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Scientific method
Lecture #1, Chapter 1
by John Cozza, Biology Dept.
(some material modified from Raven, Biology 9th
ed.)
Energize your clicker!
• Register your clicker online at
http://www1.iclicker.com/register-an-iclicker
using your Panther ...
Science of Biology outline
• How to succeed
• What is life?
• Levels of organization
• Brief history of life
• Scientific ...
Science of Biology outline
• How to succeed
• What is life?
• Levels of organization
• Brief history of life
• Scientific ...
Goals of General Biology 1
Describe & discuss
•Cell components and
how they function
•Inheritance on the
molecular, organi...
Study plan
1) Read relevant chapter(s)
– Summaries, figures
– Review questions
1) Participate in lecture
– Interaction
– N...
Integrate!
• Lecture
• Book
• Lab
• PLTL
• Experiences &
resources
Science of Biology outline
• How to succeed
• What is life?
• Levels of organization
• Brief history of life
• Scientific ...
Think—pair—share:
What is life?
NASA Curiosity rover on Mars
What is life?
• Movement
• Organization
• Compartmentalization
• Growth & reproduction
• Heredity
• Evolution
• Metabolism...
Define life?
Life is a
“self-sustaining
chemical system
capable of
Darwinian
evolution.”
- G.F. Joyce,
adopted as the
NASA...
Think—pair—share:
Evidence for life on Earth?
NASA Galileo spacecraft
http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/
display.cfm?...
Evidence for life on Earth?
• Abundant H2O
• Abundant O2
• Disequilibrium of CH4
• Absorption of red;
reflectance of green...
Science of Biology outline
• How to succeed
• What is life?
• Levels of organization
• Brief history of life
• Scientific ...
Atoms to cell
Atoms to cell
Macromolecular
assembly
Cell to organism
Organisms to biosphere
?
Science of Biology outline
• How to succeed
• What is life?
• Levels of organization
• Brief history of life
• Scientific ...
Key questions
• How did life begin?
• What were the major
innovations?
• Which were likely vs.
unlikely?
Archean eon
By Ma...
Timeline
of life
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Timeline_evolution_of_life.svg
Timeline of life
L
L
U
U
Science of Biology outline
• How to succeed
• What is life?
• Levels of organization
• Brief history of life
• Scientific ...
“Popperian” scientific method
observations
question
hypotheses
predictions experiments
hypotheses supported
or rejected
Ka...
“Popperian” scientific method
“Popperian” scientific method
observations
question
hypotheses
predictions experiments
hypotheses supported
or rejected
Science has many methods!
observations
question
hypotheses
predictions experiments
hypotheses supported
or rejected
correl...
Interactive question #1
A researcher is investigating the effect of
moderate wine consumption on
cardiovascular health. An...
Scientific reasoning
Science
is a
social
process!
http://mistypedurl.com/2009/
03/bachelors-of-science/
Peer review
Science of Biology outline
• How to succeed
• What is life?
• Levels of organization
• Brief history of life
• Scientific ...
Climate change: is it real?
http://www.skepticalscience.com/solar-activity-sunspots-global-warming-advanced.htm
Data from ...
Climate change: is it real?
http://climate.nasa.gov/key_indicators
http://www.worldviewofglobalwarming.org/pages/glaciers.php
http://climate.nasa.gov/key_indicators
Interactive question #2
Rising global
temperatures since
the late 1800s is an
example of a(n)
A.observation
B.hypothesis
C...
Atmospheric CO2
http://climate.nasa.gov/key_indicators
Atmospheric CO2
http://www.ethree.com/downloads/Climate%20Change%20Readings/Climate%20Science/History%20of%20Climate%20Sci...
Interactive question #3
“Temperature rise in the
20th
century was caused
by increased [CO2]” is an
example of a(n)
A.obser...
http://www.skepticalscience.com/co2-temperature-
Interactive question #4
The relationship of CO2
to temperature since
1970 is an example of
a(n)
A.observation
B.hypothesis...
Sea level rise
Projection of sea level rise from 1990 to 2100, based on three different
emissions scenarios. Also shown: o...
Interactive question #5
Scenarios for sea level
rise by 2100 are an
example of a(n)
A.observation
B.hypothesis
C.model
D.c...
Science of Biology summary
• How to succeed
• What is life?
– Characteristics
– Levels of organization
– History
• Scienti...
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  1. 1. Scientific method Lecture #1, Chapter 1 by John Cozza, Biology Dept. (some material modified from Raven, Biology 9th ed.)
  2. 2. Energize your clicker! • Register your clicker online at http://www1.iclicker.com/register-an-iclicker using your Panther ID! • Press and hold power button for 2 sec. • Enter frequency “AA” ( or ●) • Answer questions. •  or ● means OK. • No  or ● or means not OK. • Please help your neighbor!
  3. 3. Science of Biology outline • How to succeed • What is life? • Levels of organization • Brief history of life • Scientific method • Examples of inquiry – Evolution – Climate change
  4. 4. Science of Biology outline • How to succeed • What is life? • Levels of organization • Brief history of life • Scientific method • Examples of inquiry – Evolution – Climate change
  5. 5. Goals of General Biology 1 Describe & discuss •Cell components and how they function •Inheritance on the molecular, organismal, and population levels •Mechanisms of and evidence for evolution •Relevant applications
  6. 6. Study plan 1) Read relevant chapter(s) – Summaries, figures – Review questions 1) Participate in lecture – Interaction – Notes 1) Review lecture ASAP – Book – Study group 1) Ask Qs & use office hours
  7. 7. Integrate! • Lecture • Book • Lab • PLTL • Experiences & resources
  8. 8. Science of Biology outline • How to succeed • What is life? • Levels of organization • Brief history of life • Scientific method • Examples of inquiry – Evolution – Climate change
  9. 9. Think—pair—share: What is life? NASA Curiosity rover on Mars
  10. 10. What is life? • Movement • Organization • Compartmentalization • Growth & reproduction • Heredity • Evolution • Metabolism • Interact with environment • Homeostasis • Entropy? • Emergent properties http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/en vironment/natural-disasters/hurricane-profile/ http://www.erh.noaa.gov/okx/okxfirewx.html
  11. 11. Define life? Life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” - G.F. Joyce, adopted as the NASA definition Bains, W. 2004. Many chemistries could be used to build living systems. Astrobiology
  12. 12. Think—pair—share: Evidence for life on Earth? NASA Galileo spacecraft http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/ display.cfm?IM_ID=462 Earth from Galileo spacecraft. Closest approach 960 Km
  13. 13. Evidence for life on Earth? • Abundant H2O • Abundant O2 • Disequilibrium of CH4 • Absorption of red; reflectance of green • Radio wave emissions Earth from Galileo spacecraft Sagan, C. et al. 1993. A search for life on Earth from the Galileo spacecraft. Nature 365: 715-721
  14. 14. Science of Biology outline • How to succeed • What is life? • Levels of organization • Brief history of life • Scientific method • Examples of inquiry – Evolution – Climate change
  15. 15. Atoms to cell
  16. 16. Atoms to cell Macromolecular assembly
  17. 17. Cell to organism
  18. 18. Organisms to biosphere ?
  19. 19. Science of Biology outline • How to succeed • What is life? • Levels of organization • Brief history of life • Scientific method • Examples of inquiry – Evolution – Climate change
  20. 20. Key questions • How did life begin? • What were the major innovations? • Which were likely vs. unlikely? Archean eon By Martin Schuler
  21. 21. Timeline of life http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Timeline_evolution_of_life.svg
  22. 22. Timeline of life L L U U
  23. 23. Science of Biology outline • How to succeed • What is life? • Levels of organization • Brief history of life • Scientific method • Examples of inquiry – Evolution – Climate change
  24. 24. “Popperian” scientific method observations question hypotheses predictions experiments hypotheses supported or rejected Karl Popper 1902-1994 http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/Karl_Popper
  25. 25. “Popperian” scientific method
  26. 26. “Popperian” scientific method observations question hypotheses predictions experiments hypotheses supported or rejected
  27. 27. Science has many methods! observations question hypotheses predictions experiments hypotheses supported or rejected correlations model description theory -big picture -diverse support
  28. 28. Interactive question #1 A researcher is investigating the effect of moderate wine consumption on cardiovascular health. An example of a prediction associated with the study would be A.Red wine is an antioxidant. B.Red wine is popular in Italy, which has a lower rate of heart attacks than the US. C.Red wine slows atherosclerosis. D.Red wine drinkers will have fewer heart attacks than non-drinkers.
  29. 29. Scientific reasoning
  30. 30. Science is a social process! http://mistypedurl.com/2009/ 03/bachelors-of-science/
  31. 31. Peer review
  32. 32. Science of Biology outline • How to succeed • What is life? • Levels of organization • Brief history of life • Scientific method • Examples of inquiry – Evolution – Climate change
  33. 33. Climate change: is it real? http://www.skepticalscience.com/solar-activity-sunspots-global-warming-advanced.htm Data from tree rings, ice cores, sediments
  34. 34. Climate change: is it real? http://climate.nasa.gov/key_indicators
  35. 35. http://www.worldviewofglobalwarming.org/pages/glaciers.php http://climate.nasa.gov/key_indicators
  36. 36. Interactive question #2 Rising global temperatures since the late 1800s is an example of a(n) A.observation B.hypothesis C.model D.correlation E.experimental result
  37. 37. Atmospheric CO2 http://climate.nasa.gov/key_indicators
  38. 38. Atmospheric CO2 http://www.ethree.com/downloads/Climate%20Change%20Readings/Climate%20Science/History%20of%20Climate%20Science/xMaunaLoa.htm
  39. 39. Interactive question #3 “Temperature rise in the 20th century was caused by increased [CO2]” is an example of a(n) A.observation B.hypothesis C.model D.correlation E.experimental result
  40. 40. http://www.skepticalscience.com/co2-temperature-
  41. 41. Interactive question #4 The relationship of CO2 to temperature since 1970 is an example of a(n) A.observation B.hypothesis C.model D.correlation E.experimental result
  42. 42. Sea level rise Projection of sea level rise from 1990 to 2100, based on three different emissions scenarios. Also shown: observations of annual global sea level rise over the past half century (red line), relative to 1990. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/future.html
  43. 43. Interactive question #5 Scenarios for sea level rise by 2100 are an example of a(n) A.observation B.hypothesis C.model D.correlation E.experimental result
  44. 44. Science of Biology summary • How to succeed • What is life? – Characteristics – Levels of organization – History • Scientific method Next: • Biological molecules
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