United Flight 93


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attacks 9/11/01

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United Flight 93

  1. 1. United Flight 93 By: Jordan O’Reilly
  2. 2. September 11, 2001
  3. 3. The Attack <ul><li>The coordinated hijacking of four commercial airliners </li></ul><ul><li>Flown into symbolic American targets </li></ul>
  4. 4. Results of the Attack <ul><li>Murder of innocent people </li></ul><ul><li>Tragic and shocking damage </li></ul>
  5. 5. Flight Information <ul><li>Destination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newark, New Jersey to San Francisco, California </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loaded with approximately 11, 400 gallons of jet feul </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Hijackers <ul><li>Ziad Jarrah </li></ul><ul><li>Saeed al Ghamdi </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmed al Haznawi </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmed al Nami </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Hijackers <ul><li>They each sat in first class close to the cockpit in preparation to hijack the plane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jarrah was in seat 1B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nami was in seat 3C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghamdi was in seat 3D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haznawi was in seat 6B </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Hijackers <ul><li>Each flight had a team of 5 hijackers to carry out the plan to turn the plane into a guided missile. </li></ul><ul><li>United Flight 93 had only a team of 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Mohamed al Kahtani was the 5 th team member but had been refused entry by a suspicious immigration inspector at Florida’s Orlando International Airport in August. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Departure <ul><li>The flight left Newark at 8:42 </li></ul><ul><li>At this time the flight crew and passengers were still unaware of the multiple hijackings that occurred that morning. </li></ul><ul><li>United 93 was delayed 25 minutes due to the airport’s heavy morning traffic. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Realizations <ul><li>Around 9:00 the FAA were informed of the apparent multiple hijackings. </li></ul><ul><li>At this time they did not yet act to warn other aircraft in the air that they too might be at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the FAA comprehended that the attackers were going after multiple aircraft they radioed all aircraft in air to increase cockpit security and also grounded all flights. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Message <ul><li>Ed Ballinger took the initiative to begin transmitting warnings to his 16 transcontinental flights, including United 93. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Beware any cockpit intrusion- Two a/c (aircraft) hit World Trade Center.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Miscommunication <ul><li>Since Ballinger was still responsible for his other flights, including Flight 175 that crashed into the World Trade Center, his warning message was not transmitted to Flight 93 until 9:23. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Flight <ul><li>The first 46 minutes of Flight 93’s cross-country trip proceeded routinely. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio communications from the plane were normal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heading, speeding and altitude ran according to plan </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Flight Path <ul><li>The hijackers attacked at 9:28 </li></ul><ul><li>As United 93 neared Cleveland, Ohio it abruptly changed course, heading southeast in the direction of Washington, D.C. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hijacking <ul><li>While traveling 35,000 feet above eastern Ohio, United 93 suddenly dropped 700 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Eleven seconds into the descent, the FAA’s air traffic control center in Cleveland received the first of the two radio transmissions from the aircraft. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The First Broadcast <ul><li>The captain or first officer could be heard declaring “Mayday” amid the sounds of physical struggle in the cockpit. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Second Broadcast <ul><li>35 seconds later air traffic control center received another radio transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>The captain or first officer indicated that the fight was continuing. The captain or first officer could be heard shouting: “Hey get out of here- get out of here- get out of here.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Seizing the Cockpit <ul><li>It is most likely that 2 of the 4 men took part in the fight to take over the cockpit. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also assumed that Jarrah, the crucial piolet-trained member of the team remained seated and inconspicuous until after the cockpit was seized. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 9:32 <ul><li>A hijacker, probably Jarrah, attempted to make the following announcement to the passengers of Flight 93: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ladies and Gentlemen: Here the captain, please sit down keep remaining sitting. We have a bomb on board. So, sit.” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 9:32 <ul><li>His message was never heard by the passengers because he inadvertently broadcasted the message due to inexperience. </li></ul><ul><li>He also instructed the plane’s autopilot to turn the aircraft around and head east. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Struggle <ul><li>The cockpit voice recorder data indicated that a woman most likely a flight attendant, was held captive in the cockpit until one of the hijackers killed or otherwise silenced her. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Phone Calls <ul><li>Shortly after the cockpit was seized the passengers and flight crew began a series of calls from the GTE air phones and cellular phones. </li></ul><ul><li>They enabled the passengers to gain critical information. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Phone Calls <ul><li>At least 10 passengers and 2 crew members shared vital information with family, friends, or others on the ground. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All understood the plane had been hijacked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hijackers wielded knives and claimed to have a bomb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hijackers were wearing red bandanas </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Phone Calls <ul><li>More vital information shared: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The hijackers forced the passengers to the back of the aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A passenger had been stabbed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 people were lying on the floor of the cabin, injured or dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One flight attendant had been killed </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Phone Calls <ul><li>During at least 5 of the phone calls the passengers learned about the attacks that occurred earlier that morning at the World Trade Center. </li></ul><ul><li>5 calls also described the intent of the passengers and surviving crew members to revolt against the hijackers. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Revolt <ul><li>According to 1 call, the passengers and crew voted on whether to rush the terrorists in an attempt to retake the plane. </li></ul><ul><li>They decided, and acted. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 9:57 <ul><li>The passenger and crew member assault began. </li></ul><ul><li>The cockpit voice recorder captured sounds of passenger assaults muffled by the intervening cockpit door. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Repercussions <ul><li>In response to the attack, Jarrah immediately began to roll the airplane from left to right attempting to knock the passengers off balance. </li></ul><ul><li>At 9:58:57 Jarrah told another hijacker in the cockpit to block the door. </li></ul><ul><li>At 9:59:52 Jarrah changed tactics and pitched the nose of the airplane up and down. </li></ul><ul><li>Jarrah’s attempts to stop the assault failed and he stabilized the airplane at 10:00:03. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Questioning the Destination <ul><li>At 10:05:03 Jarrah asked his fellow hijacker, “Is that it? Shall we finish it off?” </li></ul><ul><li>The hijacker responded, “No. Not yet. When they all come, we finish it off.” </li></ul><ul><li>The sounds of fighting continued outside of the cockpit. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Voice Recordings <ul><li>Jarrah pitched the nose of the aircraft up and down. </li></ul><ul><li>The voice recorder in the cockpit recorded the passengers yelling “In the cockpit. If we don’t we’ll die!” and “Roll it!” </li></ul>
  31. 31. Voice Recordings <ul><li>At 10:01:00 Jarrah began chanting, “Allah is the greatest! Allah is the greatest!” </li></ul><ul><li>He then asked another hijacker in the cockpit, “Is that it? I mean, shall we put it down?” </li></ul><ul><li>The hijacker replied, “Yes, put it in it, and pull it down.” </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Last Resort <ul><li>The assault continued and at 10:02:23, a hijacker screamed, “Pull it down! Pull it down!” </li></ul><ul><li>The hijackers remained at the controls but must have judged that the passengers were only seconds from overcoming them. </li></ul><ul><li>The airplane headed down with the control wheel turned hard to the right. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Last Resort <ul><li>Amidst the screams and fighting, the chanting of the hijackers could still be heard, “Allah is the greatest. Allah is the greatest.” </li></ul><ul><li>The aircraft plowed into an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania at 580 miles per hour, about 20 minutes flying time from Washington, D.C. </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Temporary Memorial <ul><li>Over 130,000 people visit the memorial annually and are all moved by the serene landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of a 40 foot long section of fence adorned with flowers, hand written messages, artwork, jewelry and personal photographs. </li></ul>
  35. 35. National Memorial Capital Campaign <ul><li>Launched a national and international campaign to raise money for the construction of the Flight 93 National Memorial. </li></ul><ul><li>They were seeking to raise $30 million other than the $28 million from the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Generous gifts ranging from the pennies of school children to large donations from corporations has already helped jump-start the campaign on a national, regional, and local level. </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Design <ul><li>Entry Portal </li></ul><ul><li>Tower of Voices </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Ground </li></ul><ul><li>Western Overlook </li></ul><ul><li>40 Memorial Groves </li></ul><ul><li>The Bowl </li></ul><ul><li>Wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>Ceremonial Gate </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Entry Portal The black slate sidewalk entering the memorial site follows the flight path of the plane. The high, textured concrete walls mark the place where the plane descended to the crash site.
  38. 38. The Tower of Voices <ul><li>Tall enough to be seen from the highway. </li></ul><ul><li>Rings of white pines surround the tower </li></ul><ul><li>The tower houses 40 wind chimes </li></ul><ul><li>The sounds of the chimes in the wind are the living memory of the 40 persons honored. </li></ul>
  39. 39. 40 Memorial Groves <ul><li>The outline commemorates the collective acts of courage by the 40 passengers and crew of Flight 93 with 40 groves of Red and Sugar Maple trees. </li></ul><ul><li>The path of Red Maple trees gradually descends around the bowl and the sacred ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Behind the walkway are the 40 groves. </li></ul>
  40. 40. The Bowl <ul><li>Forms the heart of the memorial and park </li></ul><ul><li>The bowl expresses the union of the land’s beauty and power with the strength and sacrifice of the heroes of Flight 93 by marking the flight path where the circular continuity was broken by the crash. </li></ul>
  41. 41. The Wetlands <ul><li>The wetlands will serve as a “natural” threshold of experience as the visitor approaches the Sacred Ground. </li></ul><ul><li>The habitat is full of life and the area surrounding it acts as a healing landscape embraced by a curving maple path. </li></ul>
  42. 42. The Sacred Ground <ul><li>Marks the final resting place of the passengers and crew </li></ul><ul><li>This is the focus of the Bowl </li></ul><ul><li>The fields surrounding the crash site will be planted with wildflowers. </li></ul><ul><li>A white stone slab engraved with the Flight path will mark the entry to the Sacred Ground. </li></ul><ul><li>A concrete wall will hold a band of polished white marble inscribed with the 40 names. </li></ul>
  43. 43. The Western Overlook <ul><li>Contains floor slabs of the mining operation buildings that were located here and will remain to evoke the memory of the structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Marks the location where families first viewed the crash site below. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Ceremonial Gate <ul><li>The wall will have a folded band of white marble engraved with the names of the 40 passengers and crewmembers. </li></ul>
  45. 45. The End