P:P:P:P:P:P:P:P:P:P:PSHSA’s response and recommendations to the questions posed in the Ministry of Labour’s discussionpape...
IntroductionThe Ministry of Labour (MOL), through the ChiefPrevention Office (CPO), is seeking feedback regardingOntario’s...
SummaryIn addressing the Strategy paper, PSHSAidentified several common themes that can helpposition the system for future...
1 Addressing the Needsof Vulnerable Workers5
How can the voice of the vulnerable worker be brought into the occupationalhealth and safety discussion to better understa...
Strengthening the occupational health and safety of vulnerableworkers can be facilitated through partnerships, education,c...
2 Responding to SmallBusiness Needs8
As with other priority groups, there are a number of considerations specific to understanding and meeting small business h...
How can the occupational health and safety system partnerswork with established networks to identify the needs of smallbus...
3 Assistance for High-Hazard Activities11
High-Hazard Activities: Those activities where the worker is regularly exposed to potential sources of serious harm or ser...
Our organization feels that there are some high-hazard activities that should have more rigorous training, compliance and ...
What concerns and challenges do you see for the Ministry of Labour inimplementing industry-wide training on specific tasks...
4 Integrated Planning &Service Delivery Model15
What are the highest priority gaps in occupational health andsafety system service delivery that needs to be addressed?4aW...
detailing how partners should worktogether.Identify Areas of Sectoral SpecificityThere is a need to ensure that sectoralpa...
185 Expanding Capacitythrough InnovativePartnerships
What new partnerships could advance occupational health andsafety?5a19First and foremost, it is important to notethat it i...
What innovative approachescould expand the reach ofcurrent occupational health andsafety efforts?5bBroadening our reach is...
6 Effective Supportfor Workplaces2121
The Internal Responsibility System (IRS) is the foundation of all prevention programs,and prevention system partners have ...
We have a number of recommendations for improving access to healthand safety products and services, including enhanced use...
When it comes to the IRS, it is important to support Ontario workplacesas best we can. The following recommendations can a...
7	AddressingOccupational Disease25
What additional steps could the occupational health and safetysystem take to protect workers from occupational disease?7Pr...
Form System Working GroupsWorking groups involving Health and Safety System partnershave shown to yield positive outcomes....
288	Effective Financialand Non-FinancialMotivators
The Ministry of Labour has laid out a very practical approach to arrive at revised prevention-based programs focused on ou...
Other than financial, are there other motivators that will attract acompany’s participation in health and safety programs?...
9	Research SupportingSystem Improvement31
What should be the strategic objectives of occupationalhealth and safety research in Ontario?9aPSHSA sees tremendous value...
How can we best align research with the occupationalhealth and safety needs of the workplace?9bReflecting on the proposed ...
What could be done to betterimplement research findings?9cCreating a ForumSimilar to the Healthy Work Environment portal, ...
3510 Effective Meansfor MeasuringPerformance
What are the right outcomes to measure that would resultin a common vision of success for the occupational healthand safet...
What leading indicators does your organization useand what methods are used to measure them?10bPSHSA recognizes the import...
AcknowledgementsThe development of this response was a collaborative effort. We’d like to thank our staff,advisory council...
ReferencesFor more information on Public Services Health & Safety Association,please visit PSHSA.ca.Information on program...
Renewing Ontario's Health & Safety System: Inspiration for the Province's First Integrated Occupational Health and Safety ...
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Renewing Ontario's Health & Safety System: Inspiration for the Province's First Integrated Occupational Health and Safety Strategy

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In December 2010, the Ministry of Labour conducted a review of Ontario's Occupational Health and Safety System. An important outcome of the review was the call for a province-wide occupational health and safety strategy that would establish a clear vision, goals and priorities to guide the Ministry’s work in the years ahead. To help craft this strategy, the Ministry of Labour released a consultation paper in March, highlighting key issues and questions for the purpose of gathering important input from stakeholders.

As an integral part of Ontario's Health and Safety System, PSHSA was pleased to submit our response to MOL's consultation paper. With a long history of regional, sectoral and industry expertise, we are well positioned to offer constructive feedback on the province's first integrated health and safety strategy.

To ensure that our response was representative, our approach involved a consultative process. The draft was sent to our own staff and management as well as the organization's broader stakeholders, including members of our advisory councils and board of directors. In addressing MOL's paper, PSHSA identified three common themes that can help position the system for future success:

Develop a Renewed Focus on Purpose
Coordinate and Collaborate as a System
Eliminate Barriers to Prevention
The report expands on these recommendations and seeks to inspire a renewal of Ontario's Health and Safety System. Download PSHSA's complete response: Renewing Ontario's Health and Safety Strategy: Inspiration for the Province's First Integrated Occupational Health and Safety Strategy.

This is an exciting time for Ontario and we appreciate the opportunity to contribute to the future direction of health and safety in the province. We'd like to thank our staff, advisory council members, and Board of Directors for their input and participation throughout this process.

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Renewing Ontario's Health & Safety System: Inspiration for the Province's First Integrated Occupational Health and Safety Strategy

  1. 1. P:P:P:P:P:P:P:P:P:P:PSHSA’s response and recommendations to the questions posed in the Ministry of Labour’s discussionpaper highlight ways in which Ontario’s Health and Safety System can be renewed.Enhanced ServiceDeliveryTHEMESPRIORITIESSupport for ThoseWho are Most in NeedMeeting Changing Individualand Organizational NeedsTHEMESAddressing the Needsof Vulnerable WorkersResponding to SmallBusiness NeedsAssistance for HighHazard ActivitiesIntegrated Planning andService DeliveryExpanding Capacity throughInnovative PartnershipsEffective Support forWorkplacesAddressing OccupationalDiseaseEffective Financial andNon-Financial MotivatorsResearch Supporting System Improvement Effective Means for Measuring Performance• Partnerships In and Beyond Ontario’s H&S System• Use a Combination of Digital & Traditional Media• Coordinated Messaging Across the System• Employer Education on Vulnerable Worker Rights• Revisit the Economic Model• Create a Strong Business Case• Embed Research in Approach• Develop Small Business-Specific Resources• Create a Common Focus• Enhanced Use of Online Tools• Streamline Service Delivery• Link Funding to Outcomes• Review Shared Services• Collaborate but Maintain Sectoral Specificity• Facilitate Research Uptake• Leverage Existing Partnerships• Form New Partnershipso Cross-jurisdictionalo Private Sectoro Across OPS & BPSo Labour & Trade Associations123• Revisit the Economic Model• Create a Strong Business Case• Embed Research in Approach• Develop Small Business-Specific Resources• Create a Common Focus• Enhanced Use of Online Tools• Form System Working Groups• System Collaboration & Alignment• Form Partnerships Beyond the System• Integrate New Research in Products/Services• Develop & Market New Products/Services• Enhance & Customize Current Products/Services• Shift Culture to Embrace Collective Responsibility• Clear Definition of Compliance• Integrated Product Development/Dissemination• Enhanced Use of Technology/Multi-Format Offerings• Development of a Resource Library• Better Sharing of Best Practices• Multi-Staged Motivation (Financial Rebatesas well as Information and Services)• Leadership Status• Accreditation Process• Certificate of Recognition• Funding Approach45678• Measuring Outcomes (e.g. Decreased Injury &Illness Rates, Decreased Occupational Illness,Effective H&S Training Programs, PositiveWorkplace Culture and Psychologically Safeand Healthy Workplaces)• Develop a Repository of Reports• Define Measures• Schedule 2 FTE Information• Ensuring Completeness of Information(Forms 6,7 and 8)• Leading Indicators (e.g. Training, RiskAssessment and Organizational Culture) &Lagging Indicators (e.g. WSIB Composite,Non-occupational/Insurer Data, HumanResources Data)• Surveys (e.g. Employee Engagement)• Strategic Objectives:o Understand Needs & Gapso Research Alignment & ImproveData Collectiono Expand Research Networkso Evaluate H&S ProgramEffectivenesso Translate Research intoProducts & Services• Continuing Partnerships• Engaging the Right People• Tools & Messaging• Creating a Forum• Solid Internal Processes• Focus Groups9 10Injuries, Illness & FatalitiesZERO WORK RELATED
  2. 2. IntroductionThe Ministry of Labour (MOL), through the ChiefPrevention Office (CPO), is seeking feedback regardingOntario’s first Integrated Occupational Health and SafetyStrategy. The discussion document, “An IntegratedOccupational Health and Safety Strategy for Ontario”,outlines the vision and three strategic themes for thesystem, and poses questions to stakeholders around tenpriorities.This is an exciting time for Ontario and we appreciatethe opportunity to contribute to the future direction ofhealth and safety in the province. As an integral partof Ontario’s Health and Safety System, Public ServicesHealth & Safety Association (PSHSA) is pleased tosubmit our response to the Strategy paper.To ensure that our response was representative, ourapproach involved a consultative process. The draft wassent to our own staff and management as well as theorganization’s broader stakeholders, including membersof our advisory councils and board of directors, for thepurpose of gathering feedback.PSHSA serves over 9,500 organizations and 1.2 millionworkers across the province’s public service sector.We work closely with Ontario education and culture,community and healthcare, municipal and provincialgovernment, emergency services, and First Nations,offering consulting, training and resources to reduceworkplace risks and prevent occupational injuries,illnesses and fatalities.Working in regional teams, our consultants havevaluable expertise in common workplace issues suchas musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), slips, trips andfalls, workplace violence, and due diligence. Puttingthis experience to work, we help organizations identifyworkplace hazards, develop effective policies andprocedures and provide the right tools to address theirunique health and safety needs. With a long historyof regional, sectoral and industry expertise, we arewell positioned to offer constructive feedback on anintegrated health and safety strategy for Ontario.When it comes to health and safety, Ontario faces anumber of challenges. Both Ontario’s Health and SafetySystem and workplaces continue to experience times ofconstraint. Furthermore, today’s workplaces remain in atime of transition. They continue to experience sectoraland labour adjustments, economic changes and fiscalconstraints, continued technological innovation andadoption, an aging workforce, and social shifts. There arenew priority areas to address, however stresses, such asthe current economic climate, may lead firms to rethinktheir investments in health and safety, citing a lack oftime and money. The system must reply collectively toprovide answers to these challenges and demonstratethe benefits that prevention investments yield.Ontario’s Health and Safety System has accomplisheda lot throughout its history. As the system continuesto evolve, we will continue to lead the way in ourprevention activities and are glad to offer our supportand assistance in any way. There is still a lot to be doneand we look forward to working together towardsbuilding a stronger, more innovative and renewed Healthand Safety System.3
  3. 3. SummaryIn addressing the Strategy paper, PSHSAidentified several common themes that can helpposition the system for future success.Develop a Renewed Focus on PurposeThe prevention system must instigate a mindsetshift where all employers and workers know,understand and demonstrate the importance ofoccupational health and safety. System partnersmust continue to focus on the end outcome –zero injuries and illness. And new stakeholders– labour and employer groups, associations,community groups, all level of government –must be engaged to act as advocates for healthand safety.Coordinate and Collaborate as a SystemTogether, the prevention partners must builda stronger culture of collaboration as well asexpand and leverage relationships for the benefitof the Health and Safety System and Ontarioworkers and employers. A collaborative approachwill assist Health and Safety Associations (HSAs)and other system partners in maximizing ourfunding and resources by ensuring the greatestreturn on investment.Collaboration and coordination can achieve manythings. It can help minimize repetition amongthe products, training and services developedand delivered by system partners, while stillmaintaining the sector specificity needed byworkers and workplaces. Partners should seekto avoid duplication in their activities by lookingfor mutually beneficial opportunities to worktogether and ensure the system is operatingefficiently and moving prevention forward.Secondly, collaboration helps to avoid crossoverbetween sectors by system partners. This can bedone by finding new ways to work together toensure clients are properly directed through thesystem and to the appropriate HSA (e.g. throughreferrals, shared services). This will also improvethe collective ability to measure the effectivenessof prevention programs.System partners should work together to createa common message, and look to utilize multiplemethods of reaching workers and employersto optimize its reach and maximize theeffectiveness of awareness campaigns. Examplesof this include forming the aforementionedpartnerships and enhancing and expanding useof social media.The system must look to collaborate with thoseoutside of the current structure and expandpartnerships. For example, connecting to workersand workplaces through partnerships withprovincial ministries, federal departments andagencies and research organizations should beencouraged.In addition, the system must also understandthat health and safety efforts are not confinedjust to those identified as stakeholders in theintroduction of the discussion paper. There areservice providers who can be better integratedinto the fold. Currently there are a number ofprivate health and safety providers offeringtraining and other services, but who are notincluded in the overall business model. Onesuggestion may be for PSHSA to be a solutionprovider, developing sustainable and outcome-based content for private organizations todeliver.Where possible, system partners should also lookto coordinate research efforts as well as ensurethere is sustained knowledge transfer and uptakein the programs and service delivery.Underlying coordination and collaboration is theneed to put in place the mechanisms to supportcollaboration across the system. For example,there should be incentives and conditions inplace which encourage partnerships.Eliminate Barriers to PreventionThere are opportunities for the Health andSafety System to think differently about the wayit optimizes its reach and improves preventioneffectiveness. These include, but are not limitedto, the following recommendations.Rather than remaining insular, the system shouldlook externally, across Canada and beyond, toidentify best practices, streamline delivery andincrease efficiency.The system should consider reviewing andrealigning the funding model to align witheconomic realities as well as the needs ofworkers, employers and the system itself, and toencourage cooperation. This includes reviewingand aligning the partners differing businessmodels, and thinking strategically as a collective.This will also be supported though developing ashared understanding of system issues betweenpartners, including an improved and commonview of the provincial market as well as the socialand economic landscape.Similarly, measurement of the impact andeffectiveness of solutions and services providedshould be carried out across the system.The report expands on these recommendationsand seeks to inspire a renewal of Ontario’s Healthand Safety System.4
  4. 4. 1 Addressing the Needsof Vulnerable Workers5
  5. 5. How can the voice of the vulnerable worker be brought into the occupationalhealth and safety discussion to better understand their needs?1aFor our organization, it is important to first address the definition of vulnerable workers. Many public service workers only fit loosely into theprovided categories. Regarding factors that contribute to worker vulnerability, an additional consideration is that lack of training does not necessarilymean there is no education available for a group of workers. For some public sector workers, education is largely unregulated. For example, personalsupport workers can receive the same certificate by taking a 10 month college program or a private weekend course.It is integral that the voice of vulnerable workers be brought into the occupational health and safety discussion so that we, as a system, can betterunderstand their needs. The best way to do this is to reach out and engage these workers. The approach should consider both the modes ofcommunication as well as the points of connection.Connecting Through Partnerships Beyond Ontario’s Health and Safety SystemThere are many touch points where workers and potential workers need or choose to go for information. By partnering with these organizations,system partners can not only connect vulnerable workers to valuable health and safety education and resources, but listen and receive input fromthem as well. Reaching vulnerable workers can be aided through relationships with community centres and associations, various government entities,and employer and labour associations.Developing relationships with local and regional community-based centres and associations, such as religious and medical centres, can help provideaccess to vulnerable groups. A variety of formal and informal associations, both known and unknown, exist in every community. Efforts should bemade to identify these groups and reach out to them.Further, many of PSHSA’s clients work in public services and are funded through various government entities. It may be beneficial to collaborate withother ministries as many clients and vulnerable workers have already formed relationships with them.Lastly, several vulnerable workers, and the workplaces that employ them, are represented by various industry associations. By partnering withemployer and labour associations, the system will be able to better connect with vulnerable groups.Utilizing Online, Social and Mobile MediaIt has been suggested that the system provide a venue that vulnerable workers can relate to, such as a communications portal, hotline, mobileapplication or social media channel. This will not only provide vulnerable workers with support by delivering on-demand advice and resources, it willact as a venue for open discussion and learning as well. This will complement the system’s more traditional approaches.6
  6. 6. Strengthening the occupational health and safety of vulnerableworkers can be facilitated through partnerships, education,collaboration and better communication.PartnershipsIt is understood that introducing workers to the basic rights andcontacts for health and safety can lend to positive awarenessefforts. Citizenship and Immigration Canada is often the first pointof contact for entrants into the country, as the office coordinateswork permits for new immigrants, refugees, protected persons andpermanent residents seeking to legally work in Canada. Similarly,visa offices, employment and job-training centres, and settlementcentres, which provide basic skills training, ESL/FSL training andemployment support, can act as other effective channels forreaching vulnerable workers.Another important partnership involves education institutes andrelated provincial ministries (e.g. Ministry of Education, Ministryof Training, Colleges and Universities). By adding health andsafety programming into university, college and training collegecurriculums, we are able to access those who will eventually enterthe workforce. Likewise, reaching out to grade school levels canhelp build awareness as well as the foundational elements of ahealth and safety culture among young students; this is sure tohave long-felt impacts.Lastly, the system should look to connect and form partnershipswith labour and employer associations to help educate theworkers that these associations represent on the significance ofoccupational health and safety.Employer EducationSystem partners should work together to educate employersabout vulnerable workers, who they are and what they need. Thisincludes communicating the importance of worker orientation andjob-specific training.Coordinated MessagingWe must work as a system, collaborating and coordinating withthe other Health and Safety Associations (HSAs) to ensure theprevention approach is reinforced. PSHSA can support outreachefforts through providing information, tools and guidance, such aseLearning and eConsulting, and acting as a resource for vulnerableworkers when required.Multimodal CommunicationFor vulnerable workers, emphasis should be placed oncommunicating in targeted ways. In this case, it is providinginformation in multiple languages, modes and literacy levels.Recognizing the diversity of the province, the system must makea collective effort to translate materials into various languagesin a way that is cost-effective. This will help improve access toinformation.How can we strengthen the occupational health and safety of vulnerableworkers?1b7
  7. 7. 2 Responding to SmallBusiness Needs8
  8. 8. As with other priority groups, there are a number of considerations specific to understanding and meeting small business health andsafety needs, including: employers’ limited time and resources, the perception that small businesses are at minimal risk, and the need foradaptable and on-demand products and services. The following recommendations can help small businesses and their workers achievesafe and healthy workplaces.Revisiting the Economic ModelThe Health and Safety System’s economic model currently favours those industries and clients that are able to pay, rather than those whocannot. There is a lack of focus on small businesses as they are unable to support or sustain an investment in health and safety. To helpaddress this concern, the system must look at ways that the current economic model can better include small business and encourageemphasis on providing the tools and solutions they require.Creating a Strong Business CaseSmall business owners can get caught up in the bottom line and other pressures of business ownership, often losing sight of the biggerpicture. The system should work together to communicate a strong business case for health and safety. This involves framing themessage to clearly demonstrate the benefits associated with an investment in health and safety versus the costs of injuries and illness. Itshould also state that, contrary to popular perception, the laws apply to small businesses as well.Embedding Research in ApproachBy incorporating research in the design and creation of new products and services, the system is able to provide perspective on smallbusiness needs as well as what approaches will be effective in improving health and safety programs.Developing Small Business-specific ResourcesPartners can look to put together information kits that are adapted to the needs of small business. These can be distributed in multipleformats through a variety of channels, including partnerships with other ministries.PSHSA offers a free, downloadable Small Business Resource Guide detailing the ten steps toward building an effective health and safetyprogram. Furthermore, PSHSA’s eConsulting approach, which utilizes technology to provide just-in-time professional advice and services,will assist small business clients with their immediate needs.What can help small businesses and their workershave safe and healthy workplaces?2a9
  9. 9. How can the occupational health and safety system partnerswork with established networks to identify the needs of smallbusinesses and better understand how to address them?2bThere are numerous established networks and associations to which small businesses are directed for purposes such as businessregistration, tax filing or access to resources. These include: business groups, publicly funded centres (e.g. Business Help Centres),associations (e.g. Canadian Federation of Independent Businesses, Chamber of Commerce) and provincial ministries (e.g. Ministryof Economic Development). In working with these established networks, system partners are better able to identify and addressthe needs of small business using the following approaches.Create a Common FocusIn terms of how to work with these networks, system partners should first consider creating a common focus. The system shouldlook to develop a common message as well as a quick and easy connection to the system which clearly outlines where to go.Promote the Business CaseUsing a variety of networks, all system partners should do their part to communicate the message to small businesses about thesignificant costs of injury and illness, and the benefits of preventing such.Enhanced Use of Online ToolsSystem partners should consider enhancing and expanding the use of online and social tools to identify and address the needs ofsmall businesses. It may be impractical for owners, managers or staff to take a day for offsite training. Easy to use websites, socialmedia, videos, eLearning and just-in-time information can help facilitate increased health and safety knowledge and awareness.Increase Availability of ToolsThe system should seek to form strategic partnerships with new network partners. These partners can act as connection points tosmall businesses and ensure the approach is appropriate for their sectors. The system should also look to leverage and enhanceexisting tools, such as the Ministry of Labour hotline.10
  10. 10. 3 Assistance for High-Hazard Activities11
  11. 11. High-Hazard Activities: Those activities where the worker is regularly exposed to potential sources of serious harm or serious health effects (e.g.working at heights, near and around heavy equipment, underground, or with hazardous substances).When defining high-hazard activities, the system must consider the following:• Activities where workers are exposed to uncontrolled conditions.• Activities where workers are exposed to unknowns and unseen dangers (e.g. chemical exposure, exposures to conditions that may lead tooccupational disease).• Activities for which protocols and standards of practice are in place, and injuries and illnesses have been prevented, but where the hazard has notbeen eliminated.• Activities which are preventable, but have high claims rates, though typically lack market appeal or research focus (e.g. noise, chemical exposures).For high-hazard activities, it is vital to address the concerns ahead of time through risk assessment, and to be cognizant of all the potential individualswho may be exposed to identified hazards through the work they are engaged in.How do you define high-hazard activities? For example, would the definitionbe based more on the seriousness of the potential injury or illness, or thepotential frequency of injury or illness? Would it be based on other criteria?3a12
  12. 12. Our organization feels that there are some high-hazard activities that should have more rigorous training, compliance and enforcement. These include:confined space entry, working at heights, traffic control, trenching operations, heavy equipment operation, utility work, use of equipment and chemicalsin shops, work in labs and maintenance rooms, exposures to medical compounds (e.g. antineoplastics), social and community services (e.g. where thereis exposure to violence), work on energized systems (e.g. electrical, pneumatic, pressurized), and emergency rescue situations.Please note that the development of rigorous standards is not only required for high-hazard training programs; they are necessary for qualifying trainersand training providers as well.What high-hazard activities should be subject to more rigorous trainingstandards, assurance of compliance or ministry enforcement?3b13
  13. 13. What concerns and challenges do you see for the Ministry of Labour inimplementing industry-wide training on specific tasks that have beendefined as high-hazard?3cExperience of TrainersIt is critical that health and safety is a focus of high hazardtraining programs. Trainers must be strong facilitators so thatthey are able to clearly communicate the risks and ensure thereis uptake of the message. Similarly, high-hazard activities requiremore than general knowledge. Instructors must have a deepunderstanding of best practices, gained through education orprior experience, in order to properly address questions andconcerns that fall outside of the curriculum.Considerations for Train-the-TrainerRigorous Train-the-Trainer standards need to be developed forhigh-hazard activities. Prerequisites must be defined for trainersrequesting high-hazard Train-the-Trainer programs and a processmust be developed for managing this.In addition, a system to manage the delivery of updates (e.g.legislation changes, new best practices, refresher programs) forthose who have completed Train-the-Trainer programs shouldalso be considered. This would ensure that those who havecompleted Train-the-Trainer programs are always deliveringthe most current information, regardless of when they took thecourse. If partners are going to offer Train-the-Trainer programs,they must have the capacity to sustain them over time.Potential CompromisesOrganizations may choose alternative methods of trainingdelivery due to the following compromises. It is important thatwe develop solutions as a system to mitigate these compromises.The prevention system cannot support the notion that anytraining is better than no training – the risks are too great.First, organizations may be limited by financial constraints. Thiscan lead to decisions to seek alternative methods of health andsafety training and services. However, these alternatives maynot be current or up to standards. Second, many organizationstoday feel pressure due to time constraints. As a result of heavyworkloads, organizations may opt for lesser training programs.This is a particular concern for small businesses.To cope with concerns and challenges when implementingindustry-wide training on high-hazard tasks, we recommend thefollowing for consideration.Monitor Training QualityWhen implementing standards, it is vital to designate trainersonly when all steps are complete, and build in the structuresto monitor the quality of training. A risk assessment should beconducted to demonstrate the impact of doing otherwise.Shift Towards Global StandardsIn the past, there has been little made-in-Canada materialfor emergency services training. However, Canada and otherjurisdictions are currently moving towards implementing globalstandards and then adjusting for local applicable legislation (e.g.National Fire Protection Association standards).Drawing from Exemplary ModelsMining and Forestry programs maintain strict training standardswith mandatory training. Principles for implementation can bederived from their models.14
  14. 14. 4 Integrated Planning &Service Delivery Model15
  15. 15. What are the highest priority gaps in occupational health andsafety system service delivery that needs to be addressed?4aWithin the system, there are opportunities to address currentgaps and continue to improve prevention service delivery.The challenges outlined herein are reflective of the currentenvironment; PSHSA would like to continue to find ways tocollaborate and address these.Differing Business ModelsSystem partners have distinct business models, includingpricing and, in some cases, services. This sends aninconsistent message to clients and may hinder somecollaborative efforts.Funding Not Aligned to Address Shifts in Needs andOutcomesWithin the system, there are a number of self-imposedbarriers stemming from funding which is not linked tooutcomes, nor reallocated for sectoral structures, labourshifts and economic realities.Repetition Among PartnersOverlap exists between the back-end service delivery oforganizations funded through the same channels. There isalso repetition among products, training and other servicesprovided and developed by system partners, as well asorganizations outside of the publicly funded sphere. TheHSAs need to focus on maximizing funding by ensuringthe greatest return on investment. For example, as alarge and diverse province, there is a need for Ontario toprovide health and safety products in multiple languages.Product translation may be an area where it makes sense tocoordinate.In addition to products and services, there is currentlycrossover in the sectors and clients that the system partnersserve. As a result, it is difficult to measure effectiveness.System partners are unable to ascertain whether or notour respective programs are truly effective. Moreover,performance metrics are not accurately reflective of oneanother’s work.Inconsistent Research IntegrationThere are many examples where translating researchfindings into products and services has positively impactedprevention activities. There needs to be a level of consistencyand efficiency, as well as a better approach to facilitate this.Similarly, there is a need for research outcomes to be linkedto funding.No Standards for Data AnalysisPartners in the Health and Safety System have access tothe same information sourced from the WSIB EIW. However,partners may extract and analyze it in various ways, oftenleading to different approaches to address needs. Outcomesare met, but there are no controls over ways to measurecomparative efficiencies.16
  16. 16. detailing how partners should worktogether.Identify Areas of Sectoral SpecificityThere is a need to ensure that sectoralpartners, including those in research,adapt products and services to meet thedistinct needs of sectors as necessary,such as hazard identification and control,and in shaping messages to the particularaudiences. Since our sector specificknowledge and expertise is what separatesthe HSAs from private consultants, systempartners should continue to maintainsector identity in our service offerings, yetlook for opportunities to collaborate whereit makes sense.Facilitating Research UptakeTo improve prevention activities, thesystem should provide the means toenable the inclusion of research findingsinto the products and services of systempartners.There are a number of ways the systempartners and other organizations can alignto overcome these obstacles and improveservice delivery.Streamline Service DeliveryAs a system, we must develop a businessplan that works for everyone. This canbe done by learning from each other’sbusiness models, and jointly agreeing toone which is used consistently across thesystem.Link Funding to OutcomesThis will continue to focus partneractivities on delivering health and safetyimprovements. Consideration should bemade regarding allocation of funding towhere the needs exist, whether based onpriority groups and proportion held by asystem partner, market size, and so forth.Review Shared ServicesThe system must work together to developa common definition for shared services.Having expertise in this area, PSHSA iswilling to lead a committee or project teamto look into this further.System partners must work togetherto identify where there are unexploredopportunities to collaborate that willbenefit the system by leveraging resourcesand reducing duplication. System partnersneed to find new ways to work togetherto ensure clients are properly directedthrough the system and to the appropriateHSA (e.g. through referrals, sharedservices). In addition, by maintainingsectoral specificity in the clients andsectors with which we do business, systempartners will have a better understandingof the effectiveness of their programs.For example, the system can createbranding and marketing guidelines thatsupport the overall goal of consistentmessaging. This will ensure the client getsthe right help at the right time. This relatesto the idea of establishing expectationsHow can we align system partners and other organizations to improveservice delivery? Can you provide examples?4b17
  17. 17. 185 Expanding Capacitythrough InnovativePartnerships
  18. 18. What new partnerships could advance occupational health andsafety?5a19First and foremost, it is important to notethat it is not only new partnerships that canadvance occupational health and safety; existingpartnerships can also be leveraged. The systemshould consider the following:• Refocus on outcomes (lives saved) acrossthe province and beyond.• Look to define and describe measuresand outcomes in the same way across thesystem.• Coordinate shared messages throughout thesystem.• Remove artificial barriers and continue towork toward collaborative delivery andaligned business models.• Identify where gaps exist and mutuallybeneficial relationships can be struck.• Improve the internal capacities of theHSAs and other partners to deliver on theprevention mandate.• While the HSAs can each address the needsof our sectors, we must work together tomove forward collectively as a system.With that said, opportunities remain to lookacross the country and beyond to identifynew, innovative partnerships that can expandcapacity and advance health and safety. Ourrecommendations are as follows.Cross-Jurisdictional PartnershipsThere is potential to look across Canada at alllevels and identify opportunities to share bestpractices, products, tools and information, andto coordinate service delivery, messaging to andengagement of workers and employers.First, the Health and Safety System must look toother provinces, at the ministry level and beyond,to discuss practices and principles, identifypriority areas and see where collaborationbetween provinces and federal government cancollectively address health and safety.Second, the system should look for opportunitiesto connect with other provincial associationsat the system partner level across Canada andabroad (e.g. prevention organizations with similarmandates) to learn about best practices, toinventory products that are easily adaptable toOntario workers and employers, and, likewise,to share Ontario’s best practices and health andsafety tools. For instance, entire programs maybe shared where only a few modules referencinglegislation will require substitution. Resultsinclude: efficiencies, the reallocation of fundingto unaddressed areas, better products andservices, and improved responsiveness to needsand priorities.Third, the system should look to find ways todraw upon research bodies, both basic andapplied, across the country that are uncoveringor addressing common hazards, solutions andthe like.Partnerships with Private SectorOrganizationsRather than remaining insular, the system shouldlook externally to identify what can be learnedfrom best practices. This includes looking atsuccessful private sector firms to share theirstories with our clients.Partnerships Across Ontario and theBroader Public SectorThe system should add health and safety intothe broader conversation and coordinate effortsto reach priority groups, such as small businessand workers employed in high-hazard activities.Examples of such include aligning contentprovider channels.The system should consider partnershipswith other ministries as well. For instance,partners can look for opportunities to embedoccupational health and safety awareness intoeducational curriculums for trades.Partnerships with Labour and TradeAssociationsSystem partners should seek to build reciprocalrelationships with labour and trade associationsso that the needs of those represented by theseassociations are included in the preventionconversation and effective programs andimproved market penetration can be achieved.This is also a mechanism to identify influentialindividuals and organizations who can act asadvocates for prevention across the province.There is a mutual opportunity here for marketing,revenue generation and free intelligence.In addition, to meet the needs of workersrepresented by these associations, this canfurther ensure sector specificity in products andservices.
  19. 19. What innovative approachescould expand the reach ofcurrent occupational health andsafety efforts?5bBroadening our reach is integral to achieving our common mission. Thefollowing suggestions outline potential approaches that can contribute to theexpansion of our current occupational health and safety efforts.Develop a Referral SystemThere is a need to incentivize the system to encourage collaboration. Theremay be an opportunity to develop a system to facilitate referrals betweenthe HSAs that will guide employers and workers to the areas they can bebest served. Similarly, the possibility of developing a system-wide LearningManagement System (LMS) for eLearning has been raised.Co-branding, LicensingSystem partners should work together to co-brand or license products whereopportunities exist. Partnering with external service providers and those whoprovide prevention services independently can expand and enhance theseopportunities.SponsorshipsSystem partners should consider joint sponsorships for conferences and tradeshows to improve both value for money and coordination of messaging andmarketing efforts.Expand eConsultingIt is ideal to implement multiple modes to transmit the message and enableclients to connect. This includes using social media to complement traditionalapproaches and reach out to groups not previously engaged.Reach Out to GrassrootsAs a collective, the system should look to identify those who have influence incommunities, sectors/industries, or regions, and educate and empower thoseindividuals to become advocates.20
  20. 20. 6 Effective Supportfor Workplaces2121
  21. 21. The Internal Responsibility System (IRS) is the foundation of all prevention programs,and prevention system partners have generally developed a good mix of products andservices. There are some ways, however, that can enhance an organization’s ability tobecome self-reliant in achieving compliance. These include:Shifting the Culture to Embrace Collective ResponsibilityCompliance is often misinterpreted as the responsibility of the organization’s JointHealth and Safety Committee (JHSC) or health and safety representative. It is integralto communicate that health and safety is the responsibility of everyone, includingemployees, supervisors and managers, executives, and the boards of directors. This canbe achieved by building on existing models and reshaping products and services.Employees Participating in Change (EPIC) is an active engagement approach andstrategy used by PSHSA consultants to teach organizations about the tools available tothem, and to aid in changing their workplace culture and attitudes toward business andhealth and safety. We are working to build on the Employees Participating portion for alllevels.The customization of existing products and messaging to all levels within anorganization, including the executive and board of directors, can lend to increased self-reliance among organizations.Partnerships with MOL to Define ComplianceIt is recommended that the system form a partnership to develop specific guidelines onimplementing an IRS and provide clear guidelines on what compliance means. This mayinclude clear and consistent communication as to what inspectors may look for or askwhen reaching out to organizations as well as the translation of legislation or regulationsinto the language of the client.Integrated System Approach to Product Development and DisseminationCollaboration and coordination across the prevention system yields better outcomesand achieves process efficiencies. PSHSA is a strong supporter of finding new waysto work together, and is currently working as part of the broader system team on thedevelopment of worker and supervisor training.What products and services could helpyour workplace to becomeself-reliant in achieving compliance withthe Occupational Health and Safety Actand regulations?6a22
  22. 22. We have a number of recommendations for improving access to healthand safety products and services, including enhanced use of technology,partnerships with provincial associations and the development of aresource library.Enhanced Use of TechnologyThe system should look to supplement traditional products and serviceswith e-products. Examples of this include: eConsulting, multimedia andonline access. Via web and social media, eConsulting provides easyaccess to improve responsiveness and provide on-demand information.Multimedia, such as audio, video, images and infographics, are short,focused and shareable forms of content which address particular questionsor issues. Online access to products and services ensures that informationand answers can be found at the touch of a button.Partnerships with Provincial AssociationsThe purpose of connecting with provincial associations, whose membersare owners and operators of organizations, is three-fold. First, byreaching out through shared platforms (such as eLearning) or associationmembership lists, the system is able to connect with leaders and decisionmakers who can guide health and safety programs in their organizations.Second, connecting with provincial associations will assist in reaching abroader group of workers and employers. Third, this can assist with marketintelligence. By gaining a better understanding of organizations’ health andsafety needs, partners are able to improve methods of access as well asproduct and service offerings.Developing a Resource LibraryA resource library would make available a central repository of products ortools to maintain consistent messaging and information. These tools can beprovided to workers and employers when needed.What could improve access toproducts and services for thoseworkplaces that need support6b23
  23. 23. When it comes to the IRS, it is important to support Ontario workplacesas best we can. The following recommendations can assist workplaces instrengthening their IRS.Better Sharing of Best PracticesA process or mechanism should be developed to identify best practices.This should entail the collection, consolidation and sharing of knowledgeregarding what works well for organizations in different sectors, ofdifferent sizes, or with similar challenges, regarding IRSs. Clients withrobust training programs or health and safety resources should beencouraged to share.Multi-Format OfferingsTo help workplaces strengthen their IRS, the system can provide productsand services in a number of formats, such as traditional learning offerings,blended learning offerings, distance education and eLearning, toaddress the diverse needs of various workplaces. For example, for smallbusinesses with limited resources and strict time-constraints, eLearningprovides a health and safety representative the opportunity to learn theirresponsibilities without sacrificing a day for offsite training.What assistance could the systemprovide to help workplacesstrengthen their InternalResponsibility System (IRS)?6C24
  24. 24. 7 AddressingOccupational Disease25
  25. 25. What additional steps could the occupational health and safetysystem take to protect workers from occupational disease?7Prior to delving into additional steps for protecting workers, it is important to review the unique challenges and considerationsthat apply to occupational disease.Prolonged Development of Illness and DiseaseExposure to chemical or physical hazards may induce adverse health effects instantly, while others may take time to manifest.Since the effects are not always felt immediately, precautions are sometimes ignored or taken less seriously. Delay in the onset ofsymptoms or disease makes it challenging to communicate the importance of taking proactive preventative measures. Exploringthe potential of early detection and screening would help address this concern. Similar to this, we should remain cognizantnot only of the physical illnesses, but of the hazardous situations that can lead to mental illnesses as well. For example, firstresponders are exposed to situations that can lead to post traumatic stress disorders. The effects of mental illness may alsodevelop or last over time.Barriers to ReportingA system challenge, individuals affected by occupational illness and disease may not report exposures for various reasons. Thiscan lead to long-term exposure and, consequently, long-term impacts.Broad ExposuresSome occupations involve frequent contact with hazardous materials or other disease-causing agents, but these workers are notconsidered a priority (e.g. contact with patients receiving chemotherapy, teachers in shops and labs, and water treatment andwastewater workers).Challenges Obtaining DataThere is a need for better statistical data regarding occupational disease. It is difficult to obtain adequate data from WSIB orelsewhere to identify trends, and so forth. Exploring other data sources may help address this concern.Propensity to Respond to Key Incidents, Not Key CausesUpon diagnosis of occupational disease, organizations tend to focus on the most recent incident or exposure. However, sincedisease can take time to manifest, there must be a focus on all potential causes.To put this topic in perspective, of the numerous causes of occupational illness and disease, examples for PSHSA include: noiseexposure, exposure to solvents, antineoplastics, infectious agents, asbestos, diesel exhaust, shift work and biological hazards (e.g.mould, bacteria, exotoxins/endotoxins). The following steps can be taken to protect workers from occupational disease.26
  26. 26. Form System Working GroupsWorking groups involving Health and Safety System partnershave shown to yield positive outcomes. For example, PSHSAtook part in an occupational disease working group focusedon mould exposure, heat stress and noise spanning all sectorswhich resulted in a series of tools to address the issues.PSHSA recommends and supports new working groupstasked to address other cross-sectoral issues and suggestsrevisiting data and statistics available to support such agroup.System Collaboration and AlignmentThere are a number of areas for collaboration within thesystem. Partners should collaborate around key issues,such as occupational hygiene and shift work. Awarenesscampaigns can be coordinated around certain topics. PSHSAwill take initiative to develop new posters, training, etc.In addition, we will continue working with the Centre forResearch Expertise in Occupational Disease.Form Partnerships beyond the SystemAdditional stakeholders should be engaged in theconversation about occupational disease so they too canbecome part of the solution. This can be facilitated, first,by providing awareness. By reaching out to the medicalcommunity, we can share legislative updates and extendinvitations to information sessions (e.g. OMA, Public HealthOntario, medical schools).Second, partnerships can assist with the gaining of importantinsights. In working with high-risk trade groups, perhapsthrough focus groups or other mechanisms, we are able tolearn effective approaches to address high risk exposures tosuch things as noise, solvents and cancer causing agents.Third, system partners should look to form partnershipswith other ministries for a broader impact. Similar to otherhealth and safety programs, we should look to work withtrade schools to add occupational health and safety intothe curriculum. This will help to inform students of theimportance of taking precautions prior to the development ofsymptoms.Integration of New Research in Products and ServicesResearch is instrumental to understanding issues, whetherrelated to occupational disease and illness or in the broaderhealth and safety context. Organizations such as theCentre for Research and Occupational Disease (CRE-OD)and the Centre of Research Expertise for the Preventionof Musculoskeletal Disorders (CRE-MSD) provide valuableinsights.Opportunities for the prevention system may involveidentifying where there may be a higher susceptibility forworkers to develop occupational diseases, and lookingat multiple segmentations to be more effective in ourprevention activities. Another opportunity may involve thelaunch of a focus group tasked to identify groups that havea higher likelihood of exposure. In addition, system partnersshould always look to work collaboratively with scientists andproduct specialists to translate research results into practicaland meaningful products.Enhance and Customize Current Products andServicesWhere applicable, the system should look into enhancingand customizing current products and services. This wouldinvolve investigating other modes of training and servicedelivery to increase engagement and uptake of information.Other suggestions include gearing training to particulargroups and equipping health and safety consultants withchecklists and surveillance tools for high-risk exposures.Develop and Market New Products and ServicesThe system partners should consider developing system-widemarketing campaigns to shed light on the long-term effectsof exposures and to support any specialized training andservices.Continued...27
  27. 27. 288 Effective Financialand Non-FinancialMotivators
  28. 28. The Ministry of Labour has laid out a very practical approach to arrive at revised prevention-based programs focused on outcomes. All programs shouldencourage workplaces with higher injury rates to improve their health and safety programs and consequently decrease injuries to become top performers.All programs should also increase the number of cases that demonstrate return in both dollars and safety as a result of participation and investment.PSHSA has participated in previous WSIB programs, such as:• Safe Communities Incentive Program (SCIP): The program creates awareness and helps firms develop health and safety programs with rebates forparticipation in training, planning, policy development and self assessment.• Safety Groups: Member firms that are involved in this program share experiences, access resources and work towards implementing a comprehensivehealth and safety program that will reduce WSIB premiums. Safety Groups offer a financial incentive in the form of rebates if measures are achieved.• Workwell: The program involves on-site evaluations for firms with higher comparative health and safety risks in their workplace. These evaluations canreduce risks and incidents, improve morale, and grant rebates or decrease premiums for improvements in experience records.Highlighted below are areas for consideration when conducting the program review and evaluating the suitability of motivators.ParticipationCurrent programs exclude Schedule 2 employers as well as those workplaces that do not pay into WSIB. Unlike Schedule 1 firms who pay premiums,Schedule 2 employers reimburse WSIB for claims paid to their workers in addition to an administration fee. Therefore, considerations need to be madewhen designing and implementing financial-based motivators or incentive programs. PSHSA is particularly familiar with this as we serve a high proportionof Schedule 2 firms in particular sectors.Multi-Staged MotivationExperience has taught us that the motivators for companies, in terms of engagement in prevention, can shift over time. This has been seen through anumber of programs in which PSHSA has participated. Safety Groups are a good example. Our clients were initially drawn to the program because of thefinancial rebates they receive. However, according to feedback provided by members, we learned that continued participation in the program is not dueto the financial rewards, but because of the information, products and consulting services they receive both from PSHSA and other client members whichenable them to make health and safety improvements in their organizations.PSHSA recommends pursuing a combined approach, where financial motivators are advertised to draw clients into the Health and Safety System and itsprograms, and support is provided once they are there. A continuum of involvement could be used to engage both small and larger businesses where theinitial focus is on core health and safety elements. Supporting firms to develop robust health and safety programs and to become leaders in health andsafety may be a positive motivator. PSHSA’s i3consult model encourages and supports organizations to continue to make improvements in their internalsystems.How could prevention programs utilize motivators (positive and negative)to improve occupational health and safety performance in the workplace?8a29
  29. 29. Other than financial, are there other motivators that will attract acompany’s participation in health and safety programs?How could a non-financial incentive program attract participantsand assist in motivating better performance?8bThe following are suggestions for non-financial motivators to attract participation in health and safety programs.Leadership StatusThe concept of achieving leadership status, as outlined in the i3consult model, can act as a non-financial motivator for firms andtheir peers.Accreditation ProcessAnother motivator could be a health and safety accreditation process with a recognition mechanism for successful candidates.Health and safety accreditation should be linked to other business accreditation programs (e.g. ISO, Accreditation Canada).Certificate of RecognitionWhen developing health and safety programs, providing participants certificates of recognition with approved vendor status, orsimilar motivation, should be considered.Funding ApproachAnother motivator might entail utilizing a funding approach tied to leading and lagging indicators.30
  30. 30. 9 Research SupportingSystem Improvement31
  31. 31. What should be the strategic objectives of occupationalhealth and safety research in Ontario?9aPSHSA sees tremendous value in conductingbasic and applied research to betterunderstand the characteristics of our clientsand their health and safety needs. In addition, itis important to study the barriers and enablersto creating and sustaining healthy and safeworkplaces. Further to focusing on the highpriority areas within the prevention system,including vulnerable workers, high-hazardactivities and small business, we believe anumber of other strategic objectives should beconsidered to advance occupational health andsafety research in Ontario.Understand the Needs of Ontario Workersand EmployersThe research system should seek to understandthe market and gain a deep understanding ofthe needs of those within the market.Align Research with Health and SafetySystemThere are two components to this objective.First, the system should look to create a centralresearch repository. With numerous, relevantresearch projects taking place, it would behelpful to have one central repository ofinformation. From this, gaps as well as newresearch opportunities can be identified.Second, the HSAs should make better useof system partnerships. This would involvesustaining and improving relationships andconnections across the system to ensure thereis sharing of research between organizationsand partners to achieve efficiencies. The systemmust also ensure we are reallocating theresources to new research.Improve Data CollectionWhen possible, the system should utilizetechnology to improve the collection of data(e.g. implementing a standardized and up-to-date database).Evaluate Health and Safety ProgramEffectivenessResearch needs to focus on evaluating andvalidating the health and safety programs andtools that are used in the prevention system bysystem partners.Effectively Translate Research intoProducts and ServicesOne way to disseminate knowledge andresearch findings is through the products andtraining programs the partners deliver. Byincorporating relevant and current researchinto products, the system is able to assist withknowledge implementation.Expand and Enhance Research NetworksThis will involve looking beyond Ontario andperhaps Canada, and removing jurisdictionalsilos where they may exist, to understand andcoordinate research efforts so that the systemcan realize efficiencies and improvementsin injury and illness prevention. An exampleof bringing this all together locally maybe coordinating a conference focused onoccupational health and safety that is global inscope, yet hosted at home in Ontario.Research SuggestionsAdditional, more specific examples ofoccupational health and safety topics that webelieve should be the focus of future researchinclude: workplace psychological health andsafety, the role and the impact of a JHSCor health and safety representative in theworkplace, leading practices within our sectorclients related to a particular health and safetyissue, effective ways to engage clients in healthand safety, and validated tools and strategiesaimed at advancing health and safety withinorganizations.32
  32. 32. How can we best align research with the occupationalhealth and safety needs of the workplace?9bReflecting on the proposed strategic objectives, the system can align research with workplaces’ health and safety needs throughthe following.Understanding Needs and GapsThe system should consider taking a bottom-up approach to research identification by surveying the needs of workplaces andworking collaboratively with system partners.PartnershipsPSHSA is part of the Health and Safety Association Liaison Committee that meets on a quarterly basis with representatives fromthe HSAs, MOL, Institute for Work and Health (IWH) and other research partners. This serves as an opportunity to exchange ideas,report on current projects and brainstorm strategies to improve the way we do business.Engaging the Right PeopleWithin the system, there are people who specialize in knowledge translation and advocate and champion research. There isan opportunity to connect with staff within organizations who believe in research, are motivated to see it succeed and use theresearch in their health and safety programs. Larger organizations often have human resources dedicated to knowledge andresearch acquisition. Hence, partners can work with these individuals to expand our networks. It is equally important to engageadvocates and specialists at the right time along the program and product development continuum.Tools and MessagingPartners should provide the necessary knowledge tools and articulate the value and benefits of research to the system.33
  33. 33. What could be done to betterimplement research findings?9cCreating a ForumSimilar to the Healthy Work Environment portal, which is receiving positivefeedback, the system should consider creating a central searchable referencefor organizations involved in research. This would assist in identifying gaps,refocusing efforts and reducing duplication.Solid Internal ProcessesBetter distribution of research findings across the system should be a priority. Inaddition, the development of system-wide processes for synchronizing the waythat partners gather, appraise and incorporate research knowledge into productsand services should be considered.Holding Focus GroupsThe system should also consider connecting with specific groups for the purposesof raising awareness about research, identifying the needs, validating thenecessary tools and outlining where gaps among products and services exist.Penetrating the MarketPartners should look to reach out to the market to develop reciprocal relationshipsand improve understanding.34
  34. 34. 3510 Effective Meansfor MeasuringPerformance
  35. 35. What are the right outcomes to measure that would resultin a common vision of success for the occupational healthand safety system?10aThe system should measure the following outcomes: decreased injury rates, decreased illness rates, decreased occupationalillness, effective health and safety training programs, positive workplace culture and psychologically safe and healthy workplaces.In order to properly measure these outcomes, overall improvements and positive changes must be made to the WSIB information.In addition, there must be improvements to non-occupational statistics and other information in terms of availability andapplication.The data feeding into many of these measures will come from the WSIB EIW system. Recognizing areas for improvement inthe way the system is structured is important to measuring and understanding outcomes. We recommend the following forconsideration.Develop a Repository of ReportsThe development of a repository of reports can help standardize the way system partners receive information.Common DefinitionsWhat is included in the data may differ from system partners’ definitions. For example, small business in WSIB data is measuredas less than 20 FTE, whereas MOL considers less than 50 applicable. A shared understanding and shared definitions will furtherensure consistency across the system. Also, the system should look to develop similar approaches to identifying root causes ofinjuries and illnesses. This can lead to better prevention efforts.Schedule 2 FTE InformationFrequency rates cannot be calculated for Schedule 2 clients. As a result, outcome measurement can be challenging.Ensuring Completeness of InformationIn the Health and Safety system, data comes from various injury and illness reporting forms, including: Form 6 (workers report),Form 7 (employers report) and Form 8 (health professionals report). WSIB and MOL can employ mechanisms, such as imposing afine for incomplete forms to improve completeness of data.Additional information may also be required. For instance, the idea of proximate cause should be considered when discussingoutcomes as well as leading and lagging indicators. An injury or illness may occur in the workplace, but an additional event,either inside or outside of the workplace, may have played a more significant role in causing the actual injury or illness. Additionalvariables such as economic and psychosocial factors should also be considered.36
  36. 36. What leading indicators does your organization useand what methods are used to measure them?10bPSHSA recognizes the importance of using both leading andlagging indicators to measure the performance of organizationalhealth and safety and the effectiveness of programs.Recommendations regarding particular outcomes were informedby our participation in projects, such as the IWH Ontario LeadingIndicators Project (OLIP), the IWH Organizational PerformanceMetric (OPM) and the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care(MOHLTC) Indicators Project.Our indicators are used at an organization level to benchmarkand better understand system performance as a whole. Therecommended indicators, both leading and lagging, and theoutcomes they are associated with are as follows:• Training (leading): staff training and professionaldevelopment, manager and supervisor training.• Risk assessment and organizational culture (leading): riskassessment and management, employee engagementclimate.• WSIB composite (lagging): injury, illness, occupationaldisease and fatality rates.• Non-occupational/insurer data (lagging): data around theuse of pharmaceutical drugs by employees.• Health human resources (lagging): absenteeism, turnover.To better identify what safety components need to be in place,partners may want to look to develop and adopt preventativebest practices that outline the necessary components tomeasuring a safe and healthy workplace (e.g. training, CEO buy-in).The following outline just some of the possible means formeasuring the above indicators.Adopting Available ProductsThe means to measure health and safety indicators can bedrawn from Accreditation Canada’s Worklife Pulse tool. Thisorganization offers two tools: a general tool for staff and anotherwhich measures physicians’ quality of worklife.SurveysFor culture, surveys that are related to employee engagementoften indicate health and safety performance.Forms 6, 7 and 8For lagging indicators, the WSIB collects information viaForms 6, 7 and 8. MOL has the power to enforce use and, incollaboration with other members of the Health and SafetySystem, agreement on the required data.In addition to giving consideration to organizational injury andillness data, preventive measures used by organizations shouldalso be evaluated. More specifically, there should be a systematicevaluation of the health and safety programs developed anddelivered by the prevention system partners. To truly understandthe effectiveness of programs and prevention efforts, theremust be the ability to distinguish which intervention lead toimprovement in indicators, be it company effort or HSA effort.Additionally, there should be a better understanding of whathappens outside of the workplace that may contribute to injuriesand illnesses on the job, or which may improve indicators.Some areas of consideration include: a better understanding oflabour and demographic changes and their impacts on injuriesand illnesses and the development of shared definitions andmethodology for indentifying proximate cause.37
  37. 37. AcknowledgementsThe development of this response was a collaborative effort. We’d like to thank our staff,advisory council members and Board of Directors for their input and participation in theprocess and for ensuring the document is reflective of the reality of the sectors we serve andthe Health and Safety System as a whole.38
  38. 38. ReferencesFor more information on Public Services Health & Safety Association,please visit PSHSA.ca.Information on programs and projects referenced within this responseare as follow:• PSHSA’s Healthy Work Environment Portal: http://www.healthyworkenvironments.ca/• Healthy and Safe Healthcare Workplace Indicators Project: http://www.healthyworkenvironments.ca/Resources_Indicator_Project.htm• Small Business Resource Manual: http://pshsa.ca/2013/02/01/health-and-safety-for-small-business-resource-book/39

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