Breast cancer is a major health problem in the US and worldwide. It is the most common malignancy among women. Cancer is not only due to genetic factors, but also lifestyle and environment.
Stages of Breast Cancer Stage 0: Non-invasive breast cancer, no indication of the cancer or cancerous cells breaking out from origin point Stage 1: Invasive breast cancer, the cancerous cells are breaking through to or invading surrounding normal tissue Stage 2: 2a No tumor but there are cancerous cells in the lymph nodes, or there is a tumor that has grown. 2b Tumor has grown and cancerous cells in the lymph nodes. Stage 3: Cancer has spread to lymph nodes near breastbone and chest wall Stage 4: Cancer has spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body.
Facts Rates of cancer has increased among the younger population (women in their 30s and 40s) Cancer among the young is more aggressive. Majority of women are being diagnosed with cancer after the second stage. Many in the fourth stage Breast cancer cases has been increasing in India, with the increase of urbanization. Risk increases the later a woman has first child after turning 30.
Data Breast cancer is the most common type in many cities and the second most common in rural areas. As of last year the rate of breast cancer in India was 11.1 (per 100,000 for age standardized mortality rate), and the number of deaths was 53,592. Breast cancer is by far the most frequent among women in the world and is now the most common type of cancer in developed and developing nations. Incidence of breast cancer has increased greatly over the past 50 years, this is due to urbanization Incident number of cancer rates in 2001 and 2016 national levels Breast cancer …. 89,914 140,975
Deaths from breast cancer in Andhra Pradesh was 3863, the fifth highest Research done at MNJ Institute of Oncology and Regional Cancer Center over a period of 10 days, they had 121 cases of breast cancer.
“Western Disease” “Women in high-income countries like the United States and the United Kingdom are benefiting from early cancer screenings, drug therapies, and vaccines,” said Dr. Rafael Lozano, Professor of Global Health at IHME and one of the co-authors of the Lancet study, “We are seeing the burden of breast and cervical cancer shifting to low-income countries in Africa and Asia. This is the one of the early signs of the emerging threat of non communicable diseases in these countries.”
What has been done There have been some steps taken by organizations for awareness. Awareness month for the importance of screening. Breast Cancer screening initiative, 5000 health workers trained to perform clinical breast examinations. Breast Cancer screening program in Gandhi Medical Hospital/College
Gandhi Medical Hospital/College Program Biggest government hospital in state Project: women’s clinic from April 2006 to February 2007 Staff of the hospital trained according to WHO guidelines Conducted screenings and awareness programs Women who came to the department were the ones who were screened. 171 screenings were adequate of which 26 were malignant.
Policy Act As of now there are no laws regarding breast cancer. Law requiring funding towards breast cancer screening and education programs. Funding to provide coverage in Hyderabad and surrounding villages. Law requiring each region to have clinics that will educate women and give them support and help. Have the genetic test available to detect for mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene. For those with breast cancer in the family. Provide help for those who are not able to afford treatment. Law requiring women of certain age to have a mammogram done, and provide the means for those who cannot afford it.
House of the People Shri Sukender Reddy Gutha- for providing better health care for people in rural areas. Shri Madhu Goud Yaskhi- founded the Madhu Yaskhi foundation, part of which is funding to provide health care facilities in rural areas. Smt. Kumar Meira- held a position on the committee for education and health programs for women.
Council of States Shri Raashid Alvi (Member of Parliament)- for equitable access to health services Shri Y.S. Chowdary (Member of Parliament)- Rise in cases of diseases afflicting the young female population, breast cancer included. Dr. T. Subbarami Reddy (Member of Parliament)- investment in health education
Stakeholders Government of Cancer foundation Andhra Pradesh of India Family, Welfare, CPAA (Cancer Health department Patients Aid of Hyderabad Association) World Health Passages Organization
Reference ChartsBin,com, viewed on 25th September, 2011, http://chartbin.com/view/252 Breastcancerindia.net India.gov.in Shrivastav, Snehlata. "Spike in Cancer Cases Alarms Experts - Times Of India." Featured Articles From The Times Of India. 16 Sept. 2011. Web. 21 Sept. 2011. <http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-09- 16/nagpur/30165128_1_cancer-registries-cervical-cancer-breast-cancer>. Shukla, Shobha. "Cervical and Breast Cancers: Killers On The Prowl | Scoop News." Scoop - New Zealand News. 16 Sept. 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/HL1109/S00142/cervical-and-breast-cancers- killers-on-the-prowl.htm>. Murthy, NS, Kishore Chaudhry, and GK Rath. "Burden of Cancer and Projections for 2016, Indian Scenario: Gaps in the Availability of Radiotherapy Treatment Facilitie." Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 9 (2008): 671-77. Web. http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/diagnosis/staging.jsp ORAL, BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCERS SCREENING IN GANDHI MEDICAL COLLEGE/HOSPITAL SECUNDERABAD. Rep. Hyderabad, 2007. World Health Orginazation. Web. <http://http://www.whoindia.org/LinkFiles/Cancer_report_hyderabad.pdf>