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OECD work with LAC Sciences Po

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Presentation to Sciences Po Students of the OECD work with Latin America and the Caribbean, March 2014

Presentation to Sciences Po Students of the OECD work with Latin America and the Caribbean, March 2014

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  • 1. José Antonio ARDAVIN, Head of the Latin America and Caribbean Unit Global Relations Secretariat
  • 2. About the OECD Founded in 1961, The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is a unique forum where governments can compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices and co-ordinate domestic and international policies
  • 3. • In 1948, the OEEC (Organisation for European Economic Co-operation), in charge of co-ordination of the Marshall Plan, was established. • In 1957, Treaty of Rome was signed. • In December 1960, the OEEC became the OECD (Canada and USA join OEEC members followed then by Japan in 1964 and others later). • In the 1990’s the Organisation opened to Mexico, 4 Central and Eastern European countries and Korea. • In 2001, launches a number of “regional approaches” among them, a Regional Approach to Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) • In 2010, Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia joined the Convention. • The accession process of Colombia, Latvia and the Russian Federation* is ongoing. • In May 2007 the OECD started an “Enhanced Engagement” cooperation with Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa, currently “Key Partners” • In 2009, a number Spain and Mexico launch the LAC Initiative • In 2014 the OECD will start a number of Country Programmes. Peru is one of the candidate countries to possibly engage through this cooperation tool. • In 2015, the OECD Council will decide whether to open accession discussions with Costa Rica and Lithuania. In the intervening period, these countries have presented an Action Plan of intensified cooperation with the Organisation Some historical background on the OECD and highlights on its relationship with Latin America
  • 4. Latin America and the Caribbean Economic Outlook LAC and OECD Growth Rates Selected LAC Countries Growth Rates Source: Data from IMF and CEPLAC *Estimations for 2013 and previsions for 2014 Source: Data from IMF and Consensus Forecast * Estimations ** Previsions During the last decade, Latin America and the Caribbean had one of its best economic performances with average GDP growth of 5% 2003-2008
  • 5. Low global demand impacts LAC World trade and LAC GDP growth International commodities prices Source: Data from IMF Source: Data from Datastream and Bloomberg -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 World trade volume Latin American GDP 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Gas Copper Soy The current economic environment with “flat trade” and lower commodity prices, is impacting Latin American economies…
  • 6. The new global environment deteriorates external balance in LAC Current Account of Latin American and Caribbean countries (%GDP) Source: Data from IMF *Estimations for 2013 …and strengthens the need for a less commodity-dependent growth pattern
  • 7. Note: Productive capabilities index (Appendix 2.A2). Higher values ​​in the variable let a country produce a more sophisticated range of goods. At any given moment, the capacity variable depends on the level of connectivity of the network of products, which is why it is normalised. Thus a value equal to 0 implies capability levels equal to the worldwide average. A value of 1 (-1) indicates capabilities one standard deviation above (below) that average. Source: Authors’ calculations based on data from COMTRADE and Feenstra, R. C., R. E. Lipsey, H. Deng, A. C. Ma y H. Mo (2005), “World Trade Flows: 1962- 2000”, NBER Working Paper Nº 11040. Productive capabilities indicator (1990 vs 2009) The region has advanced little in structural change -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 1990 2009 …and advance in the structural reform agenda
  • 8. Latin America and the Caribbean Political Outlook Regional trade and political groupings in LAC
  • 9. Pacific Alliance The emergence of two major trade communities is an important development… Mercosur 2014 2015 Average growth BBVA Estimates 3.8% 3.7% 2014 2015 Average growth BBVA Estimates 1.5% 1.8% Mercosur Population (millions) GDP (US$ billions) GDP per capita FDI (US$ millions) Trade (US$ billions) Brasil 199 2,252 11,317 76,110 597 Argentina 41 475 11,585 12,128 176 Paraguay 7 25 3,571 363 23 Uruguay 3 50 16,667 2,906 28 Venezuela 30 381 12,700 899 192 Total 280 3,183 11,368 92,406 1,016 % of LAC 46% 55% 48% 34% Pacific Alliance Population (millions) GDP (US$ billions) GDP per capita FDI (US$ millions) Trade (US$ billions) Mexico 121 1,178 9,736 15,453 793 Chile 17 270 15,882 30,323 184 Colombia 48 370 7,708 15,649 141 Peru 30 204 6,800 12,244 101 Total 216 2,022 9,361 73,669 1,218 % of LAC 35% 36% 40% 41%
  • 10. …as well as the birth of a new regional political body which groups all 33 LAC countries ~LAC+Spain and Portugal ~LAC+US and Canada
  • 11. The OECD and Latin America General Context Regional Programmes/ Initiatives •Latin America and the Caribbean •MENA •SEA •Central Asia •Eastern Europe Global Fora Environment, Eduction, Trade, Development… Committees and Working Parties Competition, Investment, Innovation… Development Centre Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Peru and the Dominican Rep. In addition to Mexico and Chile are members.
  • 12. The OECD and Latin America A wide collaboration on different fronts… SOE CGRSBOA-C INVTAX COMP H2OINN LEO LAC EcF LR@GLG@G LPO LGGIPISA’L COMP INV INNOVA-Br Eval CorpG SOE Water Gov MWRH Start-ups SMEs Start-ups Reg/P.Gov M.Tax Ctre PAC MEX
  • 13. …linked to the work of respective committees SOE CGRSBOA-C INVTAX COMP H2OINN LEO LAC EcF LR@GLG@G LPO LGGIPISA’L COMP INV INNOVA-Br Eval CorpG SOE Water Gov MWRH Start-ups SMEs Start-ups Reg/P.Gov M.Tax Ctre PAC MEX Pub. Aff / DisseminationCap. Building
  • 14. …and covering different forms of engagement SOE CGRSBOA-C INVTAX COMP H2OINN LEO LAC EcF LR@GLG@G LPO LGGIPISA’L COMP INV INNOVA-Br Eval CorpG SOE Water Gov MWRH A highly visible, horizontal, regional publication (w/ ECLAC&CAF) An annual high level regional forum (w/ IDB & Bercy) Policy Dialogue: 9 Networks Committee’s initiative Delegation’s LAC Initiative Regional Publications “Flagship” Thematic Political Engagement Country Reviews Start-ups SMEs Start-ups Reg/P.Gov Regional CentresM.Tax Ctre PAC MEX Pub. Aff / DisseminationCap. Building
  • 15. In the coming years the OECD will work towards providing a more strategic framework to better support the region in its institutional, structural, social and green reforms SOE CGRSBOA-C INVTAX COMP H2OINN LEO LAC EcF LR@GLG@G LPO LGGIPISA’L COMP INV INNOVA-Br Eval CorpG SOE Water Gov MWRH Start-ups SMEs Start-ups Reg/P.Gov Going Institutional Going Structural Going Social Going Green Horizontal Comptroller General Min. Finance Min. Economy / Trade Min. Edu + Science/Tech Mins. Soc / Health /Dev Min. Env+ SectorSpecific
  • 16. Currently, some “Key Projects” have extended our key frameworks to the region OECD Flagship publications Key topic publications …produced by the OECD for the region… …in partnership with 1… …or more key regional organisations GfG Latin America Currently in conversations G@G Latin America Forthcoming in 2014 Pensions Outlook Latin America Forthcoming end 2013
  • 17. …and OECD presence has gained prominence in key regional events The Secretary General presents the Latin American Economic Outlook as part of the official programme of the Iberoamerican Summit with the presence of (from right to left): • the Secretary General of OAS, • the Executive Secretary of ECLAC, • the President of the CAF-Latin American Development Bank • the Minister of Finance of Panama
  • 18. On the other side of the coin, Latin American countries have responded very positively through greater participation in Committees and adherence to OECD Instruments. Participation in official bodies and adherence to legal instruments 3 8 2 0 1 2 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 3 9 0 13 4 2 0 1 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 2 1 9 6 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Bodies Instruments
  • 19. On the other side of the coin, Latin America’s society is more and more aware about the OECD … 7140 6203 12114 14778 2370 3616 4869 4655 5756 8205 9013 8491 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 2009 2010 2011 2012 Latin America Chile Brazil Number of mentions to the OECD in Latin American media
  • 20. …is more and more engaged in obtaining access to OECD information… 232,712 355,177 396,582 513,448 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 2009 2010 2011 2012 Visitors to OECD Mexico Centre Webpage Mexico 50% Spain 24% Colombia 8% Chile 6% Argentina 4% Peru 3% Ecuador 2% Venezuela 1% USA 1% Uruguay 1% OECD Mexico Centre Website Visitors by Country 2012 €400,000 €600,000 €800,000 €1,000,000 Sales from suscriptions to iLibrary and books in LAC
  • 21. …and more and more engaged with OECD work through social media 1,835 2,247 7,175 18,930 39,097 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 45,000 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Followers in Twitter @ocdeenespanol 53 208 569 1,504 4,288 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 "likes" in Facebook/DatoOCDE
  • 22. In sum… • Latin America and the Caribbean had during the last decade one of its best economic performances, with GDP growth averaging 5% • Much of this growth was owed to the commodity-prices boom during the last decade, but also, to some extent, to better policies, notably the macroeconomic and financial areas • Notwithstanding, the current post-crisis economic environment is affecting the region and evidences the need to avoid the “commodity trap” and engage in structural reforms • In the coming years, the “better policies” part of the equation is likely to play a more important role in the development of the region • In that context, the relationship of the region with the “hub of best practices”, the OECD, becomes highly relevant
  • 23. In sum… • The relationship of the OECD with the LAC region started (formally) as a regional approach in 2001, then gained a relevant momentum with the launch of the LAC initative in 2009 • The relation with the region is very dynamic. Key drivers are: • 2 Member Countries (Mexico and Chile) • 9 Members of the Development Centre (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama, Peru and the Dominican Republic) • 1 Accession candidate (Colombia) • 1 Key Partner (Brazil) • 1 Intensified Co-operation Programme (Costa Rica) • Possibly 1 forthcoming Country Programme (Peru) • higher participation in Committees and Bodies, and adherence to OECD Instruments.
  • 24. In sum… • The amount of work in the region is very significant, with today: • 9 regional networks with different degrees of development, engaged in an emerging policy dialogue • 23 projects in the region in 2013 (5 regional projects, 13 country specific, excluding Mexico and Chile, and 5 incorporating selected countries from the region) • A number of annual key events, including the IDB-OECD LAC Forum, the participation in the Iberoamerican Summit and other key regional events • The LAC society is increasingly aware about the OECD, using OECD information and participating in social media
  • 25. Thank you “Now this is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning” And as Wiston Churchill said: www.oecd.org/latinamerica

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