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Txt 4 Success: Utilizing text messaging to shift students' college-going behaviors

Across the world, outreach professionals are finding that text messaging can be an effective platform to address social issues by prompting changes to individuals' behavior and serving as an outlet to provide personalized counseling and support. This presentation focuses on the experiences of two organizations - the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission (HEPC) and uAspire - in utilizing text messaging to promote college access and support college retention and success. The projects featured are supported by the work of Signal Vine, LLC, a company specializing in personalized, two-way text messaging platforms tailored to the needs of education organizations. HEPC is a state agency which serves as the coordinating body for West Virginia's public four-year colleges and universities. uAspire is a non-profit organization focusing on college affordability. This work is informed by the research of Drs. Ben Castleman and Lindsay Page and funded in part by the Kresge Foundation. Co-authors/presenters: Dr. Sarah Beasley, Alexandra Chewning, and Brian Kathman.

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Txt 4 Success: Utilizing text messaging to shift students' college-going behaviors

  1. 1. Txt 4 Success! Utilizing text messaging to shift students’ college-going behaviors
  2. 2. Road map Day 2: • Needs assessment • Technology • Messaging • Implementation Day 1: • Introductions • Research Review • Case Studies
  3. 3. Introductions Let’s Get to Know Each Other! • Name • Department/Organization & Role/Title • Starburst Question • One thing you hope to learn
  4. 4. Research review • Prior studies and trials • Principles of behavioral economics • Other policy interventions • Key publications and resources
  5. 5. Prior studies and trials Session informed by leading researchers in this field - Dr. Ben Castleman and Dr. Lindsay Page ● Use principles from behavioral economics & psychology to improve college outcomes ● Focus their work on supporting low-income & non-traditional students ● Powerful, exciting results have garnered national attention & widespread application
  6. 6. Prior studies and trials 2010: uAspire began partnership with Castleman & Page to study summer melt 20% drop-off 2011: First summer melt intervention designed - successful but difficult to reach students Summer Melt: the phenomenon whereby college-intending students do not make the transition from high school to college
  7. 7. Prior studies and trials • Advisors reached out to HS graduates in summer to support their transition • Statistically significant impact on enrollment - more students went to college in the fall! • One year later - even greater statistically significant impact on persistence First summer melt study (2011)
  8. 8. Prior studies and trials First texting study (2012): Applied key ingredients of summer melt intervention to texting
  9. 9. Text messaging statistically increased on-time college enrollment by 7 percentage points. Among first-generation students, there was an 8 percentage point increase in enrollment in 4-year colleges. 2012 Text Messaging Results Prior studies and trials
  10. 10. Prior studies and trials Sent reminders to renew financial aid and check SAP Advisors texted back real-time responses to student questions Texting increased 2nd year persistence by 12 percentage points First College Texting Study (2013): Restarted texting in January of freshman year
  11. 11. Research insights Source: Castleman (2013) In planning for college, students and families face… Complex information Complicated processes
  12. 12. Research insights Key behavioral principles: • Limited attention • Planning fallacy • Social norms • Identity • Status quo bias
  13. 13. Key behavioral principles Sources: Castleman (2013); Ideas42 (2014) Limited attention and planning fallacy Adolescents are particularly prone to put off hard choices/complex tasks in favor of pleasurable pursuits — and their attention often is divided.
  14. 14. Key behavioral principles But adults also procrastinate when faced with complexity. Sources: Castleman (2013); Ideas42 (2014)
  15. 15. Key behavioral principles Sources: Ideas42 (2014); Iyengar and Lepper (2000); Sivers (2009) Status Quo Bias • When overwhelmed, people tend to do nothing. • “Preset” or default options can create monumental shifts in behavior. • “Choice is demotivating.”
  16. 16. Key behavioral principles Sources: Ideas42 (2014); Castleman (2013) Identity and Social Norms • Individuals are highly influenced by their perceptions of what’s normal for their peers. • Individuals are motivated to meet clear expectations that they deem to be standard or usual. • The way we view and reflect on our personal identities or roles has a powerful influence over our behaviors.
  17. 17. Key behavioral principles Sources: Ideas42 (2014); Castleman (2013) Coping with complexity • Simplifying strategies • Following the crowd • Paralysis
  18. 18. Prior policy interventions • Simplifying information increases participation in retirement programs and the quality of school and college choices (Beshears et al, 2012; Hastings & Weinstein, 2008; Hoxby & Turner, 2013) • Reducing hassles increases completion of federal financial aid applications (Bettinger et al, 2012) • Shifting perceptions of social norms increases tax compliance and reduces home energy use (Alcott, 2011; Coleman, 1996) • Prompts increase financial savings and flu vaccination rates (Karlan et al, 2010; Stockwell et al, 2012)
  19. 19. Prior policy interventions • Simplifying information increases participation in retirement programs and the quality of school and college choices (Beshears et al, 2012; Hastings & Weinstein, 2008; Hoxby & Turner, 2013) • Reducing hassles increases completion of federal financial aid applications (Bettinger et al, 2012) • Shifting perceptions of social norms increases tax compliance and reduces home energy use (Alcott, 2011; Coleman, 1996) • Prompts increase financial savings and flu vaccination rates (Karlan et al, 2010; Stockwell et al, 2012)
  20. 20. Other interventions • Weight Loss & Fitness o Reify Health used text messaging in clinical trials o Focused on weight-loss & fitness related interactions • Ebola Outbreak o The WFP is using texting to survey food supplies in Sierra Leone (The Guardian, October 14, 2014) • India Rural Farming o Texting is used to communicate to rural villagers about subsidized farming products • Literacy in Niger o World Bank Cell-Ed intervention increased basic literacy by 5 years (World Bank, ‘Teach Literacy by Text. Really.”, 7/7/2014
  21. 21. Reading list • Castleman and Page: Summer Nudging: Can Personalized Text Messages and Peer Mentor Outreach Increase College Going Among Low-Income High School Graduates (2013) • Castleman: Prompts, Personalization, and Pay-offs: Strategies to Improve the Design and Delivery of College and Financial Aid Information (2013) • Ross et al: Using Behavioral Economics for Postsecondary Success (2013) • Pew Research: Internet Project (see the myriad of reports related to mobile internet access and use of text messaging among various populations) • Castleman and Page: Summer Melt: Supporting Low-Income Students Through the Transition to College (2014) • Castleman and Page: Freshman Year Financial Aid Nudges (2014)
  22. 22. Questions? Comments?
  23. 23. Let’s recharge! We’ll start back in 10 minutes…
  24. 24. Context • Organizations using texting • Audiences targeted through texting
  25. 25. Where is this happening? • State education departments –Louisiana, Arizona, Delaware, Montana, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Virginia, and many others in process • US Department of Education –Two funded research projects including an IES research grant and an Outward Bound research study –Inclusion in GEAR UP grant applications •Major colleges and universities –Research: Stanford, Harvard, Penn, U of Chicago, Michigan State, and Others –Admissions & Student Affairs: U of Washington - Bothel, Youngstown State University, etc. •College access orgs, school districts, and charters –Philadelphia USD, KIPP Philly, Mastery, and many CAO’s
  26. 26. How is texting being used in Education? • College-going process and summer melt –College access organizations, K-12 districts –To increase matriculation rates • Admissions and financial aid – Related to summer melt, improve engagement with students through their admittance – Provide financial guidance up-front and renewal/compliance information throughout – For financial aid, reduce loan default rates •College persistence and student affairs –Communicate with college freshman (Louisiana) to maintain good standing and persist –Expanding to more general dialogue with students at the college/university level • K-12 Attendance - (University of Chicago Research) • Values Affirmation (Middle School) - (Stanford Research) • Early Childhood Reading - (Stanford Research)
  27. 27. Case studies • uAspire • College Foundation of West Virginia
  28. 28. uAspire Case study:
  29. 29. uAspire: College affordability non-profit
  30. 30. uAspire: College affordability non-profit Impact in High-Need Cities: ● Direct Service to Students ○ Boston, Springfield, Lawrence & Fall River, MA ○ Miami, FL ○ Bay Area, CA ● New Impact Models ○ Text messaging nationwide Training & Technical Assistance: ● Training to Practitioners ○ School districts ○ Charter management orgs ○ Youth serving orgs Policy & Advocacy: ● Represent student and family voice in national dialogue ● Study & inform on affordability issues
  31. 31. Goals: – Re-establish student-advisor contact after high school graduation – Nudge students on specific tasks to enrollment: orientation, registration, placement tests, financial aid & bill – Provide customized advising content using data from senior exit survey uAspire texting: summer melt
  32. 32. uAspire texting: summer melt Text messaging to support the high school to college transition 2012: Piloted text messaging for summer melt using online platform • Students received 10 customized text reminders July-August • Could text message HELP but couldn’t text back and forth • Advisors called students in response
  33. 33. uAspire texting: summer melt Identified need for a two-way, student-centered texting platform. 2013: Redesigned platform so students could interact “live” via text message • Customized reminders sent out • Students texted back for support • Advisors responded immediately
  34. 34. uAspire texting: summer melt Customized content based on student data: Student City Data Intended College Data Student City Data
  35. 35. uAspire texting in practice Do students engage? Yes! Real responses: • I do need help. How do I file a loan? • Yes, thank you! I have a lot of questions & the internet is giving me little answers. • I didn’t get accepted to any of the schools I applied to, do I need to do FAFSA again for community college? • Actually it’s great that you texted me bc I really do need some help concerning my financial aid. • OMG this came at just the right time. I need to electronically SignMyLoan but I’m not sure how to do it.
  36. 36. But can advising happen via text? Yes! uAspire texting in practice
  37. 37. uAspire evaluation and results Used randomized design in each texting project: -One group randomly assigned to receive texting -One group randomly assigned to business as usual -More students than we could serve - lottery most equitable -All students received support if they sought us out -Allows for rigorous learning and lessons for the field
  38. 38. uAspire evaluation and results Text messaging during the summer statistically increased on-time college enrollment by 7 percentage points. Among first-generation students, we saw an 8 percentage point increase in 4-year enrollment. Summer Melt Text Messaging Results
  39. 39. After summer melt success, uAspire expanded texting into new domains: 1) Freshman year of college 2013-2014 - Reminders & real-time support for key tasks: SAP, financial aid renewal, loan review 2) Parents of recent high school grads Summer 2014 - Texted 650 parents about the tasks required for their students’ enrollment uAspire texting: expanded
  40. 40. uAspire texting: expanded 1) Freshman year text messaging results ● Text messaging into the freshman year of college doubled the rate at which community college students sought help from uAspire with their FAFSA renewal ● What’s more, freshman year texting increased sophomore persistence by 12 percentage points among community college students
  41. 41. uAspire texting: expanded 2) Parent Engagement via Texting
  42. 42. Continued Summer Melt texting • uAspire will bring texting program to our new Bay Area site in summer 2015 Community College Pilot • New project in collaboration with 3 large MA community colleges to support 600 students via texting and on-campus advising this school year National Scale • Will text juniors across several states beginning in spring 2015 uAspire Texting: Next Steps
  43. 43. Building your audience Opt-out • Utilizes an existing database to start sending messages. • Students can choose to stop messaging after an introductory message is sent/received. Opt-in • Students sign up to start receiving text messages (specifically). • Sign-ups might include written, digital or verbal agreements. vs
  44. 44. Behavioral Economics: Default Austria (Opt-out) 99% Source: Complete College America (2012). Guided pathways to success: Summary. Germany (Opt-in) 12% Organ Donation Rates
  45. 45. Opt-out model When students have already agreed to be contacted in some way… Potential data sources: • School administrative data • Student surveys (online or paper) • Scholarship applications • College applications • College registration paperwork
  46. 46. College Foundation of West Virginia Case study:
  47. 47. $225,000 grant from the Kresge Foundation Three-year pilot project serving 14 high schools in Year 1 (GEAR UP) West Virginia’s project
  48. 48. Primary functions Nudge Urge students to complete college-related tasks Counsel Provide access to one-on- one counseling with a professional Align Provide a continuous contact point from high school into college
  49. 49. Project goals Financial aid awareness • Increase the number of students applying for and utilizing financial aid
  50. 50. Project goals Campus connections • Increase students’ use of campus resources • Position campus and state-level staff as a continuous source of support • Address “summer melt” by guiding students through transitional process
  51. 51. Project goals Capacity building • Design a low-cost, high-impact service model allowing colleges and universities to improve access and retention • Expand on the body of research surrounding next-generation student supports and engagement
  52. 52. How it works Aug - Dec: students opt in Jan: messages begin Mar: 1st college choice prompt Mar: campus messages begin May: students graduate hs May: 2nd college choice prompt July: final college choice prompt Aug: students enter college May: students finish freshman year June: messages end 12th grade Year 2, college = students have direct access to a counselor at their college= 12th grade = summer transition = 1st year of college
  53. 53. How it works Students opt in • College admissions applications • Statewide merit-based scholarship application • State-level college access web portal • Inquiry forms collected at community events and college fairs
  54. 54. Opt-in model Potential data collection points: • Applications – College admissions – Scholarship programs • Events – During the event – During pre-registration • Online – Websites – Social media pages – Email blasts • Text to join systems
  55. 55. Sign-up field <<< Source:
  56. 56. How it works Students receive scheduled messages according to a pre-planned campaign. Students can text our number at any time for help. A college counselor (a real person) responds!
  57. 57. How it works State-level campaign: • Messages are relevant to all college-intending students. • All students receive messages. Example: Did u know u can register 4 fall classes now? Call 304-792-7098 & ask 4 a campus counselor 2 make an appointment. Example: When reviewing your college schedule... Remember '15 to finish.' On average, you have to take 15 credit hours each semester to finish college on time. Campus campaigns: • Messages provide information specific to a particular college. • Some students receive messages.
  58. 58. Six college partners: • Bluefield State College (suburban public four-year, HBCU) • Concord University (rural public four-year) • New for 2015: Fairmont State University (suburban public four-year) • Marshall University (urban public four-year) • Southern West Virginia Community and Technical College (rural public two-year) • New for 2015: West Virginia State University (urban public four-year, HBCU) How it works
  59. 59. How it works Campus-level messaging At various points in the campaign, students receive texts asking if they’ve made a college selection… • Students who select a partner college are added to the campaign for that particular college. • Students who select a non-partner college continue receiving only state-level messaging. • Students who do not respond or text back “undecided” continue receiving state-level messaging and are asked again about their college choice later in the campaign.
  60. 60. HEPC commitments • Provide text-messaging platform • Provide technical support, training and guidance • Coordinate statewide messaging
  61. 61. Campus commitments • Collect and share student data with HEPC (name, cell number, email, high school, and blind SSN) • Align student supports to provide a single point of contact • Commit to following the statewide schedule (with options of 2 custom messages/month)
  62. 62. Campus commitments • Provide staff to check messages daily and within one hour of any outgoing message • Assist in the evaluation by providing feedback and limited data
  63. 63. Campus staffing Campus-level teams/support Consider engaging… • Admissions/recruitment officers • Enrollment personnel • Student affairs officers • Student success/retention officers • Academic/advising personnel • Financial aid representatives • Students (but only as mentors, not content experts!) • Public information officers (keep them in the loop!)
  64. 64. Concord University Campus case study:
  65. 65. Concord University • Rural, regional public institution in southern WV • ~2,900 enrollment (5-year average) • 40% first-generation • 53% Pell recipients • 97% on financial aid • 64% freshmen to sophomore retention rate • 33% six-year graduation rate
  66. 66. Involve key stakeholders Campus Team: • Admissions, Financial Aid, Registrar, Technology Services, Academic Success Center, Advising, Student Affairs, etc. • Student feedback • Team lead and small team for refinement
  67. 67. What to include? • What are important events, deadlines, and information? • How do we make students feel welcome and excited about Concord (i.e. increased sense of belonging)?
  68. 68. Responding to texts • Reminder that text is going out • Dedicated admissions and retention staff members • Timely, personalized responses
  69. 69. Next steps • Expanding program • Data analysis • Utilizing text messaging in other areas
  70. 70. Early outcomes 1,000 +/- opt-ins • Ten percent have since stopped messaging (opted out). Since January 2, 2014…
  71. 71. Early outcomes 1,800+/- student responses • Questions about processes Ex: When is the deadline to apply for WV financial aid? • Requests for guidance Ex: I can’t decide on a college... Help! Since January 2, 2014…
  72. 72. Early outcomes
  73. 73. Early outcomes
  74. 74. Early outcomes
  75. 75. Early outcomes
  76. 76. • Data pollution due to student error (e.g. students reporting the wrong grade level or high school on sign up) • Cell phone turnover (e.g. students change numbers or pass the phone off to younger siblings) • Lack of alignment with career and technical pathways • Fewer than expected responses regarding college choice • Declining engagement Early challenges
  77. 77. Cell phone data can be used to tailor Twitter and Facebook outreach ● Upload your cell phone list to Twitter and/or Facebook ● Automatically identify individuals on your list for targeting on these platforms ● This works for email addresses too! Bonus feature
  78. 78. Refined audience segmenting Detailed in-platform analytics “How to” toolkit Counseling guide and service training Evaluative study and white paper New pathways/ intervention models In the works
  79. 79. Evaluative study Comparison groups: • GEAR UP students who did not receive messages • GEAR UP students who received messages (segmented by length of participation… e.g. four months, 12 months) • Non-GU students who did not receive messages • Non-GU students who received messages
  80. 80. Evaluative study Variables: • Demographic (gender, race/ethnicity, Pell eligibility, zip code, high school) • Academic (ACT scores, GPA, highest high school math course completed) • Process (FAFSA completion, ACT/SAT score submission, payment of deposits) • Outcomes (Fall and spring enrollment, course completion, course grades, degree objective, persistence)
  81. 81. Questions? Comments?
  82. 82. Let’s recharge! See you tomorrow!
  83. 83. Reflection Day 2: • Needs assessment • Technology • Messaging • Implementation Day 1: • Research Review • Case Studies
  84. 84. Needs assessment • Problem definition • Goals and outcomes • Texting intervention applications
  85. 85. Needs assessment • What ideas did yesterday’s session spark about challenges you’d potentially target with a text messaging program?
  86. 86. Let’s get to work! Work through sections one and two of your worksheet.
  87. 87. Questions? Comments?
  88. 88. Technology
  89. 89. Technology traps “You wouldn’t just get on a loudspeaker” One-Way Alerts ● A ‘Black Hole’ for communication ● No Support ● Reserve for Emergency Blasts Download Required ● Will not reach everyone ● Very difficult to scale ● Several steps to lose students Mass Text ● Same message for everyone ● Not relevant for many ● Quickly Ignored Mobile Mass Marketing ● Impersonal communications ● Toeing the FERPA line ● Not process & outcome driven
  90. 90. The Signal Vine DNA Relevance = Engagement = Results 2-way messaging Provide students with direct counseling; answer questions Scheduling Schedule messages as part of a campaign, or for an individual student Personalization Enable unique message content and pathways Case management Responses are routed to the appropriate counselor inbox; Track histories and interactions Message Intelligently
  91. 91. Why intelligent text messaging? “It’s becoming the modern communication platform” • Email is not working –Only 3% of students check email daily • Technology Advances –Mobile phone advances put inexpensive “computers” in everyone’s hands • Messaging is Preferred –70%+ text daily with ‘Always On and Immediate’ communications • Big Data –Allows for mass personalization and optimization of messaging • Scale –Text allows for personalized interaction with thousands almost instantaneously
  92. 92. Text Messages Go Out • “Program” of scheduled messages • Personalized for each student –Campus- and task- specific content & web links in messages –Messages based on their data profile
  93. 93. Students reply • Student Replies are routed to the appropriate Counselor Inbox • Each Counselor Portal allows texting with many students at once • Students reply when they need support
  94. 94. A text conversation starts An interactive, two-way text conversation
  95. 95. Send reply message
  96. 96. Demo: Setting the Stage “Design a Custom Program of Messages” • Time & Date • Personalized Messages • Conditions & Filters –“Message Branches” • Auto Replies • “Listen” for Responses – Save or Act
  97. 97. Live Demo A tour of the Signal Vine platform
  98. 98. Dashboard reporting Measure outcomes Metrics ● Response Rates ● Engagement Rates ● Other Meta Data Outcomes ● By any Variable ● Across Students
  99. 99. Other features “It’s becoming the modern communication platform” • Parent & Mentor Messaging –Interact directly with parents and mentors –Messaging can be driven by ‘Related Student Data’ • Multi-language Support –Language type driven by student/parent/mentor profile •Data Capture via Text –Use to survey, get RSVP’s, ,etc.
  100. 100. Questions? Comments?
  101. 101. Let’s recharge! We’ll start back in ten minutes…
  102. 102. Content and messaging • Anatomy of a text message • Auto-responses, message pathways and audience segmentation • Style and tone • Sample content
  103. 103. Best Practices Credibility - Students need to recognize and trust texting source – Initial text is critical to establishing legitimacy – Choose name carefully & explain program – Personalize as much as possible
  104. 104. Best Practices Responsiveness - Texting sets expectation for immediate response – Ensure texting schedule aligns with staff capacity – Majority of text responses arrive within a few hours – Let students know you’re standing by to respond
  105. 105. Best Practices Clarity - Conveying information in 160 characters requires thoughtful content & phrasing – Pilot texts with students when possible – Recognize confusion in student responses & remedy immediately – Elevate to phone conversation if needed
  106. 106. Best Practices Frequency - Resist urge to text too often or goals may be diluted – Tell students how often you’ll be texting – Text enough to keep momentum, not so much that students tune out or become annoyed – Be prepared for candid feedback
  107. 107. Best Practices How often would you prefer to receive college planning text messages? Source: survey of students who attended West Virginia’s 2014 College Goal Sunday event
  108. 108. Anatomy of a text Element of personalization Relevant information Timeliness/urgency Call to action/next step Hi! It’s Jess w/ GEARUP. Did u know WV 4year colleges require either the ACT or SAT? Need to take the ACT? Reg. by Jan 10 for the Feb test
  109. 109. Message pathways Message personalization: • Based on data fields (think MS mail merge!) – Ex: Student first name – Ex: Student’s advisor name – Ex: Financial aid office phone number at the student’s chosen college Hi {first name}! Get free help completing your FAFSA during College Goal Sunday on Feb. 15! There’s a location near you at {closest College Goal Sunday site}. Register:
  110. 110. Message pathways Audience segmenting: • By campaign: – Ex: FAFSA renewal campaign – Ex: Junior year college-planning timeline • By student variables: – Ex: Students on academic probation – Ex: Students who haven’t yet registered for orientation • Management tool: By group or caseload: – Ex: Marshall University students – Ex: Scott High School students
  111. 111. Action automation • Types of automation: – Generate a message response • Ex: “thanks” might trigger “you’re welcome!” – Trigger a system action • Ex: Stop messaging • Ex: Move to a group or add to a campaign • Ex: Launch message series • Ex: Change future message schedule
  112. 112. Action automation Example: When WV students say they’ve selected a college, the system… – Launches a series of response messages to gain more information from the student. – Automatically moves them to the appropriate caseload based on their college choice. – Automatically enrolls them in their particular college’s supplementary messaging campaign. – Automatically removes any further messages related to college choice from their message schedule.
  113. 113. Style and tone considerations Personality: • Do you have a sense of humor? • Are you informal or formal?
  114. 114. Style and tone considerations Counseling approach: • Proactive or reactive? • How would you respond to this exchange? CFWV: Don’t forget to register for orientation! Student: I’m not going to college.
  115. 115. Style and tone considerations Stop protocols: • Honoring opt-outs • Handling inappropriate messaging
  116. 116. Style and tone considerations Brand and communications strategies: • Style and use of terms • Integration of organizational goals and complementary campaigns • Integration of partnerships • Managing “hot button” issues and conflicts
  117. 117. Questions? Comments?
  118. 118. Measuring Engagement • In-system analytics • External analytics
  119. 119. In-System analytics
  120. 120. External analytics Link trackers • Bitly • Tiny url • Google Meeting tracking • Program database • Internal record system • Google calendar
  121. 121. External analytics Google analytics
  122. 122. External analytics • Social views – YouTube views – Twitter follows – Facebook likes • Actions taken – Call center calls – Deposits or forms submitted – Event registrations • Surveys and polls – How did you hear about us? – Where do you get college planning information?
  123. 123. Questions? Comments?
  124. 124. Policies and procedures • Legal requirements and responsibilities • Partnership agreements • Messaging and counseling guidelines
  125. 125. Legal requirements • FCC rules prohibit SPAM and other unwanted communications – Nonprofit rules are more lenient than commercial regulations • Age limits – COPPA restrictions require parental consent for students under age 13 – School districts and other partners may have individual policies
  126. 126. Legal requirements • Student confidentiality and privacy – FERPA regulations often apply – Data sharing agreements should be in place among partners and vendors • Counseling policies – Responsibilities to report
  127. 127. Legal requirements • Purchasing – Sole source justifications vs. bidding processes
  128. 128. Policy considerations • Formalizing partnerships – Memoranda of understanding • Organizational policies – Communications standards and guidelines – Counseling guidelines – Data sharing policies and agreements
  129. 129. Questions? Comments?
  130. 130. Conclusion • Key takeaways and next steps • What else?
  131. 131. Questions? Comments?
  132. 132. Contact Sarah Beasley Director of Retention Concord University (304) 384-6298 @campusbeautiful Alexandra Chewning Vice President of Research and Evaluation uAspire (617) 778-7195 x125 @uAspire Brian Kathman CEO Signal Vine, LLC (703) 338-1046 @signalvine Jessica Kennedy Director of Communications and Outreach WV Higher Education Policy Commission (304) 558-0655 @jackennedy @cfwv @wvhepc