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New Traditional Neighborhoods For Todays Home Buyers

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  • 1. New Traditional Neighborhoods
    for Today’s New Buyers
    By Herb Freeman, President
    Full Circle Ventures, Inc.
    www.Leytham.com
    Copyright © 2006-2009 Herbert L. Freeman All Rights Reserved
  • 2. Topics
    Background of Town Founder, Herb Freeman
    Some Context and Comment
    Principles of Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND)
    Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    A Graphical Aerial Comparison of Conventional Development to TND
    A Graphical Street Level Tour of a New Traditional Neighborhood
    Zoning for a New Traditional Neighborhood
  • 3. Background
    Leytham Town Founder: Herb Freeman
    • Licensed real estate broker since 1972
    - MBA University of Nebraska 1981
    • Member of ULI, CNU and NTBA
    • 4. Majority owner of CBS Real Estate Company at the time of sale in 1998
    • 5. Chief Operations Officer of CBSHome Real Estate , 1998 - 2002
    • 6. Co-founder and partner of CormacCompany, 2002 - 2004
    • 7. Chief Operations Officer (2004 – Present), and Director, Builder Services (2008 – Present) of NP Dodge Real Estate Sales, Inc.
    • 8. Co-developer of many area subdivisions and projects
    • 9. Founder and President of Full Circle Ventures, Inc., a new urban and traditional neighborhood development company. Full Circle Ventures is the development company for Leytham, the Omaha area’s first new greenfield traditional neighborhood development.
  • Context and Comment
    There is a disconnection between supply and demand
    America and The Great American Dream have changed . . .
    Percent of
    Households
    Younger Singles and Couples 29%
    Empty Nesters and Retirees 32%
    Traditional and Non-Traditional Families 39%
    And within these broad groups there are 66 identifiable geo-demographic
    groups, each with distinguishing characteristics and housing preferences.
    Yet most developers and builders supply only a mono-culture of
    single purpose, conventional suburban sprawl.
    Source: Zimmerman/Volk, “21st Century Households and the New Housing Paradigm”
  • 10. Context and Comment
    There is a disconnection between supply and demand
    Most buyers of The Great American Dream may not be who we think they are . . .
    • Married couples with children are now only 21.6% of American households.
    • 11. Traditional (one-worker) families are now less than 10% of all households.
    • 12. 59% of all U.S. households contain either one or two persons.
    - Non-traditional households now outnumber traditional families in the suburbs.
    Still, most developers and builders continue to supply only conventional suburban sprawl with very limit product types.
    Source: Zimmerman/Volk, “21st Century Households and the New Housing Paradigm”
  • 13. Context and Comment
    Have Developers and Builders Lost Touch with America?
    Percent of
    Home Purchases
    in the Midwest Made by:
    - 9.3% Single men
    • 20.4% Single women
    • 14. 7.5% Unmarried couples
    • 15. 2.0% Other household types
    38.6% of home purchasers are made by non-traditional households
    • 61.4% of home purchases are made by couples
    • 16. 60% of all U.S. households have no children under age 18 residing at home
    Source: National Association of Realtors, “Profile of Home Buyers and Sellers 2007”
  • 17. So What Happened?
    Just the two largest generations in American history . . .
    The Baby Boomers . . . The Pig in the Python
    82 Million born between 1946 and 1964
    Ages today: 44 - 62
    Entering the empty nest phase of life
    Housing choices: smaller homes, apartments, townhouses, condos
    The Millennials (Gen Y or the Echo Boomers) . . . The Piglet in the Python
    78 Million born between 1977 and 1996
    Ages today: 12-31
    Entering the job market
    Housing choices: starter homes, apartments, lofts, condos
    The two generations converge between 2004 to 2024
    Boomers: Move Down/Move Back
    Millennials: Move Out/Move In
    Source: Zimmerman/Volk, “21st Century Households and the New Housing Paradigm”
  • 18. Context and Comment
    Basic Demographics
    Source: Zimmerman/Volk, “21st Century Households and the New Housing Paradigm”
  • 19. Who Are They?
    Mostly Different . . . But with One Thing in Common
    Millennials
    Predominantly single
    Highly social
    Early/unsettled careers
    Very mobile
    More likely to be renters
    Ethnically and culturally diverse
    Green
    Mostly one and two person households
    Boomers
    Predominantly couples
    The “Me” Generation
    Heading for retirement
    Settled at last
    More likely to be owners
    Politically and spiritually diverse
    Affluent
    Mostly one and two person households
  • 20. What Do Boomer and Millennials Want?
    A Variety of Housing Choices and Price Points
    Average Residential Mix by Housing Type for New Traditional Neighborhoods
    Average
    Percent of all
    Unit Type Dwelling Units*
    Rental Lofts and Apartments 23%
    For Sale Lofts, Apartments, Town Houses, Duplexes 9%
    For Sale Row Houses, Attached Houses 9%
    For Sale Small Detached Houses 24%
    For Sale Mid-Range and Large Lot Detached Houses 22%
    For Sale Urban Types (Carriage Houses, Live/Work Units) 13%
    *Compiled from 30 market studies conducted between 2000 and 2006. TNDs range in size from 400 to 4,500 dwelling units.
    Source: Zimmerman/Volk quoted in Sustainable Urbanism by Douglas Farr, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008, page 136.
  • 21. What ElseDo They Want?
    Something new . . . Something better
    In addition to offering housing choices with both unit type and price point variety, capturing the Boomers and Millennials requires:
    Encouraging socio and economic diversity
    Developing and building sustainably
    Offering a very high quality of design
    This means creating walkable, compact, wonderfully designed, mixed use neighborhoods that feel urban, NOT more conventional suburban sprawl.
    By comparison, conventional suburban sprawl generally offers only mono-cultures of the same product type and price range in pods of engineered, single-purpose,
    homogenized, and uninspired development.
    Innovative types of development other than the conventional suburban sprawl
    respond to the drivers of both the Boomers and the Millennials in unique ways. So let’s explore . . .
  • 22. Innovative Types of Development
    New development types appeal to Boomers/Millennials
    Adaptive Reuse of existing structures: Example - old red brick warehouses converted into retail, offices, apartments above first floor retail like Tip Top
    Redevelopment: Examples - Midtown Crossing and Aksarben Village
    Urban Infill: Development of vacant parcels that were passed over
    Greyfields: Redevelopment of abandoned or under-utilized shopping centers and “ghost boxes” (a.k.a. defunct “big box” stores)
    Brownfields: Redevelopment of industrial sites: Examples - Riverfront Place and the Rows at SOMA
    Greenfields: Conservation neighborhoods and new traditional neighborhoods (TNDs) on agricultural land: Example - Leytham
  • 23. Traditional Neighborhood Development
    Traditional Neighborhood Definition
    Traditional Neighborhood Development (also called Neo-traditional
    Development or Urban Village Development or simply “TND”)
    revisits many features of urban neighborhoods developed before
    World War II, the single most distinguishing feature of which is the
    continuous fabric of intimately blended and mixed land uses
    arranged so that travel between them can be made by a variety of
    methods in addition to the usual private automobile.
  • 24. Principles of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    18 Principles of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    • A TND has increased density
    • 25. The TND community has a traditional neighborhood structure
    • 26. There is a diversity of uses and of people
    • 27. Most dwellings are a 5 minute walk from the center
    • 28. Within the neighborhood, streets form a connected network
    • 29. There is a hierarchy of street types
    • 30. Certain sites are reserved for civic buildings
    • 31. Streets are relatively narrow and tree shaded
    • 32. Buildings are placed close to the street
    • 33. Parking lots and garages rarely front the street
    • 34. There is a variety of dwelling types in the neighborhood
    • 35. Ancillary buildings are permitted in back yards
    • 36. Lot sizes and types vary, even on the same block
    • 37. Dwellings need not front onto streets
    • 38. There is a very high quality of architecture and urban design
    • 39. Small parks, play grounds and amenities are close to every dwelling
    • 40. An elementary school is close enough for most children to walk
    • 41. The neighborhood is organized to be self-governing
  • 1
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    The TND has increased density
    More dwellings, shops, civic buildings and services are closer together for
    ease of walking, to enable a more efficient use of infrastructure, services
    and resources, and to create a more convenient and enjoyable place to live.
    Middleton Hills Land Use Plan
    Project Size: 160 acres Percent
    Acresof Site
    Residential 80 50.0%
    Recreation/Amenities 20 12.5%
    Streets/Parking 20 12.5%
    Open Space 20 12.5%
    Commercial 2012.5%
    TOTAL 160 100.0%
    Total Dwelling units 635
    Gross Project Density 4 units per acre
    Gross Residential Density 8 units per acre
    Average single family lot 4,000 square feet
    Smallest single family lot 32’ x 80’ = 2,560 square feet
    Middleton Hills,
    Madison, WI
  • 42. 2
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Community has a traditional neighborhood structure
    There is a discernable center and edge. There is a public space at the
    center. This is often a square or a green or a memorable intersection..
    Baldwin Park, Orlando, FL
    Kentlands, Gaithersburg, MD
    A cup of coffee and a morning paper should be a five minute walk from most dwellings
    . . . or “It shouldn’t take a gallon of gas to get a gallon of milk . . . .”
  • 43. 3
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Diversity of uses and of people
    A mix of businesses, shops and offices within the residential neighborhood,
    within the block and even within the same building. Multiple price points and
    dwelling types appeal to a very wide range of both buyers and renters.
    Kentlands, Gaithersburg, MD
    Baldwin Park, Orlando, FL
    People of all ages, income levels and cultures may live in the community.
  • 44. 4
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Most dwellings are a 5 minute walk from the center
    This distance averages one quarter of a mile. This is called a “ped shed.”
    Black Horse, Gettysburg, PA
    Miles Point, St Michaels, MD
    Commercial/mixed use buildings can be placed throughout the TND intermixed with dwellings, and do not necessarily all have to be clustered right on the busiest, most trafficked streets or corners.
  • 45. 5
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Streets within the neighborhood are a connected network
    Streets are arranged to form blocks where possible. This provides a variety
    of routes and disperses traffic and eases walking. Cul-de-sacs are minimized.
    Mt. Laurel, Birmingham, AL
    Magnolia, LaGrange, GA
    These are examples of TND master plans which contain no cul-de-sacs.
  • 46. 6
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    There is a hierarchy of streets
    Boulevards, avenues, collector streets, narrower streets, roads and alleys form a hierarchy of streets. This creates a high quality pedestrian network which, together with a varied and interesting public realm makes walking pleasurable.
    From SmartCode & Manual v8.0 by Duany, Wright, Sorlien. Published by New Urban Publications Inc.
  • 47. 7
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Certain prominent streets are reserved for civic buildings
    Buildings for meeting, education, religion or culture are located at the
    termination of street or open vistas or at the Neighborhood Center.
    The Waters, Montgomery, AL
    Middleton Hills, Madison, WI
    Indicates “terminated vistas” focused on significant buildings.
  • 48. 8
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Streets are relatively narrow and tree shaded
    Corners are sharper. This slows traffic and creates an environment
    for pedestrians and bicycles. Non-standard street lighting is used.
    Glenwood Park, Atlanta, GA
    Stapleton Town Center, Denver, CO
    “The TND concept calls for street cross-sections that are typically no greater than two travel lanes plus on street parking, which translates into a maximum pavement width of 40 feet . . . and a right of way width of 70 feet. . . . TND calls for greatly reduced curb radii, typically 10 feet.”
    Walter Kulash, one of America’s foremost traffic engineers, in “Why TND Traffic Systems Work.”
  • 49. 9
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Buildings are placed close to the street
    Both businesses and dwellings are placed close to the street. This
    creates a strong sense of place. On-street parking is permitted.
    New Town at St. Charles, St. Charles, MO
    Baldwin Park, Orlando, FL
    The street scene is one of people and dwellings and not one of driveways and garages.
  • 50. 10
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Parking lots and garages rarely front streets
    Parking is relegated to the rear of most buildings, usually accessed by lanes
    or alleys. Driveways and garages do not dominate the streetscape.
    Garages off alleys at the rear of houses,
    Home Town, Aurora, IL
    Interior parking at row houses;
    Baldwin Park, Orlando, FL
    The New Traditional Neighborhood is a place for people first.
  • 51. 11
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    There is a variety of dwelling types in the neighborhood
    Apartments, condominiums, row houses,
    live/work units, ancillary structures, houses
    of different sizes. This lets younger and
    older people; singles and families, and people of
    different means all live in the neighborhood.
    Live/work units and row houses
    Single family homes/ancillary units
    Apartments
    Condominiums
    All of these, plus apartments over commercial spaces, are in Baldwin Park, Orlando, Fl.
  • 52. 12
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Ancillary buildings are permitted in back yards
    This may be a living unit or work space over the garage or in a free standing
    small structure on the premises. The space may be rented out.
    Vickery, Cumings, GA
    New Longview, Lees Summit, MO
    These ancillary buildings are not on separate lots, but are on the same lot as
    the house, sharing ownership and utility connections. They may be as large as
    800 square feet and do not count in maximum density calculations.
  • 53. 13
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Lot sizes and house types vary, even on the same block
    Westhaven, Franklin, TN
  • 54. 13
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Lot sizes and house types vary, even on the same block
    Eight different fee simple dwelling types/sizes in this TND not including live/work units or condominiums.
    Westhaven, Franklin, TN
  • 55. 13
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Lot sizes and house types vary, even on the same block
    Eight different fee simple dwelling types/sizes in this TND not including live/work units or condominiums.
    Note alleys to the rear of all but the largest of lots.
    Westhaven, Franklin, TN
  • 56. 13
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Lot sizes and house types vary, even on the same block
    Eight different fee simple dwelling types/sizes in this TND not including live/work units or condominiums.
    Note alleys to the rear of all but the largest of lots.
    Four lot sizes on the same Block.
    Westhaven, Franklin, TN
  • 57. 13
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Lot sizes and house types vary, even on the same block
    Eight different fee simple dwelling types/sizes in this TND not including live/work units or condominiums.
    Note alleys to the rear of all but the largest of lots.
    Four lot sizes on the same Block.
    This increases both density and diversity.
    Westhaven, Franklin, TN
  • 58. 14
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Dwellings need not front onto streets
    Dwellings may front onto parks, court yards or even walk ways.
    Homes on a hillside, fronting a fenced walkway
    Kentlands, Gaithersburg, MD
    Homes fronting a courtyard or pocket park
    Baldwin Park, Orlando, FL
    This creates interesting and exciting dwelling siteing possibilities.
  • 59. 15
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    The quality architecture and urban design is very high
    Beauty, aesthetics, and comfort create a sense of place. Human scale
    architecture, architectural details and beautiful surroundings nourish the human spirit. Public open space is designed as civic art.
    All in CNU Charter Award winning
    Woodstock Downtown, Woodstock, GA.; Lew Oliver, Urban Designer
  • 60. 16
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Small parks and play grounds are close to every dwelling
    This distance should not be more than one fifth of a mile.
    Celebration, Orlando, FL
    Kentlands, Gaithersburg, MD
    Outdoor amenities can include greens, plazas, squares, amphitheaters, walk-through fountains, tot-lots, pocket parks, public art, sports fields, areas facing view corridors, orchards, follies, temples, gazebos, fire circles, walking trails, wild flower meadows, ponds, wet lands, etc.
  • 61. 17
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    Elementary school within walking distance for most
    An elementary school is close enough for most children to walk to from
    their dwelling. This should not be more than one mile.
    Rachel Carson Elementary School
    Kentlands, Gaithersburg, MD
    Westerly Creek Elementary School
    Stapleton, Denver, CO
    School sites are smaller than in CSD. 80% are multi-story and may share facilities
    with adjacent parks. Facilities may be used by the community before and after 9 to 3.
    Architecture is significant and may occupy a terminated vista or other prominent site.
  • 62. 18
    Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles
    The Neighborhood is organized to be self governing
    A formal association debates and decides on matters of maintenance, security and physical change. An institute or foundation pursues programming, education and entertainment for the community.
    “Those who inhabit a neighborhood are a community. They share a physical environment and a common interest in its future condition, as well as their own well-being. When neighbors communicate effectively about these interests, they may be referred to as a ‘community of place.’ . . . Community is more about relationships that bind people together than it is about the environment.”
    from A New Urbanist Lexicon
    by Rich McLaughlin,
    Architecture & Town Planner
    Minneapolis, MN
  • 63. A Brief Review of TND Principles
    18 Principles of TND - Review
    • Increased density
    • 64. Traditional neighborhood structure from center to edge
    • 65. Diversity of uses and of people
    • 66. Most dwellings are a 5 minute walk from the center
    • 67. Streets form a connected network
    • 68. Hierarchy of various street types
    • 69. Prominent sites reserved for civic buildings
    • 70. Streets are narrow and tree shaded
    • 71. Buildings close to the street
    • 72. Parking lots and garages rarely front the street
    • 73. Variety of dwelling types
    • 74. Ancillary buildings are permitted in back yards
    • 75. Lot sizes and types vary, even on the same block
    • 76. Dwellings need not front onto streets
    • 77. A very high quality of architecture and urban design
    • 78. Small parks and play grounds are close to every dwelling
    • 79. An elementary school is close enough for most children to walk
    • 80. The neighborhood is organized to be self-governing
  • TND Benefits
    TND Offers a Number of Benefits Compared to CSD
    Compared to conventional subdivision development (CSD), TND offers a number of benefits:
    • Many inherent and intangible TND benefits
    • 81. Lower land cost per dwelling
    • 82. Lower infrastructure cost per dwelling
    • 83. Lower utility costs
    • 84. Lower costs for public services
    • 85. Protect environmental systems and conserve resources
    • 86. Parking is handled creatively
    • 87. TND lowers vehicle miles traveled (VMT)
    • 88. TND has superior traffic capacity
    • 89. TND Amenities add value
    • 90. More grace and beauty in everyday life
    • 91. Greater development and design flexibility
    • 92. Housing value premium in a TND
    • 93. Higher long term value for income property
  • Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    Inherent and Intangible TND Personal Benefits
    By bringing more of the activities of daily life into closer proximity (the
    five-minute walk or the “Popsicle Test”) people, especially the elderly and
    the young, gain independence.
    The integrated “live, work, play, shop, learn” aspect of TNDs reduces the
    number of automobile trips, traffic congestion, air pollution.
    When residents walk more they have a more healthy life style and less stress.
    TND residents save a lot of money by walking more and owning fewer cars.
    Streets and squares in “human scale” with defined spatial quality offer
    neighbors the opportunity to get to know and watch over one another
    generating feelings of community and security.
  • 94. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    Inherent and Intangible TND Personal Benefits – Part 2
    By offering more housing choices at more price points, including as a goal,
    a component of affordable or “work-force housing”, the TND offers more options and therefore has a more diverse mix of residents.
    When residents and business owners feel as though they belong to a place and can shape its evolution, they act in ways that benefit the community as a whole because they have “emotional equity” which is a very significant component of real estate value.
    More civic involvement, better governance, happier constituents.
    A higher architectural quality of the built environment brings more grace and beauty to everyday life in a TND.
    “The sum of human happiness increases because of New Urbanism.”
    Andres Duany, Principal, DPZ & Associates, Master Planning firm of Seaside
    and Kentlands and a charter member of The Congress for the New Urbanism.
  • 95. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    Lower Land Cost per Dwelling
    Increased density and a well-integrated mix of land uses are important principles of the New Urbanism (NU), also called Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND).
    Since no buffers are required between different uses and because of the increased density, more units are created per acre compared to a conventional subdivision development (CND). This more efficient utilization of the land means lower land cost per unit.
  • 96. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    Lower Infrastructure Costs per Dwelling
    Because of alleyways, more linear feet of streets and more intersections
    (due to the interconnected grid of streets), the total cost of infrastructure
    in a TND is higher than in a conventional subdivision development (CSD).
    This higher cost is reduced somewhat by building narrower streets and when infrastructure costs are divided by the greater number of units, infrastructure costs per unit can actually be lower in a TND than in a CSD.
    A study of costs conducted for the Canada Mortgage and Housing
    Corporation found that despite the greater total costs, infrastructure costs
    per dwelling unit were 24% lower after a portion of Barrhaven near Ottawa
    was redesigned using TND principles.
    “Development Dynamics” by Zimmerman and Volk in Wharton Real Estate Review,
    Vol. II, No. 2, Fall 1998
  • 97. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    Lower Utility Costs
    Because of the more compact and denser nature of a TND, installation of utilities can cost less per dwelling and mixed-use unit.
    TNDs tend to foster more “green” building practices such as those promoted by “LEED®”* and “Energy Star,” so the built environment in TND projects tends to be more energy efficient thereby conserving natural resources and reducing pollution.
    *”Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design” Green Building Rating System
  • 98. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    Lower Costs for Public Services
    A study of life-cycle costs over 75 years concluded that public sector costs relating to non-residential uses were 48% lower in the TND plan compared to the conventional plan. Cost for residential uses were 5% lower.
    The most significant savings related to roads, stormwater management and water distribution. However, not all costs were lower in the TND plan. For example, snow removal costs were considerably higher.
    Hemson Consulting Ltd., “Conventional and Alternative Development Patterns;
    Phase II: Municipal Revenues.” Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1997.
    Quoted by Zimmerman and Volk, “Development Dynamics.”
    “Public maintenance and infrastructure costs are lower for higher-density
    development because of greater economies of scale, shorter runs of lower
    tech infrastructure.”
    “Eight Factors” Zimmerman, Volk and Katz, 1999
  • 99. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    Protect Environmental Systems & Conserve Resources
    TND projects tend to embrace and implement “Smart Growth” principles and
    preserve the “Green Infrastructure.”
    For example, increased density reduces sprawl and puts less pressure on taking productive farmland out of production while preserving wetlands,
    waterways, and wildlife habitat as community amenities.
    TND projects tend to use more eco-friendly storm water management systems such as (natural swales and pervious paving), minimum disturbance of natural terrain, use of native plants that require less irrigation, etc.
    Under development now is the LEED-ND (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development) rating system which will create design guidelines and a rating system for TND projects. This will encourage more environmental and conservation practices that will protect environmental systems and conserve natural resources and eco-systems.
  • 100. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    Parking is Handled Creatively
    The number of required parking stalls varies by the transect zone. For example 2.0 parking stalls are required per residential dwelling unit (du) in T2 and T3, 1.5 stall per du in T4 and 1 stall per du in T5 and T6.
    Parking sharing factors vary from 1 to 1.7 to 1 depending on the use.
    Most streets have on-street parking.On-street parking along the frontage line of lots is counted toward that lot’s parking requirement.
    Parking is accessed by the alley or rear lane when such are available.
    Parking lots are masked from the frontage by a building or streetscreen.
    Required parking may be provided within ¼ mile of the site it serves.
    One bicycle rack is provided per 10 parking stalls.
    Adapted from the SmartCode v 8.0 by Duany, Wright and Sorlien
  • 101. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    TND Lowers Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)
    Increasing land use density may reduce per-capita automobile use by only a few percent; but when combined with pedestrian and cycling improvement, the integrated “live, work, play, shop, learn” mix of uses, and creative parking management, TND design may cause a 15 to 25% reduction in VMT per household.
    Victoria Transport Policy Institute, “Land Use Impacts n Transport: How Land Use Patterns Affect Travel Behavior,” 2001.
    Holtzclaw reported that, after controlling for income levels, VMT in households in traditional higher density neighborhoods was nearly 50% lower than in more recent, standard suburban development.
    John Holtzclaw. Explaining Urban Density and Transit Impacts on Auto Use, page 25.
    The family that owns one less car saves an average of $8,273 per year. This translates to $689 more disposable income per month or the mortgage payment on $112,600 of home value at today’s 6.25% mortgage rate.
    http://www.aaanewsroom.net/Assets/Files/200844921220.DrivingCosts2008.pdf
  • 102. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    TND has Superior Traffic Capacity
    “A network of small interconnected streets has more traffic capacity than the same street area arranged in a sparse hierarchy of large streets.”
    This superior capacity is unrelated to the REDUCTION in travel demand or
    SHORTENING of travel distances that also results from the TND pattern. These decreases in total vehicular travel are also an important advantage to TND, but we need to carefully isolate them in our analysis of TND traffic. The feature that we are focusing on is that for a given amount of traffic demand (i.e., same number of vehicular trips) the TND will simply out-perform the conventional street design.[Emphasis added.]
    The fundamental reason why a dense network of small streets out-performs a sparse hierarchy of streets is that streets become less (not more) efficient as their size increases. The reason is in the intersections.”
    Walter Kulash, Senior Transportation Engineer with Glatting Jackson Kercher Anglin Lopez Rinehart, Inc., in “Why TND Traffic Systems Work,” an address to the Eleventh Annual Pedestrian Conference, 1998.
  • 103. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    TND Amenities Add Value
    Public spaces, both active and passive, created by Traditional Neighborhood planning are more numerous and of a generally higher quality than those in a CSD. Additionally, the amenities are closer (i.e., walking distance) to the residents of a TND.
    These amenities are built into TND projects as an off-set for higher-density and serve as substantial amenities for the community. These amenities add more value than their cost.
    TND amenities promote rising property values, more tax revenue per given area of land and a stable tax base.
    “Eight Factors” Todd Zimmerman, Laurie Volk and Peter Katz, 1999
  • 104. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    TND Offers More Grace and Beauty in Everyday Life
    At the Project Level the TND is designed by master urban designers and architects. The Project is designed according to new urbanist principles. Civic uses and green space are designed into the project.
    At the Block Level the streetscape forms inviting and people oriented “out door rooms.” This public realm brings people together and fosters a sense of community that is often lacking in conventional subdivisions.
    At the Building Level a very high level of architectural design and of construction detailing creates buildings enhance the quality of life. This can be accomplished through the use of:
    • Graphical architectural code
    • 105. Landscape code
    • 106. Pattern book
    • 107. Building plans designed by several TND architects
    • 108. Town architect to review plans and building practices for compliance
  • Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    Greater Development and Design Flexibility
    Optimally designed streets and blocks can accommodate a range of housing types with the same lot depth, from apartment buildings and row houses to higher density single family to lower density single family.
    As market demand shifts, housing types on any give street can shift in response. Conventional subdivision developments produce single price point lots for single price point houses for homogenous buyers with the same income.
    In a TND, changes in market preferences can be accommodated by simple changes in lot widths because a TND is designed to have many different types of dwelling choices.
    “In the Nursery Park neighborhood at Harbor Town in Memphis, TN relatively larger lots were reduced in size when it was realized that more buyers preferred smaller lots. The smaller lots, in the aggregate, sold for more than the larger lots even after expenses to reconfigure them.” Zimmerman and Volk, “Development Dynamics.”
  • 109. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    Housing Value Premium in a TND
    A well executed TND land plan can add value to the project either through unit price premiums, increased sales paces or a combination of the two.
    A study of 1,850 sales in Kentlands in Gaithersburg, MD, found a price premium of 13%. In Harbor Town in Memphis, TN the increase was 25%attributable directly to TND principles. The study compared the TND homes to similar properties in nearby conventional subdivisions and the study model held constant lot size, house size, property age, construction quality and other variables. The same authors found price differences at Seaside in Florida of 9% for waterfront lots and 87% for interior lots solely attributable to TND principles.Overall the TND premium was 11%.
    C. Tu and M. Eppli, “Valuing the New Urbanism,” Urban Land Institute, 1999
    These comparatively higher values can mean higher and more stable property tax revenues, and more rapid sales rates can mean development loans are paid off more rapidly and property tax revenues are generated more quickly.
  • 110. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    Higher Long Term Value for Income Property
    Once established in a mixed use TND, the real estate supporting retail, office and service uses increase in value, benefiting from a synergy of uses.
    Decades of investment experience have shown that frequently a stand-alone “A” quality multifamily or retail or office property slips to “B” and then to “C” quality as the property ages and development moves away.
    Institutional investors are realizing this as real estate assets in mixed-use central business districts of healthy 24-hour cities are now considered to be less risky than single use assets in their suburbs. Assets within mixed-use new urban communities are similarly expected to retain their value.
    “Emerging Trends in Real Estate 1998.” Equitable Real Estate Investment
    Management, Inc., & Real Estate Research Corporation.
  • 111. TND Benefits – A Review
    TND Offers a Number of Benefits Compared to CSD
    Compared to conventional subdivision development (CSD), TND offers a number of benefits:
    • Many inherent and intangible TND benefits
    • 112. Lower land cost per dwelling
    • 113. Lower infrastructure cost per dwelling
    • 114. Lower utility costs
    • 115. Lower costs for public services
    • 116. Protect environmental systems and conserve resources
    • 117. Parking is handled creatively
    • 118. TND lowers vehicle miles traveled (VMT)
    • 119. TND has superior traffic capacity
    • 120. TND Amenities add value
    • 121. More grace and beauty in everyday life
    • 122. Greater development and design flexibility
    • 123. Housing value premium in a TND
    • 124. Higher long term value for income property
  • [A note to the presenter . . . ]
    The following six slides summarize the 15 benefit slides numbered 39 through 54 above.
    These slides are “hidden,” but they may revealed and slides 39 through 54 can be hidden to shorten the presentation.
  • 125. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    Inherent and Intangible TND Personal Benefits
    Mix of uses gives people, especially the elderly and the young, gain independence (the “Popsicle Test”).
    TNDsreduce the number of automobile trips, traffic congestion, air pollution.
    Walking creates a more healthy life style and less stress.
    TND residents save a lot of money by walking more and owning fewer cars because neighbors know and watch over one another.
    TND offers more housing options and therefore has a more diverse mix of residents..
    Residents feel as though they belong to the place; they have “emotional equity” act in ways that benefit the community.
    There is more grace and beauty to everyday life in a TND.
  • 126. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    TND density produces many economies of scale
    Lower land cost per dwelling unit:
    More but smaller single family lots
    Ancillary dwelling units
    Residential dwellings placed over commercial spaces
    Multifamilyintegrated into the neighborhood
    Lower infrastructure cost per unit.
    Lower costs of public services.
    Density reduces sprawl and reduces pressure on taking farm land
    out of production.
  • 127. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    TND design protects environmental systems and conserves resources
    TND design preserves wetlands, natural waterways and wild life habitat.
    Moreeco-friendly storm water management.
    Minimum disturbance of the ground preserves natural terrain.
    Use of native plants that requiresless irrigation.
    LEED-ND (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development) rating system of the US Green Building Councilpromotes environmental and conservation values in both land planning and building design and construction thereby using less energy, conserving natural resources and reducing pollution.
  • 128. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    The integrated “live, work, play, shop, learn” aspect of TNDs reduces reliance on and importance of the car
    TND design says people are more important than cars. Streets are narrower and parking is accessed by rear lanes or alleys wherever possible and is screened from view.
    Increased density, mix of uses and alternative transportation modes may
    reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) per household by 25% to 50%, reducing
    traffic congestion and air pollution.
    A dense network of interconnected streets moves traffic more efficientlythan
    cul-de-sacs feeding onto collector streets because a variety of routes are provided.
    The family that owns one less car saves an average of $8,759 per year. This translates to $730 per month more disposable income or the mortgage payment on $122,400 of home value at today’s rates.
  • 129. Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development
    TND design and execution adds value to the real estate
    Public spaces and amenities, both active and passive, are more numerous, closer by (the 5 minute walk) and of a generally higher quality than those in a CSD. The public spaces and amenities add more value than their cost.
    A higher architectural quality of the built environment brings more grace
    and beauty to everyday life in a TND, again adding more value than cost.
    A study by C. Tu and M. Eppli, (“Valuing the New Urbanism,” Urban Land
    Institute, 1999) found home prices increase in TNDs compared to CSDs:
    Kentlands in Gaithersburg, MD 13%
    Harbor Town in Memphis, TN 25%
    Seaside, FL 9% for waterfront lots & 87% for interior lots
    The study compared the TND homes to similar properties in nearby CSDs. The study model held constant lot size, house size, property age, construction quality and other variables. TND principles caused the value increases.
  • 130. TND Benefits – A Review
    TND Offers a Number of Benefits Compared to CSD
    Compared to conventional subdivision development (CSD), TND offers a number of benefits:
    • Many inherent and intangible TND benefits
    • 131. Lower land cost per dwelling
    • 132. Lower infrastructure cost per dwelling
    • 133. Lower utility costs
    • 134. Lower costs for public services
    • 135. Protect environmental systems and conserve resources
    • 136. Parking is handled creatively
    • 137. TND lowers vehicle miles traveled (VMT)
    • 138. TND has superior traffic capacity
    • 139. TND Amenities add value
    • 140. More grace and beauty in everyday life
    • 141. Greater development and design flexibility
    • 142. Housing value premium in a TND
    • 143. Higher long term value for income property
  • Now . . . Let’s take a little imaginary trip . . .
  • 144. Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) Principles Illustrated
    . . . A Graphical Aerial Comparison of Conventional Development to TND
  • 145.
  • 146. Conventional Subdivision Development
  • 147. Conventional Subdivision Development
    A pod of single-purpose development
    Cul-de-sacs and
    lack of connectivity
    Houses set far
    back from street
    Garages and driveways
    front the street
    Lots and houses are
    all close to the same size
  • 148. Conventional Subdivision Development
  • 149. Traditional Neighborhood Development
    A variety of uses
    An interconnected
    network of streets
    A variety of
    dwelling types
    Building types vary
    even on the same block
    Green space close by
    every dwelling
  • 150. Traditional Neighborhood Development
  • 151. Conventional Townhouse Development
  • 152. Townhouses Integrated into a TND
  • 153. Conventional Retail Development
  • 154. A TND Town Center
  • 155. A Conventional “Gas Front” Service Station
  • 156. A TND “Gas Back” Service Station
  • 157. Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) Principles Illustrated
    . . . A Graphical Street Level Tour of a New Traditional Neighborhood
    How many principles of traditional neighborhood development can you spot?
  • 158. Street trees
    Terminated vista
    On street parking
    Narrow streets
    Wide sidewalks
    and no driveways
  • 159.
  • 160. Traditional American
    architecture
    Correct architectural
    form and details
    Houses close
    to the street
    Raised, functional
    front porches
    Streets feel like
    intimate, outdoor rooms
  • 161.
  • 162.
  • 163. Houses need not
    front onto streets
    Wide variety of
    housing options
    Freedom to change homes
    as needed yet stay in
    the same neighborhood
    Socially richer
    and more varied
    Different family generations can
    live in the same neighborhood
    More visually interesting and
    rewarding surroundings
  • 164.
  • 165.
  • 166. Narrow streets with
    on street parking
    High quality architecture
    and architectural detailing
    Street trees and
    wide sidewalks
    Terminated vista
    Mixed-use residential/
    commercial buildings
    Civic art
  • 167.
  • 168.
  • 169. Civic green space
    A variety of retail and
    service businesses
    Parking lots to the
    rear of buildings
    Town Center within a
    five minute walk of
    most residences
    Buildings close
    to the street
  • 170.
  • 171. Leytham . . . A New Traditional Neighborhood
    Site Plan
    Northwest corner of
    168th and State Streets
    160 Acres
    Bennington Schools
    No. of
    Lots
    Single Family 514
    Multi-Family 16
    Flex Building 20
    Private Lots 550
    Civic Lots 6
    Total Lots 556
    Note: Creating a new traditional neighborhood is an evolving and ongoing process. Accordingly, all site plans, land uses, layouts, diagrams, schematics, home elevations and floor plans, renderings, features, facilities, and amenities are conceptual in nature and are subject to cancellation, refinement, change and/or revision without notice.
  • 172. Front Footage Lot Type No. Percent
  • 173. Leytham Open Space Network
    Acres
    Natural 17.71
    Civic 4.17
    Outlots 11.01
    Total 32.89
    Percent 20.82%
  • 174. Leytham Phase I
    Northwest corner of
    Leytham, east of the
    creek.
    No. of
    Lots
    Single Family 110
    Multi-Family 4
    Private Lots 114
    Civic Lots 2
    Total Lots 116
    Creek
    168th Street
    Creek
    State Street is ½ mile to the south; Maple Street
    3 miles south of State Street.
    Creek
  • 175. Zoning for a New Traditional Neighborhood
    TND Zoning Can Be Based on the Transect
    “Transect: a system of ordering human habitats in a range from the
    most natural to the most urban. The SmartCode is based on six
    Transect Zones which describe the physical character of place at any
    scale, according to the density and intensity of land use and urbanism.”
    T-1T-2T-3T-4T-5T-6
    Zone: Natural Rural Suburban General Urban Urban
    Zone ZoneZone Urban Center Core
    Zone ZoneZone
    © Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company
  • 176. Transect “T - Zones”
    T-1 Natural Zone consists of lands approximating or reverting to a wilderness condition, including lands unsuitable for settlement due to topography, hydrology or vegetation.
    T-2 Rural Zone consists of lands in open or cultivated state or sparsely settled. These include woodland, agricultural land, grassland, and irrigable desert.
    T-3 Sub-Urban Zone consists of low density suburban residential areas, differing by allowing home occupations. Planting is naturalistic and set-backs relatively deep. Blocks may be large and the roads irregular to accommodate natural conditions.
    T-4 General Urban Zone consists of a mixed-use but primarily residential urban fabric. It has a wide range of building types: single, sideyard, and rowhouses. Setbacks and landscaping are variable. Streets define medium-sized blocks.
    T-5 Urban Center Zone consists of higher density mixed-use building types that accommodate retail, offices, rowhouses and apartments. It has a tight network of streets, with wide sidewalks, steady street tree planting and buildings set close to the frontages.
    T-6 Urban Core Zone consists of the highest density, with the greatest variety of uses, and civic buildings of regional importance. It may have larger blocks; streets have steady street tree planting and buildings set close to the frontages.
    Special Districts consist of areas with buildings that by their function, disposition, or configuration cannot conform to one of the six normative Transect Zones.
  • 177. The Leytham Transect
    T - Zones and Zoning in Leytham
    Leytham’s Four T-Zones:
    T-1 The Natural Zone will be zoned DR.
    T-3 The Suburban Zone will be zoned R4.
    T-4 and 5 The General Urban and Urban Center Zones will be zoned MU.
    T-1T-2T-3T-4T-5T-6
    T-Zone: Natural Rural Suburban General Urban Urban
    Zone ZoneZone Urban Center Core
    Zone ZoneZone
    © Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company
  • 178. Leytham Transect Zones
  • 179. Leytham T-Zones and Land Uses
    Net Site Area does not include T-1 Natural, Civic Space, and Street and Alley ROW
  • 180. The Leytham Neighborhood Conservation District
    Leytham will be a Neighborhood Conservation District
    Base Zoning is DR in the T-1 Zone
    R4 in the T-3 Zone
    MU in the T-4 and 5 Zones
    The Base Zoning is modified by the Leytham Neighborhood Regulation.
    T-1T-2T-3T-4T-5T-6
    T-Zone: Natural Rural Suburban General Urban Urban
    Zone ZoneZone Urban Center Core
    Zone ZoneZone
    Base Zoning: DR R4 MU MU
  • 181. The Leytham Neighborhood Conservation District
    Leytham Neighborhood Regulation
    The Base Zoning is modified by the Leytham Neighborhood Regulation.
    The Leytham Development Regulation is based on the SmartCode.
    The requirement that the neighborhood exist for 25 years has been removed.
    T-1T-2T-3T-4T-5T-6
    T-Zone: Natural Rural Suburban General Urban Urban
    Zone ZoneZone Urban Center Core
    Zone ZoneZone
    Base Zoning: DR R4 MU MU
  • 182. The Leytham Neighborhood Conservation District
    Leytham Neighborhood Regulation (the “LNR”)
    The Leytham Neighborhood Regulation, like the SmartCode it emulates:
    • Is form-based. It encourages physical outcomes unlike conventional
    zoning which is focused on uses.
    • Operates at many levels. The LNR operates at the neighborhood level,
    the block level, the building level.
    • Is Transect-based. The LNR organizes the natural, edge, general
    and center urban landscapes into categories of density, complexity, and
    intensity of both design and use.
    • Is graphical in nature. The LNR is heavily illustrated with drawings,
    charts and tables.
    • Is enduring. The LNR, once adopted as law, will stay in place, allowing
    the neighborhood to evolve and mature without losing its sense of order
    because what is intended for the community has already been specified.
  • 183. Contact Information and Websites
    Herb Freeman
    Full Circle Ventures, Inc.
    16510 State Street
    Bennington, NE 68007
    home 402.238.3095
    cell 402.689.4000
    email herb@FullCircleVentures.com
    Watch www.Leytham.com for continuing updates and new information as Leytham progresses. Be sure to register on the site to receive updates in the Leytham e-newsletter.
    Check out Herb’s new urban, new traditional neighborhood and sustainable development blog, www.NewHerbanism.Blogspot.com, for commentary and items of interest.
  • 184. Thank You for your Attention and Interest
  • 185. End

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