Muhammad Farhan BashirSyed Khalid AhmedShahroz RazaSafeer FarooqMuhammad Asad Ullah
Elliot AronsonHe was born onJanuary 9, 1932.He is an Americanpsychologist.He is listed amongthe 100 most eminent Elliot Aronsonpsychologists of the20th Century,He is known forresearch on cognitivedissonance, high-impactexperimentation, Jigsaw Classroom, gain-losstheory of attraction.
Aronson grew up in extreme poverty in Revere, He belief that every life progress is based on actions of luck, opportunity, talent, and intuition together. He earned his Bachelors degree from Brandeis in 1954. He went on to earn a Masters degree from Wesleyan University in 1956 (where he worked with David McClelland, and a Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1959 (where his doctoral advisor and mentor was the experimental social psychologist Leon Feininger.
Aronson with his Labrador Retriever guide dog Desi-Lu in 2011 Elliot is married to Vera Aronson, whom he met while they were both undergraduate research assistants under Abraham Maslow. Together they have had four children; Hal, Neal, Julie and Joshua, who is himself a social psychologist. In 2000, Aronson was diagnosed with macular degeneration and, by 2003, had lost all of his central vision. To cope with his blindness, Aronson decided to work with a guide dog, and applied at Guide Dogs for the Blind in 2010. Later, beginning in January and extending through February 2011, he was trained at Guide Dogs for the Blind in a three week training session, and received a guide dog, Desilu, nicknamed "Desi." He graduated from the program on February 12, 2011. He said jokingly "They worked us 14 hours a day, until we were almost as smart as our dogs.
Aronson has taught at Harvard University, the University of Minnesota, the University of Texas, and the University of California, Santa Cruz. He is the only person in the 120-year history of the American Psychological Association to have won all three of its major awards: for writing, for teaching, and for research He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and won the William James Award from the Association for Psychological Science for his lifetime achievements. He also won the Gordon All port Prize for his work on reducing prejudice. In 1981 he was one of five academics awarded "Professor of the Year" by the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education. He officially retired in 1994, but has continued to teach and write.
The Social Animal• He stated Aronsons First Law: "People who do crazy things are not necessarily crazy" thus asserting the importance of situational factors in bizarre behavior. Cognitive dissonance• The unpleasant emotion that results from believing two contradictory things at the same time.
The Jigsaw Classroom a classroom organized into small ethnically balanced working group in which each students contributes a different parts of the lesson. Gain-loss theory of attraction• The Peoples are attracted who will provide them with the greater gain and not to those who will provide them with the greater loss.
Definition: How do we attach meaning to others behavior, or our own? This is called attribution theory For example: If someone angry because they are bad- tempered or because something bad happened? Attribution Theory: Deals with how the social perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events. It examines what information is gathered and how it is combined to form a causal judgment. Attribution theory is concerned with how and why ordinary people explain events as they do.
Explanatory attribution People make explanatory attributions to understand the world around them and to seek reasons for a particular event. For example, if Jacob’s car tire is punctured he may attribute that to a hole in the road; by making attributions to the poor condition of the highway, he can make sense of the event without any discomfiture that it may in reality have been the result of his bad driving.
Sometimes, when your action or motives for the action are questioned, you need to explain the reasons for your action. Interpersonal attributions happen when the causes of the events involve two or more individuals. More specifically, you will always want to present yourself in the most positive light in interpersonal attributions. For example, let’s say Jaimie and her boyfriend had a fight. When Jaimie explains her situation to her friends, she will say she tried everything to avoid a fight but she will blame her boyfriend that he nonetheless started a fight. This way, Jaimie is seen as a peacemaker to her friends whereas her boyfriend is seen as the one who started it all.
Definition: The unpleasant emotion that results from believing two contradictory things at the same time. Cognitive dissonance is the term used in modern psychology to describe the state of holding two or more conflicting cognitions (e.g., ideas, beliefs, values, emotional reactions) simultaneously motivational drive,
Examples: The Fox and the Grapes…. An example of this would be the conflict between wanting to smoke and knowing that smoking is unhealthy. Explain unexplained feelings: Justify behavior that opposed their views
Definition: a classroom organized into small ethnically balanced working group in which each students contributes a different parts of the lesson.
History Of Jigsaw Steps in implementation Use jigsaw in class room Benefits
Definition: The Peoples are attracted who will provide them with the greater gain and not to those who will provide them with the greater loss. Gain Loss Principle: if a person increases their positive feelings for you then you are likely to do the same for them.
Exchange Theories Homan’s Social Exchange Theory ▪ People try to maximize their rewards and minimize their costs. Adams Equity Theory ▪ People are happiest with relationships in which the rewards and costs are equal between the partners.
Exchange Theories Thibaut and Kelley’s Theory of Social Interdependence ▪ People calculate the rewards and costs of being in a relationship ▪ Comparison level - standard by which people evaluate rewards and costs of a given relationship ▪ Comparison level alternative - deals with rewards and costs of alternative relationships