400M p/a Survey of total expenditure of surf related visitors2007, North Narrabeen Market approximation $3.9M p/a Estimated expenditure from 145,000 visits p/a2007, Mundaka Economic impact $US3M p/a Estimated economic impact of surf break to town2008, Florida Construction cost $US12M + land + Annual membership at RonJon Surfpark = permits $US3,0002008, Trestles Market impact $US8-12M p/a Economic benefit to San Clemente $US10-55Mp/a Economic value to San Clemente2009, Portugal Market estimate €150-200M p/a Estimated national economic impact2009, Mavericks Economic value $US24M p/a Economic and cultural value
  • 4. Approx. value Location Year Item (euros) Gold Coast 2007-8 Expenditure (incl equipment) €10 - 16 American Trader Travel Cost Method (economic value) used to (USA) 1999 calculate loss of amenity resulting from an oil spill €17 Expenditure (excl accommodation & equipment) Orewa (NZ) 2004 based on a new surfing reef €24 Trestles (USA) 2007-8 Expenditure (excl equipment) €31 RonJon Surfpark (USA) 2007 Entrance fee (excl all other costs) €23-46 Mavericks (USA) 2009 Travel Cost Method (economic value) €40 Estimated expenditure (incl travel + gear hire) on aGeraldton (Australia 2004 new surfing reef €91 Expenditure (incl accommodation, unlikely to include Costa Rica 2006 equipment) €94Pleasure Point (USA) 2001 Travel Cost Method (economic value) €94
  • 5. Predicted EstimatedYear Location Study type annual Methods Reef size B/C ratio spend 60:1 (70:1 in1998 Gold Coast B:C N/A Desktop 70,000m3 2007) Mt Economic Survey – 6,000m31999 N/A $NZ0.5M p/a Maunganui impact approx 140 (incomplete) 10M image Economic 25,000m3 B:C, economic value + 3M2000 Bournemouth 21:1 impact approx. impact direct income assessment (incomplete) p/a Survey of Market approx 1402004 Geraldton N/A $AU1.5M p/a N/A expenditure surfers + 90 general public $US191,000 Brevard Desktop,2008 B:C 4:1 ; 0.33:1 (best case 23,000m3 County interviews scenario)
  • 6. Adapted from Google Maps
  • 7. Location Percentage of Value total (to nearest million euros)Duranbah 10 €7 - 12 Worth considering togetherSnapper 11 € 8 - 13Rainbow Bay 3 €2-4Greenmount / Coolangatta 4 €3-5Kirra 2 €1-3Bilinga / Tugun / Flatrock 2 €1-2Currumbin / Alley 12 € 8 - 13Palm Beach (Lacey’s Lane to Tallebudgera) 6 €3-7Burleigh Heads / beach 14 € 8 - 13Miami / Nobby / Mermaid 7 €4-6Broadbeach / Surfers 2 €1-2Narrowneck 3 €3-5Main Beach / Southport 3 €3-5Spit 6.5 €5-8South Stradbroke Island 14.5 € 11 - 17Total 100 € 68 - 125
  • 8. Source No. of surfers Estimated no. of Total estimated sessions expenditure p/aEstimation Strategy 1 65,000 6,7M p/a €68 million*Estimation Strategy 2 75,000 7,8M p/a €80 million*Estimation Strategy 3 120,000 12,5M p/a €125 million** Annual per capita estimate = €1,064
  • 9. Location Gold Coast (n=471) Trestles (n=973)Method Web + face-to-face survey Web-surveyAverage age 54% = 36 years or less 35.6 (of those over 18)Gender 90% male 92% maleEducation (% college or above) 35% 65%Income (€2011) €32,000 - €47,000 €40,000 - €56,0000 (median household) (median individual within range)Unemployed 2% 1%Fully Employed 21% 76%Experience level 43% advanced 84% high level of experienceNumber of surfing sessions per week 2.5 3Distance travelled to surf (one way) 60% = 10km or less 36.8km (average)Surf sessions per year 104 109Expenditure per trip (€2011) €201 €322Expenditure range per visit (€2011) €15-25 €18-32 1 Annual expenses divided by number of sessions per year 2 Revealed preference based on last trip
  • 10. Surfers environmental perceptions (n=460) 90% 80% The surf industry cares morePercentage of respondents 70% about the environment today than they did 10 years ago 60% Surfers give more back to the 50% planet than other recreational user groups such as hikers or 40% mountainbikers 30% There are no rules for surfing so I shouldn’t have to worry 20% about environmental or social issues 10% 0% Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly disagree agree
  • 11. Motivation for Surfing (n=800 - 830) 80% 70% 60%Percentage of respondents 50% Srongly Disagree Disagree 40% Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 30% 20% 10% 0% Relax Outdoors Solitude Family Sport Competition Fitness Bond with (N=828) (N=831) (N=821) (N=824) (N=818) (N=800) (N=824) Nature (N=821) Multiple response options mean that values add up to more than 100%
  • 12. Typology of Surfing Capital Planning / legislative Item Description context Dominant local view of how the •Federal / State / Local wave breaks Government Coastal Policies Wave Quality Both beauty and physical form are •Regional Plans assessed •Outdoor Recreation Policies ‘Surfable’ waves measured against and Plans Wave frequency and accepted standard •Development Applications •Environmental Impact Environmental or biophysical Statements Environmental conditions that may mitigate •Social Health Reports factors against a surfers’ physical health •Tourism strategies •Business development plans Socio-cultural and societal •Socio-economic reportsExperiential factors conditions surrounding the surfing •Marine planning legislation experience •Water quality issues
  • 13. Thank You Merci GraciasNeil.Lazarow@anu.edu.au

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