Social Value of Waves and Surfing – Experience presented by Taha AL AZZAWI
SOCIAL VALUE OF WAVES T.AL AZZAWI Professeur agrégé Master of Sociologie Consultant for EUROSIMA Independent searcherAndy DAVIS Andy DAVIS
Fontain La Corugna, SPAIN The Internet source comment: « surf statues in La Coruna, why? its not obvious »
The iconic surfer, Steamer Lane,California Surfer statue in California: it seems to be obvious: why?
PLAN - INTRODUCTION - 1. Surfriding: different kind of surfers, and different perceptions of the spots - 2. Waves in local political strategies. - 3. Mechanism of distinction of a spot. - 4. Different actors and tensions around patrimonialisation. CONCLUSION.
INTRODUCTION: the concept of heritage The A local, - lengagement interdisciplinaire du concept intelligentsia national or (experts,teac - appliqué hers, champ sportif: posePoliticians, Historians, au world-wide la question Archeolgistslégitimité population institutions de la journalists) Maecenas,Boons, MATERIAL AND private patronsworks of IMMATERIALart, HERITAGErichness Patrimonialisationes of the process:Humanit « Distinction» Actions:y Well estabished as a part Conservation of the common Culture Restoration that we must forward to Touristical new generations management
The last french sociologicalinquiries- Colloque in PAU(FRANCE) in september 2011 about the patrimonialisation process of natural spaces- Main topics: The diversity of heritages The social value of natural spaces The heritage value and the institutions
The patrimonialisation process« The patrimonialisation can be definite as appropriation processes developped by several actors or social groups . They increase some objects values (remembrance, aesthetics, singularity) permitting these objects to conqueer the quality of heritage.(...) Is it an heritage? Blockhaus remaining of second world war (Charente maritime, FRANCE)
Evolution of the conceptThe patrimonialisation process has been related with very recent objects. Now the limits between past and present are low. The new heritage elements are more and more varying:- nature- monuments-vernacular- landscape- local culture Saint palais sur mer beach (Charente Maritime, FRANCE)
Different sociological methods- Interactionnism (E.GOFFMAN, Chicago School)- Structuralism (C.LEVI STRAUSS)- Functionnalism (B.MALINOWSKY)- Déterminism (P.BOURDIEU, P.CHAMPAGNE)
Heritage: a definition- Can be considered by a human community a cultural object whose values are linked in the past and the present. It concerns concrete elements or practices that we want to preserve and transmit.
The process of patrimonialisation applied to surfriding (E.AMOUGOU,2011)- The discover (P.VIERTEL)- The certification ( French Fédération1964, sport denomination)- The geographical roots(Hawaï,Polynesy... and else)- The mediatisation(magazines,books)- Celebration (big events, Surf Fesivals)- Transmission(schools and clubs)
THE DEFINITIONS OF SURFRIDING• From a fashion sport practice to several surf practices. 13
SURFRIDING AS A RESEARCHSport OBJECTinstitutions Medias An outdoorA federal sport activity(J.DEFRANCE, A boardcross (C.POCIELLO) actvityP.PARLEBAS) (EUROSIMA) SURFRIDING MEANS A glamorous An action sport sport (D.LEBRETON, A.LORET, A.STRILER) Economy A beach activity, with a A free and rebel touristical value activity (A.S.SAYEUX) (C.GUIBERT) An inspiration ARTS POLITIC 14
1 The surfers in France- 1.A. The surf among other sportsFrance.- 1.B. Different surfriding styles.-1.C. The spots: economical and conflictsressources.
The surf among the other sports- 43rd rank in France (0,5%) IPSOS 2007 and around 8000 competitors - Windsurfing at the 41th rank - Skate board at the 35th rank - Climbing at the 30th rank - Kite surf at the 47th rank
Sport practice in Europe( Source : European ) Observatoire of Sport Employment / 20051 Finland 12 %2 Sueden 22,2 %3 Danemark34 %4 Irland 16,3 %5 Nethelands 29,5 %6 United Kingdom 15 %7 France 25 %
The social space theory(P.BOURDIEU)- For professions and political opinions- For lifestyles and ludic activities- Also applied to all the Cultural studies
Social space (P.BOURDIEU1979)High schoolProfessors, Economicalteachers, ingeneers capital + Chairman Doctors, lawyer Children teachers Industry manager Private sector manager journalist ingenieers Public sector Tradesman manager Culture business employees Medical and social service cultural capitalCultural Assistant less) craftsman, art galleristscapital + manager,secretary Trade Farmers Department employees or office employees Qualified Little traders worker Specialized worker Journeyman, jobless economical capital agricultural worker less 19
P.BOURDIEUs postulates- There is a correlation between professionnal space and cultural practice space- The upper classes dictate the « good » tastes and the norms. 20
Whats surfriding?- a spiritual, cultual practice- a recreation- a sport The Bishop Museum 21
THE SURFRIDING SPACE (AL AZZAWI 2010) Ecologisation Motorisation No fin board, economical Tow in in different size woodboards, expert Hawaïan, stand waves bodysurf up and canoe capital + Retro Particular teacher, surfboards, unleash riding 60 trifinshortboard private surfschoolscultural longboards Technologisation Shortboard intermédiaire de loisir Bodyboard : a good levelcapital + Learning in a FFS club with a quality morey cultural THE SURFS capital less Minimalibu de type « bic Low cost Bodyboard with flipper Learning thanks to friends, family, associations Bodyboard flipperless BODYSURF cloth to the beach Self learning Just the body to practice 22
The involvment degrees ofsurfers 1: the surf 2: surfing 3: surfing 4: surfing absolute as a as a sport is a lifestyle passion ponctual beach activity Sessions More than Between 150 Between 50 From 12 to 50 frequency 250/year and 250 and 150 Choice of the No job or a A job cloth to No influence No influence studies or the volonteer the beach or on the choice on the choice job precariousne studies ss concerning sport/surf Family Avoiding Couple with No influence No influence involvment couple and concessions childs 23
Different ways to practice surf- The verbal definitions of surfing influence the way to practice- The level and the way to practice determine the choice of a spot..- The level, the fact to be local and the elderness settle the place at the peac. (cf.O.TREY1994, A.S.SAYEUX2009, AL AZZAWI 2010).
Practicing philosophies (C.POCIELLO 1995) Reading « surf Read VSD mag in session » and june « spécial Mini malibu, BIC, bodyboard specialzed websites Tourists glisse » Punctual practice Little and big wave, Little easySlowness, waves, curly waves, hot water,hésitation summer technical Competitors spots season only Hawaïan traditionnal Speed, watersports energy Various boards, retro shapes Will to practice every All kind of wave day Direct relation withReading « surfers a shaper,journal » or Main important quiver« Desillusion » stream important, a Purists Counter surf majority of Aestetes, cult shortboards of coolness culture surf
Free surf on a secret spot (Charente Maritime,FRANCE)
Surf culture/heritage CULTURE + material immaterialSUP, funboards, kayaksurf... Ability to teach surfing Car: break or mini van Ability to shape Surfmovies DVD Knowledges about surf history Magazines Ocean knowledge Collection surftrips Living place Technical level Surfboard Style CULTURE less
The spots exploitation stakes- When they are discovered- After debates between surfers, federal sport movment, politicians.- After an economical evaluation( possible big events, bankable image?).
Possible conflicts on a spotSurfers VS surfers Surfers VS other nautic Surfers VS apparatus(cf. other beach O.TREY 1994) usersInvolve shoartboarders and:- bodysurfers Concerns all the-bodyboarders surfers and: Surfers and:-kneeboarders- mini malibu/eggs - wave-ski - Lifeguards-longboards - funboards - swimming tourists-SUP - jet ski - mayoralty - kite surf - French surfing - (body boards) federation - ASP, WQS, WCT - polluting persons
2 The waves in stake locally Thèse of C.GUIBERT(2005, Nantes) Original title: « The surf univers and the political stategies in Aquitaine: surftowns without surfers? » Hossegor (FRANCE)
Conclusions of C.GUIBERT- A.The surf is a « malleable »concept for each social actor.- B.In a lot of surftowns, the « purists » are not considered, in the seaside appointment (parking,access, showers,etc.) .- C.The surfers welcome can be different, and is adapted to the identity of the spot, to his wave value.- D.We observ huge differences between the welcom of pro surf, surfschools and free surf..
Exemple of two french towns ANGLET BIARRITZ Modern town Historical beach town Recent beach and Architecture from the french Empire surftown Côte des BasquesA lot of schools and clubs longboard Surf as a tradition Mediatisation of the 60s The surf as a competition sport Biarritz surf festival shortboard Surf as an heritage Surf as education for young childs
Limits to these conclusions- They are based on a 2000-2005 survey , only in the south of the french atlantic coast.- The french massification of surfing generates surfers who have access to institutions and politics more and more.- The growth of some associations change the strategies of the international brands.
The 5 social values of a spot- 1. Sportive, recreation site, for everybody, local or not (heritage?).- 2.Place for the transmission of surf techniques, and surf educationnal values (modesty,effort, respect of the nature, priority rules).- 3.Place where touristical activities and appointment can be developped (the image becomes bankable in touristical and communication strategies).- 4.Possibility to host pro-level surfers and events (again bankable image).- 5.Conflicts place between surfers and beach users.
The wave value - Beachtowns lord mayors: if the wave attracts wealthy tourists, consumers, big events.- The major brands: frequency, shape of the curl, infrastructures to host a competition. - Surfers (beginners): easyness,accessibility, proximity of the surfschools. - Purists surfers : perfect wave shape, secret spot, low frequentation. - Competitors: idem except the frequentation.
An unknown exampleLa Bouverie (Charente maritime, FRANCE)
3. The mechanism of legitimationand distinction Mechanism Distinction of a Legitimation wave items - frequency of - history the swell - international -shape of the competition wave -mediatisation -speed of (ex: Belharra) breaking - proximity of - accessibility. the surfers - temperature with the of the water economical and political power. - surfguide good fame -surfbooks good fame
The distinction theory( P.BOURDIEU,1979)- Created after a sociological survey (1979) - Applied to the surf sphere (Al azzawi 2010) - Consequences: market sementation (cf.Sport Guide august 2011).
4. The waves : a recognition in stake4.A.Low recognition: 1887, 1906,1930: « natural monument ».. 4.B. The tensions between differents heritage zonage actors . 4.C. Recognition obstacles
AN EXAMPLE IN SWEDEN Demonstration in march 2008 for Mölle wave
4.A. A «NATURAL»monument-The wave/spot is a natural monument means: « landscape, or part of the territory as perceived by the population, whose characteristic results from natural factors or/and human interrelations ».
4.B. The initial tensions between several social actors industriesDepartments,regions Competitor Purists Surfers Surfers development conservationMajor brandsand theirbeach-events Ecological associations Tourists Surfers Fédérations Natural heritage sportives defenders
4.B. The multiplication of thetensions ? Mediatical use Political use Concerted management DEVELOPMENT CONSERVATION touristical commercial exploitationexploitation Educative use
4.C. Recognition: step by step...- a)First struggle experiences (France : 1990s).- b)Structuration as associations, boards constitution; internationalexchanges- c)Ecological survey, constitution of a capital of scientifical knowledges..- d)Citizen concertations, links with the political power.- e)Mediatical struggle, image war (cf.SFEs manager CV).- f)Field of enquiry: balance between classical and static heritage, andsociallinkfull heritage (who allows projects and dynamics).
CONCLUSIONS:obstacles for clear strategical arguments- Whats surf inside the global Culture? A subculture? A counterculture? Ayouthculture? Is it easy to accord him UNESCO recognition? Who are theother pretenders in2011?- Why oceanic landscapes are legitimate, lawfull?- Patrimonialisation : a complex process, including several actors, and andstrategical planification.Whos really influent?- Tension between natural/cultural qualities of a site.- The notion of Culture is relative (cf. Denis CUCHE 2010)
Whats the good analysis speed? ...............
BIBLIOGRAPHY: books - Surf Atlantique: les territoires de léphémère J.P.AUGUSTIN (1995) - Lunivers du surf et stratégies politiques en Aquitaine. C.GUIBERT (2006) - Surfeurs, lêtre au monde. A.S.SAYEUX (2008) - Les surfs: dun pratique à la mode à des modalités de pratique. T.AL AZZAWI(2010). - Limage de la surfeuse T.AL AZZAWI (2012). - Les cultures sportives C.POCIELLO (1995). - Sciences sociales et patrimoine E.AMMOUGOU (2010). - La notion de culture en sciences sociales D.CUCHE (2004). - La distinction P.BOURDIEU (1979). - Les règles de lart P.BOURDIEU (1981). - Sociologie de la culture Y.LAMY/M.BERRA (1991) - Révolte consommée J.HEALTH/A.POTTER (2010)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: articles- C.GUIBERT:Hossegor : « le surf » ou « lélégance » ? Une double identification territoriale, Annales de la Recherche Urbaine, n° 100, « Lavancée en âge dans la ville », Juin 2006, p.89-96.Politiques de communication et identifications territoriales différenciées. Les usages politiques des vagues et de lunivers du surf par les municipalités de la côte Aquitaine. Téoros, Vol. 25-2, Québec. Eté 2006, p.62- 71.Les usages politiques du snowboard dans les stations de montagne françaises : entre intérêt économique et dédain culturel, Revue Européenne de Management du Sport, n° Voiron, PUS. Octobre 2006, p.31- 15, 44.Le premier âge du surf en France : un sport socialement sélectif, Science et Motricité, n° vol. 200 7/2, de 61, Boeck Université., Eté 2007, p.89-100.Le surf au Maroc : les déterminants dune ressource politique incertaine, Sciences Sociales et Sports, n° 1, LHarmattan. Septembre 2008, p.115-146.