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Tenerife Disaster & Lebanese Twa 847

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  1. 1. Table of contents Tenerife Disaster Fact,Chronology.….. Assumption of Disaster Error ..………... Lebanese TWA flight 847 Fact, Chronology………………………………….... Assumption Of Disaster Error………….. Comparison…………………………………… Bibliography……………………………………….. Introduction
  2. 2. In this assignment I will describe about air crash fatal accident between 2 aircraft in two different situations that is runway incursion-aircraft collision and aircraft hijacking. The assignment issues are fact, chronology,comparison and assumption of fatal. Crash of Century TENERIFE DISASTER Fact Destination : Las Palmas Airport,Canary Island Place of Accident : Tenerife Airport (Regional airport) Date : March 27th 1977 Aircraft : Pan Am B747 and KLM B747 Fatalities : 583 Survivors : 61 Incident type : Runway Incursion-Aircraft collision during take off Reason divert : Bomb threat at Las Palmas Chronology 12 pm : Pan Am on cruising level 2 hours to destination Las Palmas 1230 : Pan Am received urgent message from Las Palmas ATC about Bomb Threat at Las Palmas airport and instruct to divert to Tenerife Airport 0138 : KLM already received already on ground Tenerife is a small airport.Only have 1 airstrip.Its Sunday and only 2 ATC staff on duty.Tarmac condition already pack with a/c,getting bumper to bumper.Taxiway block with aircraft.ATC have to clear aircraft out of gate as soon as possible. 0215 : Pan Am touch down at Tenerife Airport 0230 : Las Palmas airport reopen 0456 : KLM request permission to taxiing to depart 0502 : Pan Am taxiing behind KLM 0506 : Pan Am saw KLM jumbo heading towards them on same runway 0507 : Pan Am trying to pull out of the runway as soon as possible 0508 : Both aircraft collide each other ASSUMPTION OF DISASTER ERROR Human Error Communication Failure
  3. 3. ATC Airport Requirement Weather Conditions Aircraft Refueling Human Error Haste to take off because afraid closed to minimum visibility to take-off (Fogging situation) Not follow ATC clearance on take off Take-off during Pan Am still taxiing Stress to catching departure slot to avoid exceeding flight hour expenses Didn’t follow order to exit on C3 continue maneuver to C4 therefore aircraft shouldn’t be on the runway during event occur. Communication Failure Pilot misunderstand instruction Lack of communication Bad English accent Weather Condition Fogging around airport Visibility down from 500 meter to few Dozen meter before event occur ATC Propose to use the main runway as a taxiway instead  (Back track Method)- a/c take turn taxing to runway-end ,turn around, and take off continuously at the same runway, Next a/c exit and hold before taking turn take-off Airport Requirement Limited facility
  4. 4. No radar to monitor surface movement Lack of equipment- runway center light out of service Aircraft Refueling Pilot judgment on carry extra fuel to fly to Las Palmas plus back to Amsterdam to avoid queue. Refueling block Pan Am to taxiing on behind Carry extra fuel take more time to refuel Causing delay Too heavy to lift Delay causing fogging getting thicker Lebanese TWA flight 847 Fact Site : Greek Airspace Place involved : Beirut,Algiers Date : June 14, 1985 Aircraft : Trans World Airlines B727 Fatalities : 1 Survivors : 146 Incident type : Hijacking Chronology : Taking off from Cairo The Flight was Hijacked shortly after take off by German passenger that smuggle pistol.The Hijacker then ask the flight to be divert to Beirut International Airport where 19 passengers were allowed toleave in exchange for fuel.Thenthe aircraft continued on to Algiers, Algeria, where 20 passengers were released then later heading back to Beirut.During next stop one of the passenger were beaten and shot to death by the hijacker.7 passengers were held hostage somewhere in Beirut.The hijackers friends join in the flight before the plane returned to Algiers the following day.65 passengers were released.Then later return to Beirut and remain there.Later on the hostages are release after Israel agree to some of hijacker demanded after more than 2weeks. ASSUMPTION OF DISASTER ERROR Airport security measurement not strictly tight.
  5. 5. Stockholm Syndrome : This situation was summed up well by one of the hostages of the TWA Flight 847 hi-jack in June 1985: “They weren’t bad people. They let me eat, they let me sleep, they gave me my life.” Comparison Between Both Incident Incident Type Fatalities/Survivors Time Period/Chronology Personnel that involved Airport Safety & Security Measurement BIBLIOGRAPHY Article Title URL (Internet Site Address) Other References Air Crash / Aircraft Incident National Geographic - Aircraft Investigation- Transcript Tenerife Disaster