The first commercial GaN-based blue LEDs
were produced in Japan in the mid 90’s after
researchers Shuji Nakamura at Nichia...
Our search strategy combines automated and
manual screenings that have led to the selection
of more than 4,500 relevant pa...
Patent investigation
•	The authors 9
•	Scope of the report 10
•	What’s in the report / What’s not 11
•	Terminologies for p...
LED Phosphors and Down-Converters Patent Investigation
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Patent investigation on LED phosphors and down-converters

  1. 1. The first commercial GaN-based blue LEDs were produced in Japan in the mid 90’s after researchers Shuji Nakamura at Nichia and Professor Akasaki at Nagoya University (IP assigned to Toyoda Gosei) succeeded in removing some of the major remaining roadblocks associated with this technology (p-doping, epitaxy quality…). Quickly leveraging on this success, some fundamental patents describing the use of a blue LED combined with a phosphor to produce white LEDs were filed by Nichia, Osram, ATMI and others. Those fundamental patents were rapidly followed by a fast growing number of applications through 2005 as an increasing number of companies started to compete in the LED market and new applications in cell phone, laptop and LCD TV display, and general lighting were being addressed. Phosphor IP is a major force in the LED industry. With more than 40 litigation cases, it is also used as leverage by companies which have negotiated close to 70 licensing and supply agreements to date. It can also be argued that in the first half of the 2000 decade, the strict enforcement and lack of license grants for some fundamental IP related to the design and manufacturing of white LEDs might also have slowed down the progress of the industry by preventing more efficient competition that would allow prices to decrease. The report identifies the key players with the most relevant IP. It provides an overview, of phosphor related IP litigation and licensing, that has shaped the industry since the mid 90s, as well as a detailed analysis for the major players involved. LED Phosphor Intellectual Property (IP) LED Phosphors and Down-Converters Patent Investigation LED phosphor IP is shaping the industry Patent investigation REPORT OUTLINE • Title: LED Phosphors and Down- Converters Patent Investigation • September 2013 • Patent investigation • PDF & Excel file • €5,990 - Multi user license (280+ slides) • €2,490 - Executive summary (20+ slides) KEY FEATURES OF THE REPORT • LED phosphors market data and forecasts • Analysis of technology key segments and key players • Special focus on key families and configurations: – Garnets – Silicates – (Oxy)nitrides and carbidonitrides – Quantum dots – Remote phosphors • Overview of patent litigation and licensing • “Phosphor IP” profiles of the main companies with key patents, compositions, configurations, strategy, litigations, licensing and partnerships • Excel database with all patents of the company profiled in the report Related reports • LED Phosphor 2012 • Status of the LED Industry • LED Packaging • Reverse costing analyses of the Philips  10A19/L-Prize-pro/ 2700-900 LED Lamp • Reverse costing analysis of the SORAA GaN on GaN Tri-LED MR16 Find all our reports on Remote Phosphor License Program: Aurora Energie, Horner APG, Ledzworld Technology, Vexica Technology, and Wyndsor Lighting Oct.2007 US6373188 settledApr.2009 Dec.2011 US6600175 Sep. 2007 License Limited to laptop LCD backlight unit applications Dec. 2005 US6600175 Dec. 2005 US6600175 Dec. 2005 US6600175 May. 2006 US6600175 Jul. 2007 Apr. 2011 May. 2008 Nov 2002, Feb. 2009, Sep. 2007 Single way licenses with chip supply agreement Cross license with chip supply agreement Broad Cross licenses (phosphors + others) Litigation Note: cross license with Nichia follows 2 years of litigations related to non phosphor patents CREE litigation and licensing profile (Yole Développement, September 2013) Phosphor related intellectual property has been and remains a major driving force with strong impact on the shape of the LED industry. KnowMade
  2. 2. Our search strategy combines automated and manual screenings that have led to the selection of more than 4,500 relevant patent families. Those have been segmented by type (composition patent or phosphor configuration patents) and organized in various technology segments that are analyzed in detail: garnets, silicates, nitrides and oxynitrides, quantum dots. The report also includes a special focus on the emerging LED phosphor IP in China. For each segment, the report provides a detailed analysis including the time evolution of patent filings, identification of the key players, collaborations and citation networks, as well as the identification of the key patents based-on citation and impacts in litigations. The report also includes a companion excel database with all patents of the company profiled in the report. This database includes abstracts and hyperlinks to the original documents and allows multi-criteria searches (patent publication number, priority date, title, applicants, technological segments…) Hundreds of companies are involved in LED phosphor IP. Most of the major LED players are present in the list of the top patent assignees. But independent phosphor manufacturers like Intematix or Mitsubishi that are offering their phosphors on the open market are also emerging as major forces in the IP landscape. Leading Taiwan based packagers are notably absent from this ranking. This weak position explains the large number of litigations and one way, royalty or supply based license agreements involving those companies. The report provides an analysis and ranking of the relative strength of the top Led phosphor IP holders derived from their portfolio size, patent citations networks, number of family etc… Based on this portfolio analysis as well as on their litigation and licensing history, we have identified 15 major players that are profiled in this report. Each profile includes a detailed portfolio analysis with the time evolution of patent filing by segment as well as a list of key patents, citations, collaborations, litigations and licensing. With high performing silicates now widely available as a YAG substitutes for yellow emission, the focus on new composition development and patent protection has mostly shifted toward red and green converters. The market for those new phosphors and some of the most critical IP are currently dominated by Mitsubishi and Denka, which have acquired nitrides and oxynitrides licenses from NIMS. However, many other players are also developing nitride and oxynitride compositions, including Intematix, Beijing Yuji and Lightscape (now dow electronic materials). New material families are also considered as promising phosphors including Tungstate and Molybdates as well as Fluorides championed by GE. Following recent progress in thermal stability and manufacturability, quantum dot are also finally emerging as a credible option. Because of their narrow emission bands, LCD display is the most promising application for the technology. In lighting, the use of red QD in combination with standard phosphor could emerge in remote phosphor applications. A vast number of relevant patents The key players identified Composition focus shifting from yellow to red and green phosphors NICHIA DOWA TOPPAN PRINTING HEWLETT PACKARD ORTHOFIX INTERNATIONAL UNIV OSAKA PHILIPS FORCE4 AGILENT TECHNOLOGY TRIDONIC OPTOELECTRONICS OSRAM OPTO SEMICONDUCTORS PATENT TREUHAND GmbH (OSRAM) LEUCHTSTOFFWERK BREITUNGEN (LWB) MITSUBISHI FUJIKURA SHOWA DENKO JAPAN AEROSPACE SHARP NIMS LG 43 9 2 2 2 1 1 5 1 1 3 3 4 4 4 1 11 26 13 10 9 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 UNITED KINGDOM FRANCE WORLD RUSSIAN FEDERATION MALAYSIA TAIWAN KOREA CHINA AUSTRIA UNITED STATES EUROPE JAPAN GERMANY Earlier priority date 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 1 16 2 5 5 5 5 5 8 8 7 7 32 29 52 10 10 16 16 58 3 3 110 120 4 4 13 11 117 88 79 72 70 8 86 6 4 4 4 58 111 151 1 1 202020 19 292620 311313 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 13 33 5 10 1011 11 11 16 15 1918 6 6 6 4 43 12 9 9 8 39 37 38 32 44 44 4559 6030 Collaboration network for nitride phosphors Time evolution of top 13 priority countries related to phosphor materials LED Phosphors and Down-Converters Patent Investigation (Yole Développement, September 2013) (Yole Développement, September 2013) 1 : Number of co-assigned patent families NICHIA DOWA TOPPAN PRINTING HEWLETT PACKARD ORTHOFIX INTERNATIONAL UNIV OSAKA PHILIPS FORCE4 AGILENT TECHNOLOGY TRIDONIC OPTOELECTRONICS OSRAM OPTO SEMICONDUCTORS PATENT TREUHAND GmbH (OSRAM) LEUCHTSTOFFWERK BREITUNGEN (LWB) MITSUBISHI FUJIKURA SHOWA DENKO JAPAN AEROSPACE SHARP NIMS LG 43 9 2 2 2 1 1 5 1 1 3 3 4 4 4 1 11 26 13 10 9 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 : Number of patent families for this assignee in the data set
  3. 3. Patent investigation • The authors 9 • Scope of the report 10 • What’s in the report / What’s not 11 • Terminologies for patent analysis 13 • Methodology 15 • Search strategy and patent screening 17 • Technological segmentation 19 • Different types of phosphor converted LED20 • Example 21 • Executive Summary 24 Introduction LED phosphor market forecast Industry landscape How phosphor patents shaped the industry Phosphor related license agreements Litigations plaintiffs and defendants Litigations by patent families Time evolution of patent filing Main patent assignees ranking Analysis Strength of main assignee portfolio Portfolio strength and revenue Geographic breakdown of patent filings Material trends Nichia patent invalidation attempts Analysis of technology segments (silicates, garnets, nitrides, QD) Overview Main patent assignees Major reference patents China Conclusions • Overview of the LED industry 64 LED market segments History of the LED industry Packaged LED revenue forecast by application Packaged LED volume forecast by application LED penetration rates - Comparison 2012 vs. 2020 • LED phosphor market overview 71 Phosphors for LEDs: How to make white light? Major LED phosphor materials LED phosphor materials trends Remote phosphors LED phosphor industry landscape Market quantifications: Methodology / challenges / Key hypothesis / Scenario #1: No remote phosphors / Remote phosphors hypothesis / Scenario #2: Volumes with remote phosphors / Revenue / Captive and open market • IP Landscape overview 89 Time evolution of patent filing Example of fundamental phosphor patents Geographic breakdown of patent filing: Phosphor materials LED with WL conversion Time evolution by country of filing: Phosphor material LED with WL conversion Time evolution by country of publication: Phosphor material LED with WL conversion Legal status breakdown Main IPC classes: Phosphor materials LED with WL conversion Main patent assignees ranking Time evolution of top 15 patent assignees: Phosphor materials LED with WL conversion Country of filing for top 15 patent assignees: Phosphor materials LED with WL conversion Main academic patent assignees Patent assignees IP network: Phosphor materials Patent assignee network: LED with WL conversion Summary of main assignee portfolio: Phosphor Materials LED with WL conversion - Analysis Strength of Main Assignee Portfolio: Phosphor Materials LED with WL conversion - Analysis Portfolio strength and revenue • Analysis of technology segments 119 Matrix applicants/phosphor composition Discussion Garnets (p123) / silicates (p135) / nitrides and oxynitrides (p147) / quantum dots (p165) / remote phosphors (p179) For all these analysis : - Overview - Composition and IP - Time evolution of patent filings - Main patent assignees - Others - Time evolution of patent assignees - Countries of filing for main patent assignees - Patent assignee IP network - Assignee citation network - Main cited patents - Major reference patents • Focus on China 191 Overview Main patent assignees: Patent portfolio comparison Other patent assignees Patent assignee IP network • Litigation and licensing landscape 198 Overview and history Chronology Overview of phosphor related license agreements Main litigations, plaintiffs and defendants Litigation by patent families Patent families involved in litigation by priority date Consequences Counterfeit phosphors • Focus on key players 211 For all of them : Portfolio analysis, key patents, citations collaborations, litigations and licenses, and additional info regarding Nichia key patent invalidation attempts, licensing revenue and general approach to IP • CREE 212 • Denka (Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha)217 • General Electric / Gelcore (Lumination) / GE Lighting 220 • Intematix 223 • LG 228 • Mitsubishi (Mitsubishi Cable + Mitsubishi Chemical) 233 • Nichia 238 • NIMS (National Institute for Materials Science) 247 • OSRAM 250 • Philips 256 • Samsung (Samsung Led - Samsung Electro Mechanics - Samsung Electronics) 262 • Seoul Semiconductor 269 • Toyoda Gosei 274 • Others: Toshiba, Sharp, Panasonic, Sumitomo 279 • Portfolio Analysis • Annexes: Focus on Inventor Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Thomas Jüstel 281 Time evolution of patent filings Collaboration network and composition segmentation TABLE OF CONTENTS This report provides a detailed picture of the patent landscape for LED phosphors and other down- converters like quantum dots. • Understand who owns what. • Identify key patents by composition or assignees. • Understand trends in phosphor composition IP. • Identify the major players in LED phosphor IP and the relative strength of their portfolio. • Identify collaboration networks between key players (industrial and academics). • Emerging IP from China. • Overview of past and current litigations, licensing agreements. • Overview of essential market data and forecast for LED Phosphors. COMPANIES CITED IN THE REPORT (Non exhaustive list) Advanced Optoelectronic Technology (AOT), Advanced Technilgy Material Inc (ATMI), Agilent Technologies, AgiLight, Asahi, ASP Inc, Aurora Energie, Avago, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing Yuji, Bright LED, CCS, Changchun Institute Of Applied Chemistry, Changchun University, Changchun University, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu Yatai Fluorescent Material, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chimei Corporation, China Glaze, China Glaze, China Jiliang University... (complete list in the report) OBJECTIVES OF THE REPORT Dr Nicolas Baron is CEO and co-founder of Knowmade. He is leading the Microelectonics and Nanotechnology scien- tific and patent analysis department. He holds a PhD in Physics from the University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, plus a University Diploma in Intellectual Property Strategy and Innovation from the European Institute for Enterprise and Intellectual Pro- perty (IEEPI Strasbourg), France. AUTHORS Dr Audrey Bastard works for Knowmade in the field of Microelec- tronics and Nanotech- nology. She holds a PhD in Physics from National Polytechnic Institute of Grenoble, France in col- laboration with STMicroelectronics, CEA- Leti and CEMES Toulouse. She also holds a Materials Engineering Degree from the Su- perior Engineering School of Luminy, Mar- seille, France. Dr Eric Virey holds a Ph-D in Optoelectronics from the National Polytechnic Institute of Grenoble. In the last 12 years, he’s held various RD, engineering, manufacturing and mar- keting position with Saint- Gobain Crystals, in charge of Sapphire subs- trates and materials for optical telecoms. Eric has authored multiple reports for Yole Déve- loppement and contributed to several marke- ting and technology analysis.
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