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  1. 1. Ubuntu 2.0 - Twobuntu <ul><ul><li>Outsider's Perspective on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubuntu & Debian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keith Curtis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk loosely based on May, 2006 post: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Version History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>June 17: Debconf 7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>June 20: Minor tweaks </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>11 years at M$, 2.5 years with free software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I worked on the text engine for Bob ;-) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free software kicks ass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't need to join a company anymore to learn the craft of programming. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The musings of someone trapped in dark Seattle and Sweden for the last 13 years </li></ul>
  3. 3. Can Ubuntu and Debian work better together? <ul><li>Yes, but why and how? </li></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu threatens Debian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few news articles about Etch's release </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu needs Debian's help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubuntu is buggy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mark was not trying to hurt Debian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But, what about the law of unintended consequences? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Two issues <ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Can you build a Universal OS? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Division of Labor <ul><li>One of my lessons at Microsoft: my smart, senior bosses couldn't make the best fixes in my code. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes time to get up to speed on someone else's code. </li></ul><ul><li>That is why Ubuntu 7.0 patches were just a “starting point” for Debian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In other words, little more help than if they didn't exist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This reason is the biggest cause for inefficiency between Ubuntu and Debian </li></ul>
  6. 6. Division of Labor <ul><li>Today: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubuntu does a feature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throws it over the wall to Debian, where it gets re-understood and likely improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now, you have 2 people who have bothered to learn the exact same thing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With one codebase, this wouldn't happen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ubuntu often throws away their patch, and uses upstream version </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Division of Labor <ul><li>Even worse: when Ubuntu does a feature, this is expertise that Debian is not getting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Center of gravity shifts away from Debian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu's current list of features means they are not waiting for any features from Debian. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did Ubuntu come to this conference with a list of workitems for you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubuntu is on course to completely grab center of gravity </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Division of Labor <ul><li>Bug process according to DCT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubuntu finds a bug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe files a bug in Debian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe Debian reproduces the bug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now, who is responsible for it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will any patches work unchanged between the two codebases? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Division of Labor <ul><li>Other impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Debian is playing catchup, not seeing Ubuntu's changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Departure of Ubuntu developers robs them of Debian's expertise, which is one reason why Ubuntu is buggy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many choices arbitrary -> divergence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What if Debian does not adopt Upstart? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Efficiency - bugs <ul><li>Background: only bugs are holding up World Domination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux needs no “bolt of lightning” feature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donald Rumsfeld: “It's a long, hard slog.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixing bugs faster is the only way to get there faster </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Efficiency - bugs <ul><li>Ubuntu is swamped in bugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In May, 2006, Ubuntu had 10,000 active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In May, 2007, Ubuntu had 30,000 active bugs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu needs 1,000 contributors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where could it get that?! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(First distro with 10,000 contributors wins) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Efficiency - bugs <ul><li>Current situation has challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubuntu LTS snapshots Debian-unstable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many of Ubuntu's bugs exist in Debian but who is keeping track? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you don't know about your bugs, what was the point of shipping at 0? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Efficiency <ul><li>Brand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HP supports Debian on their hardware. What does this mean for Ubuntu? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do .DEB files work from one OS to the next? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BTS, security bug-fixers, source control, forums, build servers, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imagine investing that time/money to improve Debian's rather than reinventing wheel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Efficiency <ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubuntu is exciting! This brings in more people and causes existing people to work harder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Debian is perceived as irrelevant, existing DDs will quit working, leave </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Two issues <ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Can you build a Universal OS? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Mark Shuttleworth: <ul><li>“It’s hard to know what Debian’s goals are” </li></ul><ul><li>Good question to ask: goals create a vision which bring people on board </li></ul><ul><li>Thinks Ubuntu is: “a few specific use cases.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptop, desktops, server and now embedded is “a few specific use cases?” </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Universal OS <ul><li>Debian motto is Universal OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware platforms and software packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Debian runs on Nokia 770 -> servers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Debian derivatives are subsets, or region-specific which don't disturb center of gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One Wikipedia, one Linux kernel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software is infinitely malleable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu's motto obviates Debian's </li></ul>
  18. 18. Debian wants Ubuntu's features! <ul><li>What feature, other than orange, has Ubuntu added that Debian doesn't want? </li></ul><ul><li>Does Debian want: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-D desktop, 2.6 kernel, faster startup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better power management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most people who want good laptop support are now using Ubuntu, so Debian's code isn't getting tested </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Anything Ubuntu doesn't want? <ul><li>Ubuntu wants to support less platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kernel hides 99% of this work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting one 64-bit gets you all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upstream, not Ubuntu's responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform maintainers keep things in shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Ubuntu gets this for free already! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...In other words, this cost has not been quantified, and is likely overstated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Any others? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ubuntu is exploiting a “loophole” in the GPL <ul><li>Ubuntu fork goes against the spirit of GPL and cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, changes should be made to upstream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And, take ownership so someone else doesn't have to learn the same code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When someone improves the Linux kernel, they don't use that to make a new, competing Linux kernel </li></ul>
  21. 21. Many ways to work better together <ul><li>This is where you guys come in </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic changes... </li></ul><ul><li>Or, Have Ubuntu devs do core work in Debian, “fluff” work in Ubuntu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any “fluff?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different ship cycles harder but doable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or, Debian could switch to time-based releases (Martin Michlmayr's thesis) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Thought Experiment <ul><li>Suppose you decided that Ubuntu and Debian should merge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All DDs resign to be Ubuntu developers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Would Mark trade never getting another patch if he got 1,000 new developers? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubuntu community could re-join Debian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove animosity, bring excitement and more users to Debian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>I believe either would be better than current situation </li></ul>
  23. 23. That's my talk! <ul><li>A few misc slides... </li></ul>
  24. 24. Advice <ul><li>Attention to detail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OOB, bugs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep doubling the number of DDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia's motto: “Don't scare the newcomers” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The competition has 5,000 full-time programmers </li></ul><ul><li>Spend your 2 or 8 hours per week productively </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend more time coding than sending e-mails </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New software is better than old software </li></ul>
  25. 25. Challenges (incomplete) <ul><li>Are DDs still passionate? </li></ul><ul><li>What does a DEB mean in a managed world? </li></ul><ul><li>Can I install FireFox off the web? </li></ul><ul><li>Do I have to upgrade my kernel when I install new hardware? </li></ul><ul><li>Can I never have to “upgrade” my OS? </li></ul>
  26. 26. State of Ubuntu in 1 slide – Buggy! <ul><li>My computer resumes 9 of 10 times </li></ul><ul><li>I'm using ATI's drivers, yet cannot enable Compiz/Beryl. 2-D graphics perf sometimes slow. </li></ul><ul><li>Took an hour to enable playing DVDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinda works in Kaffeine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wine did not enable clicking on EXEs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IE 6 installs but does not run </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I cannot double-click on a DEB which has uninstalled dependencies </li></ul><ul><li>Few apps as polished or reliable as Firefox </li></ul>
  27. 27. Many ways to work better together <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One bug database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One conference schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One fat and happy community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux will achieve... World Domination, and faster if we want </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thanks for listening! </li></ul>
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