Supporting Latinos in Higher Education

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Presentation covers topics of Latino/as in higher education. Focus is on community college, four-year institutions, and graduate school. Talks about enrollment and retention strategies.

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Supporting Latinos in Higher Education

  1. 1. 2014 NASPA Annual Conference * Baltimore, Maryland * March 15-19, 2014 Dr. Joel Pérez, Seattle Pacific University @deanspu Dr. Michelle Espino, University of Maryland Dr. Ignacio Hernández Jr., Fresno State University @nacho_phd Dr. Juan R. Guardia, Northeastern Illinois University @juanrguardia Transforming the Higher Education Landscape: A Focus on Supporting Latina/o Students, Administrators, and Faculty
  2. 2. Latin@s in Community Colleges Ignacio Hernandez, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Educational Research & Administration Fresno State University 2014 NASPA Annual Conference * Baltimore, Maryland * March 15-19, 2014
  3. 3. Latin@s and Community Colleges • The scope and role of community colleges in U.S. higher education is expansive (Nevarez & Wood, 2009) • Community colleges enroll the largest proportion of Latin@ students than any other sector of higher education (Snyder & Dillow, 2012) • Community college leadership preparation is structured around competencies (Eddy, 2010) While ignoring the intersections of race and gender (Ospina & Foldy, 2012) • Latin@s hold ~4% of community college presidencies (AACC, 2010)
  4. 4. As a proportion of all undergraduate students Community college as a disproportionate access point Latin@s in Higher Education Source: Digest of Education Statistics, 2012 (Table 238) 3 14% 86% Latina/os All Others 51% 49% Community College Other Higher Education
  5. 5. The Community College Leadership Landscape • Identifying the distribution of leadership by gender, race, and educational level (AACC, 2011) – By gender: 72% male – By race: 81% white – By education: 86% with doctorates • Increasing the diversity of community college leadership is goal endorsed by both the AACC and the Association of Community College Trustees (Boggs, 2010) 5
  6. 6. Latina/o Leaders in Community Colleges 5.95% 6.34% 7.04% 4.32% 5.31% 5.48% 4.07% 4.28% 4.86% Fall 1997 Fall 2003 Fall 2009 Total Executive/Man agerial Faculty Employees in public 2-year institutions by race and employment status Source: Digest of Educational Statistics, Table 256 (2010), Table 224 (2005), Table 226 (2000)
  7. 7. Developing a mentality of success (graduation) rather than one of just access (recruitment) Joel Perez, Ph.D. Dean of Students for Community Life Seattle Pacific University @deanspu 2014 NASPA Annual Conference * Baltimore, Maryland * March 15-19, 2014
  8. 8. 2014 NASPA Annual Conference * Baltimore, Maryland * March 15-19, 2014 Developing a mentality of success rather than one of just access • For the first time, a greater share of Latin@ recent high school graduates are enrolled in college than whites. • The Hispanic high school dropout rate continues to fall. • The number of 18- to 24-year-old Hispanics enrolled in college increased by 324,000 students between 2011 and 2012, marking the third straight year of increases. • Hispanics now make up one-fourth of all public school students—a new demographic milestone. Source: Pew Research Center
  9. 9. 2014 NASPA Annual Conference * Baltimore, Maryland * March 15-19, 2014 Developing a mentality of success rather than one of just access • Despite these recent milestones, Latinos continue to lag other groups when it comes to earning a bachelor’s degree. • In 2012, 14.5% of Latinos ages 25 and older had earned one. By contrast, 51% of Asians, 34.5% of whites and 21.2% of blacks had earned a bachelor’s degree. • Hispanic college students are also less likely than whites to enroll in a four-year college, attend a selective college, and enroll full-time. • The need for a commitment at the top! Source: Pew Research Center
  10. 10. 2014 NASPA Annual Conference * Baltimore, Maryland * March 15-19, 2014 Developing a mentality of success rather than one of just access • Access strategies • Partnerships with Community Based Organizations (CBOs) • Developing a profile of current Latin@ students • Set targets and strategies based on data • Scholarships • Spanish speaking enrollment staff • Undocumented student strategy
  11. 11. 2014 NASPA Annual Conference * Baltimore, Maryland * March 15-19, 2014 Developing a mentality of success rather than one of just access • Success strategies • Summer bridge • Pre-orientation program • Peer mentoring program • Leveraging student groups • Latin@ role models • Welcoming atmosphere • Early intervention alert system • Maintain affordability
  12. 12. 2014 NASPA Annual Conference * Baltimore, Maryland * March 15-19, 2014 Developing a mentality of success rather than one of just access • Success strategies • Continually review data • Campus climate • Course taking patterns • Cultural events • Resource offices to provide support • Bias incident response protocol • Volunteering
  13. 13. Latino Experiences in Graduate School Michelle M. Espino, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Counseling, Higher Education, & Special Education University of Maryland, College Park
  14. 14. Background • Graduate Degrees – 28% of graduate students are students of color • 8% are Latina/o – 44% Latinas/os enrolled in Education and Business – 13% Latinas/os enrolled in Engineering, Physical Sciences, and Biological Sciences – Between 1997 and 2007 Latina/o enrollment increased by 4% annually – 50% attrition for all doctorates
  15. 15. Doctoral Student Experiences  Socialization, Mentoring, Attrition  Institutional Sorting Mechanisms – Program selectivity – Socialization – Time-to-degree – Lack of Latina/o presence in doctoral programs  Individual Challenges & Resilience – Self-doubt and Imposter Syndrome – High degree of self-efficacy – Success
  16. 16. Participants • 33 Ph.D.s of Mexican descent – 25 Female; 8 Male – Poor/Low-income (4); Working Class (15); Middle Class (13) – 15 Institutions – Arts and Humanities (3); Education (9); Life Sciences (1); Physical Sciences, Mathematics, Engineering (5); Social and Behavioral Sciences (15) – Faculty (22); Researchers/Analysts (6); Student Affairs Administrators (2); Secondary School Administrators (2); Therapist • 101 interview hours
  17. 17. Doctoral Student Experiences Making the U-Turn: “I think deep inside me…it was like, “No, that’s too much, I’m not that smart” Weeding them out: “You’re never gonna get a Ph.D.” Hitting the Wall: “Pero tú éres Mexicana y lo que tú haces reflects on your whole community. The Hustle: “Everyone wanted to be my friend.”
  18. 18. The Struggle Continues… • General Themes –Persistence –Individual determination –Relied on networks to navigate obstacles –External fellowships
  19. 19. Audience Discussion • In what ways can we improve the pipeline of Latino leaders in community colleges? • What are some institutional examples of successful Latino graduation initiatives? • How do we encourage Latina/os to pursue a doctoral degree? 2014 NASPA Annual Conference * Baltimore, Maryland * March 15-19, 2014
  20. 20. 2014 NASPA Annual Conference * Baltimore, Maryland * March 15-19, 2014 Contact Information • Dr. Joel Pérez jperez@spu.edu @deanspu • Dr. Ignacio Hernández Jr. ihernandez@csufresno.edu @nacho_phd • Dr. Juan Guardia J-Guardia@neiu.edu @juanrguardia • Dr. Michelle Espino mespino@umd.edu
  21. 21. 2014 NASPA Annual Conference * Baltimore, Maryland * March 15-19, 2014

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