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Spatangoid trace fossils

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Presentation given in a meeting held in Reading (UK) in 2005 in memory of Roland Goldring deceased the previous year.

Presentation given in a meeting held in Reading (UK) in 2005 in memory of Roland Goldring deceased the previous year.

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Spatangoid trace fossils Spatangoid trace fossils Presentation Transcript

  • Jordi M. de Gibert Modes of preservation of spatangoid burrows with special emphasis on intensely-bioturbated Bichordites ichnofabrics in the Bateig Calcarenites (Miocene, SE Spain)
  •  
  • London, England Novelda, Spain
    • Name of stone:
      • BATEIG FANTASIA (one of several varieties of Bateig Limestone)
    • Age:
      • Serravalian-Tortonian (Middle-Upper Miocene)
  • Bichordites ichnofabric
  •  
    • Oldest spatangoid:
      • Toxaster laffittei – Berriasian (lower most Cretaceous)
    • Burrowing rates for some spatangoids
      • Abatus ingens – 2,76 cm 3 /h (Thompson and Riddle 2005)
      • Brissopsis lyrifera – 14-22 cm 3 /h (Hollertz & Duchene 2001)
      • Echinocardium – up to 20,000 cm 3 /m 2 /day  upper 5 cm of sediment reworked every 3 days (Lohrer et al. 2005)
    • Burrowing depths for some spatangoids
      • Echinocardium cordatum / Brissopsis lyrifera – 15-20 cm (Thompson & Riddle 2005)
      • Brissopsis lyrifera – 20cm (Hollertz & Duchene 2001)
      • Echinocardium cordatum – 10 cm (Kanazawa 1995)
      • Lovenia elongata – 2-3 cm (Kanazawa 1995)
    www.habitas.org.uk Echinocardium cordatum   Since the advent and diversification of spatangoids, the upper tiers of shallow and deep marine sediments must have been subject to intensive and rapid bioturbation on a scale previously unknown. SOME DATA ON SPATANGOIDS AND THEIR BURROWING ACTIVITY
  • Maretia sp. Since the advent and diversification of spatangoids, the upper tiers of shallow and deep marine sediments must have been subject to intensive and rapid bioturbation on a scale previously unknown.
    • Thus, why spatangoid trace fossils are not more common?...
      • ... and, why only a handful of examples of spatangoid-dominated ichnofabrics, such as Bateig Fantasia, are known?
  • Micraster coranguinum
    • GOLDRING & STEPHENSON 1970
    • The ‘Micraster paradox’:
    • Upper Cretaceous Chalk, NW Europe
      • No echinoid trace fossils are known despite the abundance of the spatangoid Micraster
    • Preservational matter due to the fact that Micraster was a very shallow burrower:
      • unconsolidated sediment
    THE ECHINOID DIRECTORY www.nhm.ac.uk
      • destruction by subsequent bur-rowing
  • Schizaster eurynotus
    • BROMLEY and ASGAARD 1975
    • The ‘Micraster paradox’ (part 2):
    • Miocene Globigerina Limestone, Malta
      • no echinoid trace fossils are known despite the abundance of the spatangoid Schizaster
    • GOLDRING, GRUSZCZZYNSKI and GATT 2002
          • due to overprinting by deeper-tier bow-form burrows (cf. Cylindrichnus )
          • Scolicia ( Bichordites ) is found only in frozen profiles below event beds
    Cylindrichnus ichnofabric, Miocene, Spain
    • GIBERT 1996
    • The ‘Micraster paradox’ (part 3):
    • Pliocene Blue Clay Unit, Baix Llobregat, Spain
      • no echinoid trace fossils are known despite the abundance of the spatangoid Brissopsis (and less abundant S chizaster )
      • due to texturally homogeneous sediment
      • due to soupy character of substrate
      • maybe in part, due to overprinting by deeper-tier structures (pellet-filled burrows)
    Brissopsis papiolensis
  •  
    • TAPHONOMIC CONTROLS ON SPATANGOID TRACE PRESERVATION
    • Substrate consistency: shallow layers of sediment (where most spatangoids burrow) are commonly poorly unconsolidated (Goldring and Stephenson 1970)
    • Tiering of benthic community: deeper tier burrows often overprint shallow-tier spatangoid traces (Goldring and Stephenson 1970, Bromley and Asgaard 1975)
    • Sediment texture: traces are better preserved in poorly sorted sands (Kanazawa 1995)
    Echinocardium THE ECHINOID DIRECTORY www.nhm.ac.uk Scolicia -Miocene – Morocco
  • SCENARIOS OF PRESERVATION 1. In relation with lithological interfaces in event beds
      • the ‘classical’ (and most common) scenario
      • both in deep-sea turbidites and shallow marine event beds
    Scolicia ( Subphyllochorda preservation, hyporelief) Scolicia ( Taphrhelminthospsis preservation, hyporelief) Paleocene – Swiss Alps Scolicia (epirelief) Eocene–Aragonese Pyrennees Eocene – Aragonese Pyrennees
  • SCENARIOS OF PRESERVATION 1. In relation with lithological interfaces in event beds
      • the ‘classical’ (and most common) scenario
      • both in deep-sea turbidites and shallow marine event beds
    Bichordites (hyporelief)– Miocene – Swiss Alps Bichordites and Cardioichnus (epirelief) Miocene - Catalonia Scolicia and Cardioichnus (hyporelief) Pliocene - Catalonia
  • SCENARIOS OF PRESERVATION 2. In frozen profiles below event beds
      • very rare
      • maybe we should look better for them
    Scolicia Miocene – Malta Goldring et al. 2002 Cylindrichnus Scolicia
  • SCENARIOS OF PRESERVATION 3. In diverse fully bioturbated ichnofabrics
      • rare
      • usually overprinted by deeper-tier burrows
    Miocene - Patagonia Pliocene - Roussillon
  • SCENARIOS OF PRESERVATION 4. Spatangoid-produced ichnofabrics: the Bateig scenario
      • a handful of examples
      • very specific depositional/environmental setting
    Bateig Fantasia -Miocene - Alicante
  • single sanitary tube: diagnostic feature of the ichnogenus Bichordites BICHORDITES ICHNOFABRIC: horizontal view Ophiomorpha Palaeophycus Planolites grain selection
  • BICHORDITES ICHNOFABRIC: vertical view
  • BICHORDITES ICHNOFABRIC
  • BICHORDITES TRACEMAKER: Maretia sp.
  • ICHNOSTRATIGRAPHY Ciclo 1 Ciclo 2 Ciclo 3? Ciclo 4? Bichordites ichnofabric mottled - Palaeophycus ichnofabric mottled – Ophiomorpha ichnofabric Ophiomorpha – primary lamination ichnofabric
  • DEPOSITIONAL INTERPRETATION Deposition of grain flow event beds rapidly colonised by spatangoids Sedimentation under control of shelf currents once fault scarp atenuated Erosion due to fault (re)activation. Rapid deposition
    • The Bichordites ichnofabric records succesive colonization (by vertical or lateral relocation) of event beds.
    • Colonization window was short allowing for extensive shallow-tier bioturbation by very active burro-wers (spatangoids) but inhibiting the installation of a more complex equilibrium community
    • Maretia body fossils are equally present in the facies bearing mottled- Palaeophycus and mottled- Ophiomorpha ichnofabrics
    • Thus, echinoids did also burrow during intervals dominated by shelf currents although their traces were mostly obliterated by deeper-tier bioturbation
    mottled - Palaeophycus ichnofabric mottled – Ophiomorpha ichnofabric
    • OTHER SPATANGOID-DOMINATED ICHNOFABRICS
    • Cape Arkangelos Calcarenite, Pleistocene, Rhodes
      • Bromley and Asgaard 1975, Hanken et al. 1996
      • Deposition by successive slips from the front of a prograding megabedform
    • Calcarenita della Casarana and Calcarenita di Gravina, Pleistocene, Italy
      • D’Alessandro and Massari 1997, D’Alessandro et al. 2004
      • Clinoform stratification
    • Monte Torre Paleostrait, Pliocene/Pleistocene, Italy
      • Colella and D’Alessandro 1988
      • Turbiditic deposition in a bathyal setting
    • Holocene, NE Atlantic
      • Fu and Werner 2000
      • Sedimentation by bottom currents, high sedimentation rate
    • Arno Limestone, Oligocene, New Zealand
      • Ward and Lewis 1975
    • Hamada Formation, Pleistocene, Japan
      • Kanazawa 1995
    Holocene – Atlantic – Fu and Werner 2000
  • FORMATION OF SCOLICIA - BICHORDITES ICHNOFABRICS Short colonization window Absence of deeper-tier bioturbators Succesive sedimentation events Fully marine conditions Texturally heterogeneous sediment
  • Thanks for your attention.. ... and thanks, Roland