SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Fossils

This presentation outlines what fossils are, how they are made, different types and their uses.

1 of 35
Download to read offline
Fossils
Hello! 
I am Stephen 
Bornheimer 
Indiana Educator 
You can find me at: 
Twitter: @MrBornheimer 
Website: http://bclassroom.com
Topics 
1. Overview 
2. What are fossils? 
3. How are fossils formed? 
a. Death 
b. Decay and Burial 
c. Uplift and Exposure 
d. Fossilized Amber 
4. Discovery and Extraction 
a. Paleontology 
b. Animation 
5. Types of Fossils 
a. Petrification 
b. Carbon Films 
c. Molds and Casts 
d. Impressions 
e. Amber 
f. Trace Fossils 
6. Uses 
a. Fossil Record and Dating 
b. Principle of Fossil Succession & Index Fossils 
7. Resources and Citations 
Overview
2. 
What are Fossils?
What are Fossils? 
▧ Fossils: the physical remains or traces of 
prehistoric life. 
▧ Prehistoric refers to a time before recorded 
human history, however there is no defined 
age at which a life form or traces of that life 
form are considered fossilized.
3. 
How are fossils formed?

Recommended

Studying Fossils
Studying FossilsStudying Fossils
Studying Fossilsheasulli
 
Palaeontology
PalaeontologyPalaeontology
Palaeontologyjavairia1
 
Paleontology, types & uses of fossils
Paleontology, types & uses of fossilsPaleontology, types & uses of fossils
Paleontology, types & uses of fossilsKashif Manzoor
 
Fossils: Formation and Classification
Fossils: Formation and ClassificationFossils: Formation and Classification
Fossils: Formation and ClassificationMarjonlien Mahusay
 
The geological time scale
The geological time scaleThe geological time scale
The geological time scalemrcoyleteach
 

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

Fossilization
FossilizationFossilization
Fossilization
 
Fossils ppt
Fossils pptFossils ppt
Fossils ppt
 
Types of fossils
Types of fossilsTypes of fossils
Types of fossils
 
Fossil
FossilFossil
Fossil
 
Fossils and fossilization by Muhammad Sohail Riaz Hashmi
Fossils and fossilization by Muhammad Sohail Riaz HashmiFossils and fossilization by Muhammad Sohail Riaz Hashmi
Fossils and fossilization by Muhammad Sohail Riaz Hashmi
 
fossils
fossilsfossils
fossils
 
Fossils and fossilization
Fossils and fossilizationFossils and fossilization
Fossils and fossilization
 
Geological time scale
Geological time scaleGeological time scale
Geological time scale
 
Fossilization ppt
Fossilization pptFossilization ppt
Fossilization ppt
 
Fossils and fossilisation
Fossils and fossilisationFossils and fossilisation
Fossils and fossilisation
 
Phylogeny of horse
Phylogeny of horsePhylogeny of horse
Phylogeny of horse
 
Types of Fossils
Types of Fossils Types of Fossils
Types of Fossils
 
Techniques in paleontology
Techniques in paleontologyTechniques in paleontology
Techniques in paleontology
 
History of fossils; process of Fossilization
History of fossils; process of FossilizationHistory of fossils; process of Fossilization
History of fossils; process of Fossilization
 
Fossils formation & their significance in evolution
Fossils formation & their significance in  evolutionFossils formation & their significance in  evolution
Fossils formation & their significance in evolution
 
Mass extinction
Mass extinctionMass extinction
Mass extinction
 
Fossils & it's types
Fossils & it's typesFossils & it's types
Fossils & it's types
 
FOSSILS`
FOSSILS`FOSSILS`
FOSSILS`
 
The geological time scale
The geological time scaleThe geological time scale
The geological time scale
 
The Geological Time Scale
The Geological Time ScaleThe Geological Time Scale
The Geological Time Scale
 

Similar to Fossils

The significance of the fossil record
The significance of the fossil recordThe significance of the fossil record
The significance of the fossil recordsalman khan
 
Q1C3L3 Fossils.ppt
Q1C3L3 Fossils.pptQ1C3L3 Fossils.ppt
Q1C3L3 Fossils.pptCherZ2
 
Earth Science 3.4 : Looking at Fossils
Earth Science 3.4 : Looking at FossilsEarth Science 3.4 : Looking at Fossils
Earth Science 3.4 : Looking at FossilsChris Foltz
 
P P T Fossils 9
P P T  Fossils 9P P T  Fossils 9
P P T Fossils 9MissWander
 
Fossil_Notes_UPDATEDa.pptx
Fossil_Notes_UPDATEDa.pptxFossil_Notes_UPDATEDa.pptx
Fossil_Notes_UPDATEDa.pptxNikoleDyOrcales
 
Fossils PowerPoint (1).ppt
Fossils PowerPoint (1).pptFossils PowerPoint (1).ppt
Fossils PowerPoint (1).pptAbdiazizOdowaa
 
3 Fossils PowerPoint.ppt
3 Fossils PowerPoint.ppt3 Fossils PowerPoint.ppt
3 Fossils PowerPoint.pptAbdiazizOdowaa
 
PBB418-323 PALEOBOTANY 2021.pptx
PBB418-323 PALEOBOTANY 2021.pptxPBB418-323 PALEOBOTANY 2021.pptx
PBB418-323 PALEOBOTANY 2021.pptxJosephErhabor
 
Fossil Formation Slide3
Fossil Formation Slide3Fossil Formation Slide3
Fossil Formation Slide3Nicole Samuel
 
Ch. 6.1 Fossils & Geologic Time
Ch. 6.1 Fossils & Geologic TimeCh. 6.1 Fossils & Geologic Time
Ch. 6.1 Fossils & Geologic Timesekuhar
 
Earth history nc honors 13
Earth history nc honors 13Earth history nc honors 13
Earth history nc honors 13lorizimmerman
 
Fossils and their effects on humans
Fossils and their effects on humansFossils and their effects on humans
Fossils and their effects on humansEssence
 

Similar to Fossils (20)

The significance of the fossil record
The significance of the fossil recordThe significance of the fossil record
The significance of the fossil record
 
evolution.pptx
evolution.pptxevolution.pptx
evolution.pptx
 
FOSSILS.pptx
FOSSILS.pptxFOSSILS.pptx
FOSSILS.pptx
 
Q1C3L3 Fossils.ppt
Q1C3L3 Fossils.pptQ1C3L3 Fossils.ppt
Q1C3L3 Fossils.ppt
 
Earth Science 3.4 : Looking at Fossils
Earth Science 3.4 : Looking at FossilsEarth Science 3.4 : Looking at Fossils
Earth Science 3.4 : Looking at Fossils
 
P P T Fossils 9
P P T  Fossils 9P P T  Fossils 9
P P T Fossils 9
 
Fossil_Notes_UPDATEDa.pptx
Fossil_Notes_UPDATEDa.pptxFossil_Notes_UPDATEDa.pptx
Fossil_Notes_UPDATEDa.pptx
 
Fossils PowerPoint (1).ppt
Fossils PowerPoint (1).pptFossils PowerPoint (1).ppt
Fossils PowerPoint (1).ppt
 
Fossils PowerPoint.ppt
Fossils PowerPoint.pptFossils PowerPoint.ppt
Fossils PowerPoint.ppt
 
3 Fossils PowerPoint.ppt
3 Fossils PowerPoint.ppt3 Fossils PowerPoint.ppt
3 Fossils PowerPoint.ppt
 
Biodiversity and Evolution
Biodiversity and EvolutionBiodiversity and Evolution
Biodiversity and Evolution
 
PBB418-323 PALEOBOTANY 2021.pptx
PBB418-323 PALEOBOTANY 2021.pptxPBB418-323 PALEOBOTANY 2021.pptx
PBB418-323 PALEOBOTANY 2021.pptx
 
Fossil Formation Slide3
Fossil Formation Slide3Fossil Formation Slide3
Fossil Formation Slide3
 
Fossils (teach)
Fossils (teach)  Fossils (teach)
Fossils (teach)
 
Ch. 6.1 Fossils & Geologic Time
Ch. 6.1 Fossils & Geologic TimeCh. 6.1 Fossils & Geologic Time
Ch. 6.1 Fossils & Geologic Time
 
fossil ppt.pptx
fossil ppt.pptxfossil ppt.pptx
fossil ppt.pptx
 
Earth history nc honors 13
Earth history nc honors 13Earth history nc honors 13
Earth history nc honors 13
 
Fossils and their effects on humans
Fossils and their effects on humansFossils and their effects on humans
Fossils and their effects on humans
 
Fossils
FossilsFossils
Fossils
 
evolution_ppt.pptx
evolution_ppt.pptxevolution_ppt.pptx
evolution_ppt.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdfAynouraHamidova
 
Mycology Update February 2024 Microbes with Morgan
Mycology Update February 2024 Microbes with MorganMycology Update February 2024 Microbes with Morgan
Mycology Update February 2024 Microbes with MorganMargie Morgan
 
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfDiploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfSUMIT TIWARI
 
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
A TEXTBOOK OF INTELLECTUAL ROPERTY RIGHTS
A TEXTBOOK OF INTELLECTUAL ROPERTY RIGHTSA TEXTBOOK OF INTELLECTUAL ROPERTY RIGHTS
A TEXTBOOK OF INTELLECTUAL ROPERTY RIGHTSDr.M.Geethavani
 
Biology 152 - Topic Statement - Boolean Search
Biology 152 - Topic Statement - Boolean SearchBiology 152 - Topic Statement - Boolean Search
Biology 152 - Topic Statement - Boolean SearchRobert Tomaszewski
 
Understanding the New PCHF Analysis Guidance
Understanding the New PCHF Analysis GuidanceUnderstanding the New PCHF Analysis Guidance
Understanding the New PCHF Analysis GuidanceSafetyChain Software
 
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptxMaryPotorti1
 
Understanding Canada's international higher education landscape (2024)
Understanding Canada's international higher education landscape (2024)Understanding Canada's international higher education landscape (2024)
Understanding Canada's international higher education landscape (2024)CaraSkikne1
 
Organic Synthesis and Estimation of Functional Groups
Organic Synthesis and Estimation of Functional GroupsOrganic Synthesis and Estimation of Functional Groups
Organic Synthesis and Estimation of Functional GroupsDr.M.Geethavani
 
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-unit - 4.pdf
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-unit - 4.pdfDr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-unit - 4.pdf
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-unit - 4.pdfDr.Florence Dayana
 
Capitol Doctoral Presentation -Feb 2024.pptx
Capitol Doctoral Presentation -Feb 2024.pptxCapitol Doctoral Presentation -Feb 2024.pptx
Capitol Doctoral Presentation -Feb 2024.pptxCapitolTechU
 
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdf
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdfDr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdf
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdfDr.Florence Dayana
 
EDL 290F Week 2 - Good Company (2024).pdf
EDL 290F Week 2  - Good Company (2024).pdfEDL 290F Week 2  - Good Company (2024).pdf
EDL 290F Week 2 - Good Company (2024).pdfElizabeth Walsh
 
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in GhanaDecision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in GhanaPrince Armah, PhD
 
Nzinga Kika - The story of the queen
Nzinga Kika    -  The story of the queenNzinga Kika    -  The story of the queen
Nzinga Kika - The story of the queenDeanAmory1
 
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleNew Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleCeline George
 
Permeation enhancer of Transdermal drug delivery system
Permeation enhancer of Transdermal drug delivery systemPermeation enhancer of Transdermal drug delivery system
Permeation enhancer of Transdermal drug delivery systemchetanpatil2572000
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 9-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 9-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 9-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 9-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdfAynouraHamidova
 

Recently uploaded (20)

11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
 
Mycology Update February 2024 Microbes with Morgan
Mycology Update February 2024 Microbes with MorganMycology Update February 2024 Microbes with Morgan
Mycology Update February 2024 Microbes with Morgan
 
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfDiploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
 
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
 
A TEXTBOOK OF INTELLECTUAL ROPERTY RIGHTS
A TEXTBOOK OF INTELLECTUAL ROPERTY RIGHTSA TEXTBOOK OF INTELLECTUAL ROPERTY RIGHTS
A TEXTBOOK OF INTELLECTUAL ROPERTY RIGHTS
 
Biology 152 - Topic Statement - Boolean Search
Biology 152 - Topic Statement - Boolean SearchBiology 152 - Topic Statement - Boolean Search
Biology 152 - Topic Statement - Boolean Search
 
Understanding the New PCHF Analysis Guidance
Understanding the New PCHF Analysis GuidanceUnderstanding the New PCHF Analysis Guidance
Understanding the New PCHF Analysis Guidance
 
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
 
Understanding Canada's international higher education landscape (2024)
Understanding Canada's international higher education landscape (2024)Understanding Canada's international higher education landscape (2024)
Understanding Canada's international higher education landscape (2024)
 
Organic Synthesis and Estimation of Functional Groups
Organic Synthesis and Estimation of Functional GroupsOrganic Synthesis and Estimation of Functional Groups
Organic Synthesis and Estimation of Functional Groups
 
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-unit - 4.pdf
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-unit - 4.pdfDr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-unit - 4.pdf
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-unit - 4.pdf
 
Capitol Doctoral Presentation -Feb 2024.pptx
Capitol Doctoral Presentation -Feb 2024.pptxCapitol Doctoral Presentation -Feb 2024.pptx
Capitol Doctoral Presentation -Feb 2024.pptx
 
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdf
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdfDr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdf
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdf
 
Advance Mobile Application Development class 04
Advance Mobile Application Development class 04Advance Mobile Application Development class 04
Advance Mobile Application Development class 04
 
EDL 290F Week 2 - Good Company (2024).pdf
EDL 290F Week 2  - Good Company (2024).pdfEDL 290F Week 2  - Good Company (2024).pdf
EDL 290F Week 2 - Good Company (2024).pdf
 
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in GhanaDecision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
 
Nzinga Kika - The story of the queen
Nzinga Kika    -  The story of the queenNzinga Kika    -  The story of the queen
Nzinga Kika - The story of the queen
 
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleNew Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
 
Permeation enhancer of Transdermal drug delivery system
Permeation enhancer of Transdermal drug delivery systemPermeation enhancer of Transdermal drug delivery system
Permeation enhancer of Transdermal drug delivery system
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 9-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 9-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 9-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 9-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
 

Fossils

  • 2. Hello! I am Stephen Bornheimer Indiana Educator You can find me at: Twitter: @MrBornheimer Website: http://bclassroom.com
  • 3. Topics 1. Overview 2. What are fossils? 3. How are fossils formed? a. Death b. Decay and Burial c. Uplift and Exposure d. Fossilized Amber 4. Discovery and Extraction a. Paleontology b. Animation 5. Types of Fossils a. Petrification b. Carbon Films c. Molds and Casts d. Impressions e. Amber f. Trace Fossils 6. Uses a. Fossil Record and Dating b. Principle of Fossil Succession & Index Fossils 7. Resources and Citations Overview
  • 4. 2. What are Fossils?
  • 5. What are Fossils? ▧ Fossils: the physical remains or traces of prehistoric life. ▧ Prehistoric refers to a time before recorded human history, however there is no defined age at which a life form or traces of that life form are considered fossilized.
  • 6. 3. How are fossils formed?
  • 7. Death Fossilization usually begins when an organic lifeform (like this fish) dies and settles to the ground (or aquatic floor).
  • 8. Decay and Burial Most organic life forms once they die, begin a process of decomposing. In order for fossilization to take place the remains need to be buried under sediment in a relatively short period of time. This way the skeletal remains will not be disturbed or scattered by scavengers.
  • 9. Decay and Burial Overtime, the skeletal remains become buried. Water and other gases are “squeezed” out of the remains due to increasing pressure. Many of the organic components of the original skeleton are dissolved and voids are left in the remains.
  • 10. Decay and Burial Minerals in the surrounding sediment migrate and fill in the voids in a process called permineralization. In time, increased pressure eventually results in lithification (the formation of sedimentary rock).
  • 11. Uplift and Exposure In time, the fossilized remains (which are now part of the rock) undergo tectonic activity and through uplift, weathering and erosion the fossil becomes exposed.
  • 12. Fossilized Amber Watch 1:20 - 1:47 for Relevant Clip (Note: Tree sap is used wrongly here. It should be tree resin).
  • 13. 4. Discovery and Extraction
  • 14. Paleontology Once exposed, fossils are excavated by humans. Scientists that study prehistoric life and fossils to determine how organisms lived and interacted are called paleontologists. It should be noted that while archeologists also extract and study remains from the ground. Paleontologists study prehistoric organisms and life forms whereas archeologists study past human activity.
  • 16. 5. Types of Fossils
  • 17. Types of Fossils Petrification The process by which organic matter exposed to minerals over a long period is turned into a stony substance. Carbon Films A fossil formed when organic material is compressed, leaving only a carbon residue or film. This is also known as a carbonaceous film or compression. Molds and Casts Organisms trapped in layers of sediment may dissolve away leaving a preserved 3D cavity (mold) or if this cavity fills with sediment, a cast may be formed. Impressions Impressions are shallow 2D molds that give insight into biological activity, however unlike compressions/carbon films, they contain NO organic material. Amber Amber is fossilized tree resin. Some resins trapped organic lifeforms like insects before becoming fossilized. Trace Fossils Are fossilized traces of animals like burrows, footprints, or feces (coprolites) that have been preserved in sediment.
  • 19. Petrification Petrified wood is unique. Unlike other fossilized plant remains, petrified wood is a 3D representation of the plant material with fossilized stem tissue. It is not just an impression or mold but instead exhibits amazing detail and structure. Place your screenshot here
  • 20. Carbon Films Fossilized seed fern leaves from northeastern Ohio
  • 21. Place your screenshot here Carbon Films/ Compression Fossils Over time the remains of organisms (particularly small organisms like plants and insects) are compressed in the stone. AS a result much of the organic matter turns into a fine carbon film that is pressed into the stone. This is often a very shallow 2D fossil.
  • 22. Molds & Casts Ammonite Mold and Cast (Whitby, Yorkshire, England)
  • 23. Place your screenshot here Casts and Molds When organisms get buried in sediment they become entombed. Overtime, the organism decomposes leaving a cavity that can be filled by sediment to create a cast. Molds and casts are important because they can accurately portray surface anatomy which can tell scientists much about how the organism moved, behaved, and lived.
  • 25. Impressions and Trace Fossils These fossils are remnants of animal movement, and life as imprinted on their surroundings at the time of their demise. These types of fossils give us a good indication of the way creatures lived, moved, and interacted with their environment.
  • 26. Amber
  • 27. Amber Amber is fossilized tree resin that has encased and preserved small organisms like plants and insects. This is an ideal form of preservation because not only does it give us a look at prehistoric creatures but we have a clear three dimensional model of their anatomy.
  • 28. 6. Uses for Fossils
  • 29. Fossil Record and Dating ▧ Fossils occur in very specific rock strata. ▧ Fossils of the same species are found in rock of the same age. ▧ Rock layers are successive (layers further down are older) ▧ Fossils are collected and help to determine the age and former characteristics of prehistoric environments.
  • 30. Index Fossils “These fossils are widespread geographically and are limited to short geologic time spans.”
  • 31. Principle of Fossil Succession “Fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order, and therefore, any time period can be recognized by its fossil content.” Page 448 (Text)
  • 32. Thanks! Any questions? You can find me at: @mrbornheimer http://bclassroom.com
  • 33. Credits Special thanks to all the people who made and released these awesome resources for free: ▧ Busy Icons by Olly Holovchenko ▧ Presentation template by SlidesCarnival ▧ Photographs by Unsplash ▧ Backgrounds by Pixeden
  • 34. Cited Resources Works Cited "Amber." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Nov. 2014. Web. 30 Nov. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Amber>. "Carbonaceous Film." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 29 Nov. 2014. Web. 30 Nov. 2014. <http://en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonaceous_film>. "Fossils and Earth's History." Fossils and Earth's History. Desire2Learn.com, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2014. <https: //gcps.desire2learn.com/d2l/lor/viewer/viewFile.d2lfile/15538/6268/FOSSILS_print.html>. "Fossils." BBC News. BBC, 2014. Web. 29 Nov. 2014. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/fossils>. "Fossils: Window to the Past." Fossils. University of Berkeley, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2014. <http://www.ucmp. berkeley.edu/paleo/fossilsarchive/permin.html>.
  • 35. Cited Resources "Paleontology." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Nov. 2014. Web. 30 Nov. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Paleontology>. Shepherd, Roy. "What Is a Fossil?" DISCOVERING FOSSILS. N.p., 2002. Web. 29 Nov. 2014. <http://www. discoveringfossils.co.uk/whatisafossil.htm>. "Trace Fossil." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 29 Nov. 2014. Web. 29 Nov. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Trace_fossil>. Viney, Mike. "Molds & Casts." Molds & Casts. The Virtual Petrified Wood Museum, 2008. Web. 30 Nov. 2014. <http://petrifiedwoodmuseum.org/moldscasts.htm>. Walters, A. "Main Menu." Modes of Fossil Preservation. University of Oregon, 19 July 2013. Web. 30 Nov. 2014. <http://blogs.uoregon.edu/geology304fossilpreservation/2013/07/19/compressionimpression- 2/>.