• Save
Sales Talk
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Sales Talk

on

  • 25,050 views

What makes a good Direct Salesperson? ...

What makes a good Direct Salesperson?

All sales require knowledge of the following:
Small Talk Basics and Catharsis Theory
Neuroeconomic Psychology Concepts
Enemy Mine: embracing incompleteness
Buyer Behaviors and the Buyer Cycle
Management’s need to track the Sales Cycle
When to Hard Sell and when to Soft Sell
And, Sales Coaching (so to bring it all home)

Statistics

Views

Total Views
25,050
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
24,899
Embed Views
151

Actions

Likes
51
Downloads
0
Comments
14

7 Embeds 151

http://holygardenscommunity.blogspot.com 97
http://www.slideshare.net 32
http://www.holygardenscommunity.blogspot.com 9
http://www.holygardenscommunity.blogspot.com 9
http://www.techgig.com 2
http://www.linkedin.com 1
http://yoyafi.com 1
More...

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

110 of 14 Post a comment

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • please mail me a copy noersekhajit@gmail.com good presentation Thanx
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • please mail me a copy
    rvenkatachary@gmail.com
    good presentation
    Thanx
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • Dear Jim,

    Your presentation is great and informative. Straight to the point and would be appreciate if you could forward a copy for my reference at chennile9595@gmail.com. Thank you.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • Dear Mr. Jim

    I saw your valuable presentation. Could you please send me a copy of this presentation to me (prabakaran0908@gmail.com).

    Thanks
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • It is very interesting. Could you please send it to me by email at piseth_chheng168@yahoo.com.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…

110 of 14

Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Sales Talk Sales Talk Presentation Transcript

    • 1Holistic Handbook To Direct Sales- 2013
    • 2Introduction 1One of mankind’s most importantpersonal and business conceptsis the idea of object-orientedrelational systems thinking.Summarized by Aristotle in hislectures on Metaphysics,“The whole is more than the sum of its parts.”
    • 3Introduction 2Direct Sales skills can be critically usefulto understanding such thinking asDirect Sales is the most fundamentalstep-by-step personal accelerant forthe development and restructuring ofinter-organizational and inter-personalhierarchies, associations, and identitiesSo, for whom might Direct Sales be useful?
    • 4Introduction 3For software development,Object-Oriented Modeling (OOM)is about understanding entity characteristicsand relationships instead of top-down tasks.Rather than thinking about the tasks needed,Rather than thinking about the tasks needed,say, to make a PB and jelly sandwich,modern programmers consider insteadall of the possible relationships betweenPB, jelly, bread, toaster, and the frig.
    • 5Introduction 4For data management,Entity-Relationship Diagramming (ERD)is a semantic data modeling techniquethat uses a graphical representationthat uses a graphical representationof system entities and their relationshipsinstead of just their applicationas a basis for a unified view of data.
    • 6Introduction 5For business process management,Unified Modeling Language (UML)focuses on the system entities,their use, and relationships with the user,proceeding from the outside inwardsto the objects that make things happen.Such a workflow approach to analyzingand managing a business processis often used in combination withobject-oriented programming.
    • 7Introduction 6For technology management,DeMarco says in Peopleware the mostcommonly written software is accountsreceivables (as everyone needs to get paid),with likely hundreds of development teams soworking at this very moment. Over two thirds willfail not due to misunderstanding the technologybut only to problems with human relationships.“When projects fail,it’s rarely technical.”Jim Johnson, The Standish Group1
    • 8Introduction 7For accounting, the traditional focus was onestimating the value of factories, trucks, andmachines based on the tasks they performed.“Goodwill” is about paying, say, $20 million fora company with $10 million in such tangiblea company with $10 million in such tangibleassetson the assumption that it’s “true” value isbased more on its potential relational synergy.(e.g.: Raytheon’s asset list is half goodwill,or in other words, assessed relationships)
    • 9Introduction 8As today’s accountant must estimate corporateassets based on their potential relationships,and, Activity Based Costing (ABC) givesa new relational view from “cost centers,”core to the “new” economy is intellectualproperty and its relationship potential.
    • 10Introduction 9For athletics, it turns out that great runnersnaturally perform below their individual levelsas members of a relay team. It is supposed theincreased anonymity and reduced affect on theoutcome explain such performance declines.outcome explain such performance declines.But, a strong and honest coach can flame thedesire to learn and produce by stroking teamrelational affection to where member’s personaltimes synergistically surpass all prior ceilings.
    • 11Introduction 11Historians agree the assassination of ArchdukeFrances may have sparked the start of WorldWar I, but that the real causes of the conflictwere embedded in the political, economic, andsocial relationships of Europe at that time.While it’s popular to think that guns areWhile it’s popular to think that guns areresponsible for violence in Africa, politicalscientists agree it is rather the well-intentionedactions of American relief efforts that corruptgovernment-citizen relationships by “givingthem fish instead of teaching them to fish.”
    • 12Introduction 11Much like violence in Africa, violence inAmerican streets can only be truly addressedwhen gangs are seen as key to the solutioninstead of only as a key problem (gangs are anatural result of the relational disorganization ofdisfranchised Irish, Italian, Black, Hispanic, etc).disfranchised Irish, Italian, Black, Hispanic, etc).While Chicago’s Vice Lords opened schoolsand businesses and the Black Panthers gavekids breakfast, the “War on Gangs” only causedan end to reforms with more ghettos & violence(it’s LA’s FACES that’s uniting the Red & Blue).
    • 13Introduction 11Dr. Hassan founded Ex-Moon Inc and later theFreedom of Mind Resource Center. Dr. Hassanargues successful groups are only those able toinfluence the opinions of others. He says badcults work to think for other people while goodcults work to help people think for themselves.Dr. Nicola Bunting says the ability to effectivelymanipulate the opinions of others (as in sales,preaching, or even teaching) is a postmodernskill requirement. She calls those with immatureand impoverished personalities who but mouththoughts “schooled” them by others Zombies.
    • 14Introduction 12Communism is firmly based on the idea that ifthe “evil” system (of capitalism and religion) isremoved, a socialist man of perfect characterwill emerge (but it hasn’t ever happened andeconomist Steven Levitt and others have wellshown lone people are quite poor at assessingrisk and avoiding temptation) while democracyis based on the idea that integrity is insteadsimply about building quality relationships withaccountability from good checks and balances.
    • 15Introduction 13The Fifth Discipline in Peter Senge’s book ofthe same name (that Harvard Review saw asmost useful management text of last 75 years)is about the reflective object-oriented relationalthinking that can integrate personal learning(from personal mastery and mental models)into corporate learning (of a shared vision)with a spiritual interconnected sense of thepresent as the only way to continually provethat the whole can exceed the sum of its parts.
    • 16Introduction 14Senge opens his later book, “Presence,” with“unlike machines [which can be simply brokendown to understand and fix], living systemsare continually growing and changing, ” butStewart Brand showed even buildings are bestStewart Brand showed even buildings are bestviewed as living systems reshaped and refinedover time by their occupants in sharp contrastto prior static “form follows function” thinking inhis inspirational book, “How Buildings Learn,What Happens After They’re Built.” (1994)
    • 17Introduction 15Moreover, automotive engineers long agreedGM had to employ ten times as many peopleto make about the same number of carsas Toyota that were, sadly, less reliable bothfrom focusing more on reliability of partsrather than the whole car and from usingstrict fixed controls rather than human trust tosustain long-term worker relationships.The goal of Systems Thinking is to look beyondseemingly “obvious” answers and understandthe complex relationships between entities.
    • 18Introduction 16The Systems Thinking / Dynamics approachto teaching and learning was started at theCatalina Foothills Orange Grove Middle School(Tucson, Arizona) in 1994 and similarprograms now exist in Michigan, Oregon,Massachusetts, Iowa, Georgia and Maryland(see http://www.watersfoundation.org).(see http://www.watersfoundation.org).Tools include computer simulations,diagramming tools, systems games, andphysical activities (a science class, say, mightfocus on biological systems where studentsexperiment with the relational impact of variousamounts of rain on the life of an ecosystem).
    • 19Introduction 12It was said biology determined our destiny.Now, however, neuroscientists agree skills andpersonality have little to due with the brains(and neurons) we were born with. It is insteadthe growing synaptic networks (until age 25),affected profoundly by teachers and parents,that decide if we’ll grow up to be a surgeon ora slacker. Good or bad, we are made by ourrelationships during “windows of opportunity.”
    • 20Introduction 10For adult or self-help therapy,Dr. Henry Cloud showed in “How People Grow”how the four popular Christian counselingmodels (based on holy gifts and tasks) of theSin Model (Good is good, you’re bad stop it),the Truth Model (just think it and do it), theExperimental Model (dig up pain for praying),and the Charismatic Healing Model never helpas much as one might expect and that only aRelational Model can get past growth ceilings.
    • 21Introduction 17For child delinquency therapy, S. D.Elliot (1998) reviewed 500 violence preventionprograms (that mostly focused on tasks, e.g.:zero tolerance, scared straight, DARE, bootand wilderness camps – not addressing anyknown risk factors and usually making thingsworse) and only three (that focused instead onrelationships) did any good: Functional FamilyTherapy, Oregon Treatment Foster Care,and (the best) Multisystemic Therapy (MST).
    • 22Introduction 18The MST professional must go beyond basicSystems Theory to sufficiently address thecentral interpersonal control and relationshipissues to predict which type of problems areassociated with which type of organizationalstructures and interaction patterns. And, get therequired support to collectively brainstorm andidentify a specific problem behavior, the keysuccess factors for change, and strengths inregards to the associated social factors.
    • 23Introduction 19Pirsig’s field of Metaphysics of Quality (intro-edwith Zen and Motorcycle Maintenance) arguesthat quality is both objective (essentialism) andsubjective (idealism), being greater than either.Social Constructionism attempts to describeSocial Constructionism attempts to describehow people cooperate in building the subjectiveelement of our social reality starting with Bergerand Luckmann claim in their 1966 “The SocialConstruction of Reality” that all “reality” has asocial framework (also see Colbert’s Wikiality).
    • 24Introduction 21Plato’s definition of art as imitation was used inthe art world until last century’s anti-essentialistmovement, fueled by the collage art style (usinga collection of real items, e.g.: Picasso’s StillLife with Chair Caning) that took us beyond thecubistic illusion of multiple perspectives to a farcubistic illusion of multiple perspectives to a farmore messy and real collective view of thespiritual impact of the world on our well-being.Alas, the failure of many modern art books tomake a distinction between even montage andcollage threatens this reflective art revolution.
    • 25Introduction 20Alas, even sales organizations typically don’tunderstand the importance of such a collectiveapproach. “A 2008 Selling Power online surveyfound that 29 percent of sales leaders judgedtheir CEO useless when it comes to creating atheir CEO useless when it comes to creating asale.” --Selling Power publisher GerhardGschwandtner adds that before a company canever be customer centric it must first, of course,be employee (especially direct sales) centric.
    • 26Introduction 22So, who can benefit from Direct Sales skills?Software developers, data architects,managers, department heads, salespersons,accountants, attorneys, coaches, historians,politicians, architects, engineers, evangelists,politicians, architects, engineers, evangelists,social workers, teachers, students, consultants,therapists, sociologists, artists, and CEOs.No matter your career path, To Sell Is Human(Daniel Pink) to persuade and to understand.
    • 27Introduction 22Process improvements generating exponentialparadigm shifts cause informational singularitiesSuch as the Agricultural Revolution for theHunter-Gatherer, then the Industrial Revolution,and finally last century’s Information Revolution.and finally last century’s Information Revolution.But, what might come next?Many believe it will be a “fifth wave” revolution ofrelational sciences as a new development basisfor a “new” economy based on social capital.
    • 28Introduction 22Why did I build this presentation?In the real world, egos and codependentrelationships often produce personal goals thatundermine best practices. And, trust is difficult ina world of high-tech communications and globala world of high-tech communications and globalmarkets based on deceitful practices. Thus, it’shard to predict success for either an open “noone at the top” or a charismatic management.Or, nobody taught me what I needed to know.
    • 29Introduction 22The Human Need To Be SeenWhile many have shown neurotic transferencesof childhood events into our adult lives startwhen parent, teacher, etc, prioritized their ownneeds above our childhood needs, such canneeds above our childhood needs, such canalso occur due to fears over not being noticed.Plus, the “new economy” business model is nolonger about making money, but social capital.And, the science of being seen is called SALES.
    • 307-Point Lecture Agenda1. What makes a good Direct Salesperson? →All sales require knowledge of the following2. Small Talk Basics and Catharsis Theory →3. Neuroeconomic Psychology Concepts →3. Neuroeconomic Psychology Concepts →4. Enemy Mine: embracing incompleteness →5. Buyer Behaviors and the Buyer Cycle →6. Management’s need to track the Sales Cycle →7. When to Hard Sell and when to Soft Sell →And, Sales Coaching (so to bring it all home)
    • 31#1: Direct Sales Is The Best• Anyone who changes people’s opinions and gainscommitments by building trusting relationships– Thus, sales is no different from teaching or evangelismin using “soft power” (not sticks or carrots) for change• Gutek, et al (2000)1, found in multiple surveys that<Home>• Gutek, et al (2000) , found in multiple surveys thatwhen customers expected to interact with thesame person in the future, they reported moretrust in and better knowledge of their providers,were more likely to continue doing business withthe provider, and were more likely to refer theprovider to others than customers who received adifferent person each time they called or whoanticipated only a one time service encounter.
    • 32Direct Sales DISC Profile• William Marston’s “Emotions of Normal People”(1928) Dual-axis (male/female) personality test• Ideal DISC Profile of the successful sales person– Hi Dominance: socially proactive (assertive or charming– Hi Dominance: socially proactive (assertive or charmingas the situation demands) with no fear of confrontation– Hi Interpersonal Skills: a fast talking but warm extrovert– Low Steadiness: preferring high stress environments– Low Compliance: likes to be in charge using out of thebox ideas even if they may cause missed deadlines• Also, self-motivated, independent, and confident• Most aren’t and feel uneasy around sales people
    • 33Valuable Sales Values(need 1-2 “that’s definitely me”)• Certain values are important to productive sales– Discussing an “ideal” sales personality is reallyabout developing key fruitful relationship values• Do you send out a hundred Christmas / birthdaycards each year to personal friends and family?cards each year to personal friends and family?– Don’t claim this if it’s really your spouse that’s doing it– Moreover, does this include a card for your butcher?• Is it a rare occurrence that you eat lunch alone?• Key to sales is a love for a “warm” marketDo you enjoy many brief encounters?– Six degrees of separation is due to such “connectors”
    • 34Valuable Sales Values (cont)• Do you value being a provider, driven (notpossessed) by increasingly profitable efforts?– Do you pay someone to iron your shirts and don’t haveextensive hobbies with “better” uses of your time?• Were you able to talk your way out of trouble• Were you able to talk your way out of trouble(and others in) as a child prodigy “spin” master?– Or, do you value developing such skills currently?• Do you have sufficiently “flexible” or “situational”ethics (see “Thank you for Smoking”) or is it moreimportant for you to instead always be “right?”– If an attorney, say, could you defend a murderer?
    • 35Valuable Sales Values (cont)• Are you driven by a love of information – if youknow about cars, is it, for example, from a love ofcars or more from a love of just any knowledge?– Do you ask lots of questions from a curiosity to learnfrom others (believing you can learn from anyone)?from others (believing you can learn from anyone)?– Do friends turn to you for advice on purchases?• Do you “need” to improve people (be “useful”)?– Do you solve your own problems by solving other’sand solve other’s problems by solving your own?– Apostle Paul wholly failed as a evangelist until hestopped for 20 years to work as a carpet salesman
    • 36Any Good Professional 2• Creative, energetic, with a good heart/manners• Motivated, strong work ethic, feels accountable• Flexible, creative, and often very open minded• Intelligent, with common sense (“street smarts”)• Intelligent, with common sense (“street smarts”)• Able to shift to organizational ecology as focus• Open to peer supervision and working in teams• Strong sense of ethics; keeps to higher ground• Likely to volunteer to be trained or do training• Willing to modify policies & dedicate resources• Fully able to take the “lead” in decision making
    • 37Vulnerable To Depression• Ironically, these very same success producingqualities often create a vulnerability to depression• For one thing, many high achievers turn out to be“super survivors” who come from backgrounds offamily violence or substance abuse (where thefamily violence or substance abuse (where theparent’s needs took precedence over the child’s)– Worry about living up to gender stereotypic worldview(more often boys, 4 times more likely to commit suicide)– And, their desire for long hours comes from learning todelay gratification (often taken for emotional maturity)– Thus, becoming a success is more fun than being one;so, often depressed, bored, fearful, without an identity
    • 38Must You Be Natural Born?• Fewer than 15% of salespersons (the few whocan relate with buyer’s time, agenda, purpose,etc.) drive over half of all sales – Why is this?• Even in our democratic society, most people liketo believe that success must be born into youto believe that success must be born into you– There are few sales degrees (but, that’s changing)– 70% of managers believe success needs no training– Forbes even lists Sales as one of the few top payingprofessions with the least required education, but• No, sales is science and the #1 antecedent isthe number of successful seminars completedin people, sales, and time management skills!
    • 39University Sales Programs 3• William Paterson University: 1st B.S. in Prof. Sales– Sponsors the National Sales Challenge Competition• Kennesaw State Univ: Sales Major since 1989– Sponsors National Collegiate Sales Competition• University of Toledo: Accredited MBA Sales spec.• University of Toledo: Accredited MBA Sales spec.• Western Michigan University: Sales Bus. Major• Western Kentucky University: Sales Bus. Major• College of St. Catherine: Healthcare Sales & B2B• Illinois State university: Sales Major & Executive• Specialized programs exist for Sports (Baylor), etc• Online programs: Jones International, Kaplan, etc
    • 40Common Sales Myths• Selling is a numbers game. No, sales is not alottery won by those with the most tickets, but wonby better research, marketing, and relationships– Sales is really far more like brain surgery than bingo• You must like people. No, great selling is notbeing willing to cozy up to anyone with a bankroll• People must like you. No, people should trustyou; but, a good listener will outsell a fast talker• Sales has its unavoidable ups and downs. No,sales is only a process driven roller coaster ridewithout well developed vision, goals, & planning
    • 41More Common Sales Myths• Rejection is the name of the game. No, it’s notthe sales person that loses, it’s the prospect’s loss• You must develop a thick skin. No, having aninternal reservoir of strength for the inevitableinternal reservoir of strength for the inevitablesetbacks isn’t about being offensively aggressive.Professional sales result in win-win situations.– 85% of presidents, CEO, etc. were once salespeople• Stress is inevitable. No, anyone can accept theworld for what it is and people for whom they are.Sales is simply finding what people are doing andhelping them (providing leverage) to do it better.
    • 42More Common Sales Myths• The best salespeople naturally make the bestsales managers. No, top salespeople (just liketop engineers, top doctors, etc.) often make thevery worst sales managers (or whatever mgr).• Everyone is a potential customer as you cansell anybody anything anytime. No, some buytoday, some tomorrow, and clearly some never.• You only need to hear six more no’s frompoor prospects and the next one is sure tobuy. No, you can hear 100 straight no’s and youcan still very well hear no from number 101.
    • 43#1 Myth Is, Again, Activity• “To double sales, see twice the people.”• This makes the most sense to any door to doorsalesperson selling a simple commodity but theleast sense to anyone using a value added modelleast sense to anyone using a value added model– when it can actually even decrease your sales• Prospect-to-sales and profit-per-client ratios (andhow they compare to the competition) are muchmore useful – and, such ratios focus on what youalready have, not what you don’t– And so, no, sales is a game of ratios (or rates)
    • 44Sales isn’t a Game of Numbers• You often see believers frantically tracking theirnumber of calls as well as their prospect visits• But, sales is not a calculation (or lottery) becauseit’s more about creating new relationships andit’s more about creating new relationships andresearching what potential clients most need• Sales is a QUALITY numbers game. If you seeenough of the right people (qualified prospects),building friendships, you will make lots of sales.– And, the natural high volume of rejection from talking toanyone and everyone will eventually take its toll on you
    • 45While Yes Comes After No• We are raised to believe we individually chooseto be winners who get yes’s or losers who getnos, but real “winning” comes by desire to “lose”– Businesses shown to succeed only by surviving failing• We are all born with the ability to lose and some• We are all born with the ability to lose and somelearn to accept necessary losing in order to buildone’s comfort zone, but real success starts bybeing attracted to no’s, losing, as well as conflict• But, living up to one’s potential means losingexponentially individually as well as in groups– Quality is about continually increasing improvements,or rate; not any level of performance, or number(s).
    • 46But, “No” Really Hurts• It’s a punch in the face (worse than sticks andstones) – often comes after “It’s not personal”• We have all experienced times of weakness andpowerlessness; it didn’t feel good. We’ve beenpowerlessness; it didn’t feel good. We’ve beenschooled to believe we must fit it. But, insecurityis synonymous with a frantic need for security.– In Start with NO, Jim Camp says “Fear of rejection is asign of neediness – specifically, the need to be liked”and suggests we start every negotiation contrarily.– “You do not need it. You only want it.” Being focusedon the end goal (the sales quota) can make you needy.
    • 47How To Survive “Failing”• A good sense of self and one’s vision statement• Knowing how to break big failures into small ones• Being good at having fun at any job (what I callthe Mary Poppins effect) and recharging quicklythe Mary Poppins effect) and recharging quickly• Knowing customer, problems, needs, hopes, etc.• Sources of sideline cheerleading & accountability• Keep a journal of what you do “right” each day• Chapter Four: Embracing One’s Incompleteness– Emotional and strategy development through expertextro-spection to better stimulate double-loop learning
    • 48Comparing Sales To Marketing• Marketing uses advertising, promotions, publicity,and feedback to mold societal wants and productsto each other for greatest traffic “through the door”– Marketing often starts in Sales to remove such researchload only later to manage Sales as last Marketing step,load only later to manage Sales as last Marketing step,is this as marketing better understands relationships?• Sales then converts those prospects into buyerswith expertise in “closing the deal” using personalquestioning to learn and satisfy customer wants– “a systematic process of repetitive and measurablemilestones of relating a product to achieve buyer goals”(see Selling Without Confrontation by Jack Green4)
    • 49#2: Small Talk Outline• First Impressions– Giving them what they want to see and hear– Don’t look like a salesperson fit in, like a zebra• Small Talk and Networking<Home>– Mostly about shared affirmations and congruence– Be purpose-driven and share topic negotiation– Killing “speed bumps” with kindness and small gifts• Catharsis Theory of shared experiences– Developing shared emotional insight and affection– Discovery (“active listening”) – not easily taught– While always working to avoid any and all face threats
    • 50Little Time For First Impressions• Credibility established in opening statement– 1/20th of second to develop an emotional attraction– 3 seconds to be appealing and capture their attention– 5 seconds to begin building a lasting first impression• Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink 5& Christine Perfetti’s 5-Sec Tests 6• Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink 5& Christine Perfetti’s 5-Sec Tests 6– 8 seconds to finish a message THEY find interesting• About the time it takes to slowly stroll past a exhibit booth– Or else, they will become bored and move on• Then, expect about seven follow-ups to fix things, if you can• People enjoy being right and will continue on apoor but immediately attractive person / web site> So, you must be immediately attractive! <
    • 51Instant “Halo” Generators 7• Good looking + grooming + taller = Social Benefits– Children know attractive kids are more often forgiven• Compliments, even fake just like canned laughter– Guinness’ Best Salesman Joe Girard sends a card toall 13,000 car buyers every month saying “I like you!”all 13,000 car buyers every month saying “I like you!”• Cooperative exercises or Good cop / Bad cop– Finding “lost” money is more valuable than “saved”– “If we ‘pull together,’ I can ‘do battle’ with my boss tosecure a good deal for you!” works even if you “fail”• Association with good food as well as good news– “Let me buy you lunch, we deserve to celebrate!”• Authority with humility: “We’re # 2, but we try harder”
    • 52Proxemics (Spacing and Posture)• Influence is inversely proportional to the square(or cube) of the distance between two people– Intimate space goes to 18 inches; Personal to fourfeet; Social to 12 feet; and, Public to 25 feet away (thelast two replace the primitive fight or flight space)last two replace the primitive fight or flight space)• Humans make territorial claims just like animals– Walking behind someone’s desk can be very invasive• People use personal items like photos to mark their space– Sociofugal spaces are organized for interpersonalcommunication (square spaces more comfortable),whereas sociopetal spaces encourage more solidarity– Americans need to “get otta’ my face” while backingaway tells an Egyptian or Iranian they are unworthy
    • 53Emulate A Close Relationship• Smiling, general facial pleasantness, affirmativehead nods, gestural animation, head tilts, relaxedbody, lack of any random movements, open bodypositions, and, most critical, postural congruence(sit or stand in line with their position and posture)(sit or stand in line with their position and posture)– Close, direct body orientation and leaning forward– Mutual eye contact but decreasing eye movements– Watch TV with a mirror and try emulating expressions• Pitch variation, amplitude, duration, and warmth– Reinforcing interjections such as “uh-huh” and “mm-hmmm,” greater fluency, expressiveness, and clarity• Above all, you must produce smooth turn-taking
    • 54Appearance Congruence• Clothes, speech, and image should express fullsocial agreement with the buyer (expectations)– Execu-Speak to Managers, Techno-Speak to Geeks,Denaro-Speak to Bean Counters, Slang to the Young• Best to become like them be a chameleon!• Best to become like them be a chameleon!– My 9-year old son saw me working on this slide andcried out, “Dad, You mean, ‘be a zebra!’ Zebrasblend in with others while chameleons fade away.”• You must also convey an honest desire to solvetheir problems and not the need to make a sale– Not be seen as pushy, self-centered, or manipulative– But, appear as knowledgeable, honest, and genuine
    • 55Don’t Look Like A Salesperson• Your suit and tie can confirm buyer’s expectationsof yet another person only pretending to help anda scripted opening may then validate such fears– May yell, “Whatever you’re selling, we don’t want any!”get in sync with the Buyer’s emotions• At least, get in sync with the Buyer’s emotions– “Yes, I’m sure that’s true! Of course, you don’t! And,who could blame you? But, you need it! Well, of course,it’s not cheap. If you give me a minute, I’ll tell you whyyou not only need to help me get a nice commissionpaycheck but why you going to be thrilled to do so.”– Amazon’s Customer Support e-mail replies are angryabout customer problems: “I’m very upset about ”
    • 56Appear Genuine 8• More than appearance and emotional syncing• Maintain good eye contact – no darting about• Animated (not fidgety), using hands for emphasis• Don’t distance yourself with 2nd and 3rd person• Don’t distance yourself with 2nd and 3rd personpronouns like “you,” “we,” and “they;” use names• “To tell you the truth” or “to be perfectly honest”suggests you normally lie – don’t say such things!• Agree and compliment: “Great idea last week!”• Ask permission, “Can I give you some ideas thatmight enhance your office, project, or career?”
    • 57And, Sound Connected• Whether looking to connect with a client, or adate, we might start off a conversation with• “How was your day?”• But reconsider, it would be better to start with• But reconsider, it would be better to start with“How are you doing?” – the all time classic• Or even better, “Is your mom / family doing well?”• Or the ultimate, “I saw (or heard) something (say,a presentation) today that made me think of you.”• These questions sound like you want to “connect”to the person’s current emotional state of mind
    • 58Good vs. Great• GOOD salespeople are polished and professional;plus, they’ve got a great pitch and are very likable.– BUT, they make most prospects wary. People may likeand even support them, but certainly don’t trust them.• GREAT salespeople could look like above, or be• GREAT salespeople could look like above, or befolksy like a good country preacher, or even be atotal mess but, great means being genuine!– GREAT is about being stubborn, aggressive, andpersistent without ever being perceived as those things– If you’re told you’re a great salesperson, you not! Theyjust bought something they normally wouldn’t have– It’s much better if they say, “You make a lot of sense.”
    • 59History of Small Talk Bonding• Military salute originates from knights lifting theirvisor when deciding not to fight – thus, it simplysays, “I see you and recognize you as an equal”• Hand shake says, “Look, I am not carrying aweapon – you can trust me (at least, to a point)”weapon – you can trust me (at least, to a point)”• Small Talk should likewise communicate toneand rhythm before “getting down to business”• No real or “task” information should be shared –moving too quickly “at” the person only says onedoes not respect the other (figuratively has aknife with visor closed) and is ready to be trouble
    • 60Definition of Small Talk• Often considered superficial, Small Talk is for:– Starting and ending most any English interaction– Filling uncomfortable silence – important to Americans– Overall, helping build and maintain relationships• Requires knowledge of small talk rules, languagefluency and vocabulary, and ability to discussmany topics, esp. about yourself and their culture• Meeting at a restaurant, you can say “Was there alot of traffic? Did you have any trouble finding thebuilding? I hope it doesnt rain again tomorrow.”(from: http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/archive/2007-10/2007-10-02-voa2.cfm)
    • 61The Four Steps of Small Talk1.It is best to start with the other person’s name:“Hi Mike, I’m Jim. How are you doing?”– The dominant interactant (or Alpha) speaks first– “Good to see you” better than “Good to meet you”>> Encourage other with several “yes” questions>> Encourage other with several “yes” questions– “Enjoying the weather?” “Did you order this sunshine?”– “Did you see the game yesterday?” “ the TV show?”– “Is your mother / family well?” “Would you like a mint?”2.Respond with whole sentence, no real information– “Yes, it’s gorgeous. I love hot, sunny days.”– “Yea, Mom is really enjoying retirement.”– “I’m having a lot of trouble with my asthma.” <= NO!
    • 624 Steps of Small Talk (continued)3.One can respond to the provided response by– Echo question/statement (“Am I well?” or “You’re well.”)– Checking back (“Is that right?” or “Did you say ?”)– Acknowledgement (“I see”) or simple affirmation (“Yes”)– Confirming an expected response (“Right,” “That’s– Confirming an expected response (“Right,” “That’strue,” “That’s very astute,” or “Indeed, that has been<my or other’s> experience”). The best response isa very strong positive evaluation: “That’s great!”4.The final move consists only of various idlingbehavior (like “Mhm”, “Really”, “Yea”, etc.) untilstarting over or ending w/ “Enjoy your weekend,”“I enjoyed seeing you,” or “Have a great day!”
    • 63Small Talk Builds Trust• Moving too quickly is a face threat (for example,asking a stranger how much money he or she hasor what kind of deodorant he or she prefers)– But, Social Penetration Theory shows we like (or trust)people who gradually engage in self-disclosure and wepeople who gradually engage in self-disclosure and wetend as well to then disclose more to people we like– “You’ve got to be believed to be heard” by Bert Decker9• Small Talk emphasizes interpersonal goals in aritualized way to “grease the wheels” of “task talk”– Which works only IF there is a repeated sharing ofspoken (as well as appearance) affirmations– So, we need them to say “yes” (most anything works)
    • 64Networking Example• Mike, good to see you.Are you doing well?• Is that right? So, is yourmom also doing OK?• Thanks for asking, Jim.Yes, I am (nodding).• Yea, Mom’s reallyenjoying retirement.mom also doing OK?• That’s great! Mint?• You’re welcome. Hey,did you catch the localball game last night?• That’s really true!• I enjoyed seeing you.enjoying retirement.• Yes, thanks. [third yes]• The warmer weathermakes going out to agame much more fun.• Mhm [third affirmation]• Well, have a good day.
    • 65Trawling• Billy Beane of the Oakland A’s (who often beatteams with 2.5 times larger budgets) calls theconstant networking he does with other GeneralManagers (keeping tabs on the information heneeds for future trading success) “Trawling”needs for future trading success) “Trawling”– Trawling: fishing with two boats and a large net• Beane also Trawls brochures and Web sites• Beane also purposely Trawls all the players– To help boost the value of one trade to get another• He smells money if anyone says, “I have to ”– Doesn’t even need to be in any way about baseball
    • 66Know Where You’re GoingRealtor: Alright. Fromyour names, I can seethat you’re related. Bymarriage, right?Realtor: Really? When?Client: Yes, we’renewlyweds.Client: June eleventh.Realtor: Really? When?Realtor: Congratulations.Realtor: Holy cow.Realtor: You guys don’tfool around, do you?Client: June eleventh.Client: We’re alsoexpecting a baby.Client: In May. So. Andwe want to buy ahouse.(From Negotiated Collusion by Cassell and Bickmore10)
    • 67Where You’re Going (continued)Realtor: You took awhileto decide then it waslike, let’s do it all.Realtor: That’s the way.Do you know if it’s toClient: Moving into thenew Millennium. So.Client: We find out nextweek.Do you know if it’s tobe a boy or a girl?Realtor: When’s it’s due?Realtor: Very good.Realtor: Awesome. Youwant the house beforethe child?week.Client: May 29th.Client: Yea. Good timing.<= The Destination(From Negotiated Collusion by Cassell and Bickmore 10)
    • 68Where You’re Going (continued)• The Realtor was determining sale parameters– How many Influencers are involved in the purchase– The size of the family, and therefore, how big of ahouse they will need near-term (may buy more later)– The projected time line for the purchase and use– The projected time line for the purchase and use• As well as critical social features of the clients– Building rapport with small talk through intimacy withself-disclosure, credibility with expert jargon, socialnetworking with gossip, and “face” with politeness– How close they felt with her at that moment, andtherefore, how likely they are to want to work with her– Never seeming to be (or actually being) in a hurry
    • 69Be Purpose Driven• Return to step #1 for “yes” sharing until leaving– Susan Roane, the “Mingling Maven,” says effectivenetworking (which is only about small talk) requires aperson simply to, “Be bright. Be brief. Be gone.”11– Keith Ferrazzi (Never Eat Alone12) says don’t schmooze– Keith Ferrazzi (Never Eat Alone ) says don’t schmooze– Dale Carnegie said smile, use name, question, listen– Don’t Sell, but Network bumps and other influencers• Or, decide it’s time for a deeper conversation– Catharsistic communication consisting of emotionalinsight, understanding, and actions of commitment– Know your intent & mission (next sales cycle,recommendation, etc.) and primary benefits• 75% of people have no objective when making a sales call
    • 70Be Empathetic• Use “You” mode summarizing empatheticstatements: “You feel ” and “You’re feeling”• Facilitate safe access to negative emotions and buildidentification in order to even “read between the lines”• Also, use “I” mode empathetic statements• Also, use “I” mode empathetic statementstemporarily assuming the other person’s identity:“Mike, I’m really upset about [his problem]”– This will help develop an understanding of the “real”problems as well as communicate they’re not yours– This externalization will help the client recognize otherperspectives and be more open to new solutions
    • 71And, Share Topic Negotiation• Rather than being introduced by one speaker– Topics can be proposed via “topical bids” (such as “Ijust got back from vacation”) and then accepted withinterest “topicalizers” (such as “Oh, yea?”)– Proposals (“Well, that reminds me of a story.”)– Proposals (“Well, that reminds me of a story.”)– Contributions should fit within the topic progression• Gradual topic transitions in a smooth stepwiseand collaborative manner in order to displaymutual willingness to enter the new discussion– “Intimacy is as much a ‘negotiated collusion’ as it is astate of ‘true oneness’” (Brown and Rogers, 1991).– See Cassell and Bickmore’s Negotiated Collusion10
    • 72Use Bridging Statements• For moving from the Small Talk to the Work Talk– Simplest: “Well, I don’t want to monopolize your time,the reason/purpose for my call/e-mail/seeing you is ”• Bridging is also used to restate prior informationwith a confirming question to gain agreementwith a confirming question to gain agreement– Normally, this would be used in later meetings with,say, “Has anything changed since our last meeting?”– Allow the customer to make corrections or additionsand then follow up by returning to another bridging• Finally, bridging is used to the referral request– “Since you’ve discovered first-hand my value-addedservice, who else do you think can likewise benefit?”
    • 73Are You Linked In? 13• http://www.linkedin.com/ business oriented socialnetwork includes cell phone access (5x yearly)– Others are Facebook, Jigsaw, Orkut, Spoke, Xeegua– First introduction, or take edge off of a first meeting– Fundamentally changing the nature of lead generation• Just E-mail a link before meeting with a prospect– For a quick introduction, resume highlights, hobbies– Letting prospects update their own contact information– BUT, this also allows competition to see your contacts– Spend 15 minutes a day researching targets, askingfor introductions, and reciprocating the same for others
    • 74Identify “Speed Bumps”• Anyone with the ability to slow down the salescycle: receptionists, secretaries, or assistants– They can rob you of time and provide undue grief• Acting like gate guards, they can be hard to get• Acting like gate guards, they can be hard to getalong with or impossible to get information from– Can be “Speed Bumps” for many potential prospects;plus, can easily be promoted to buyer in the future• Develop long-term relationships by “killing” themwith kindness of flowers, candy, and small gifts– Network (not sell) Buyer’s bumps, peers, and “heroes”• New speed bump is the automated phone system
    • 75Understand Catharsis Theory• Aristotle said watching a tragedy can purge oneof strong emotions (also by Feshbach & Singer)– Like blowing off steam or a good cry, if leads to change• Strong empathy and psychological identificationcan be developed by shared sensation seekingcan be developed by shared sensation seeking– Can backfire, takes effort and time, better in person– Golf, lunch, movie/date, Internet blogging, & YouTube– Strategic and operational social marketing both use acustomer oriented and viral marketing approach fromsustainable marketing and social media optimizationtechniques to “mashup” differing shared experiences– Only if energy is directed into understanding problems
    • 76Feeling Good Can Be Bad!• In 1951, Powers & Witmer studied high-risk boys– Half were counseled and sent to YMCA after 5 years,therapists felt most had “benefited substantially;” boysagreed: it gave them insight & kept them out of trouble.• Yet, the “helped” boys committed more crimes &• Yet, the “helped” boys committed more crimes &were more affected by alcoholism, mental illness,and lower job satisfaction than those left alone.– See The Crying Game14by Dr. Richard Bolstad• Like therapy, crying, and even religion, sales onlyhas value if it encourages the individual to growand not simply to feel better about who they are!– “If you’ve never been hurt by a word from God, you’veprobably never heard Him speak.” – Amy Carmichael
    • 77Developing Emotional Insight• Sales and marketing based on people makingconscious and rational decisions is FALSE!– Cognitive science shows 95% of all human behavior(more for women) controlled by emotional connections(familiars and whether they will make us look/feel good)(familiars and whether they will make us look/feel good)• Products either cheaper or more loved – be loved!– And yet, 90% of salespeople ask insulting questions• Become aware of your own driving subconsciousfeelings and pay more attention to context thancontent (the “media is the message”) by isolatingyour senses (body language and sound of voice)– Listen and observe more while talking and acting less
    • 78Emotional Insight (continued)• Five Why’s15to discover underlying motivations– Why is more emotional than How, Who, or When– For example, community donations are not about howmuch others are helped but acting on one’s beliefs andmicro-brewed beer is not about quality but showing offmicro-brewed beer is not about quality but showing off– Mom’s prefer unhurried doctors with good eye contactthan degrees from top colleges and UPS customersprefer feeling informed on options than fastest delivery• Others: Why should they care? Have you grabbedtheir interest? What should they feel? Why shouldthey believe you? Have you sold yourself as bestdelivery? What do you want them to remember?
    • 79Exchange of Information• This means understanding rather than knowing– Transmitting data is secondary in developing a lastingunderstanding between people this is why mostbonding conversations involves no real exchange ofhard information at all. Alas, TVs, emails, cell phones,hard information at all. Alas, TVs, emails, cell phones,and fewer places to assemble usually skip small talkconversations today and makes building trust harder.– We often send mixed messages, only repeat ourselvesinstead of respond, use blocked body language, fail toask for feedback, and wholly miss critical cultural cues– Ask more questions; don’t fall into features and price!• Keep factual situational questions like how many to a minimum
    • 80Info Exchange (continued)• Most info should be about jokes and stories, food,music, health, birthdays and anniversaries, itemsfor sale (EBay), playing games, and hobbies• Physical proximity often facilitates learning about• Physical proximity often facilitates learning aboutother’s interests and abilities, task coordination,and builds relationships via informal, relativelyunplanned communications (e.g.: at water cooler)– My favorite meetings are “accidental” ones in hallways• Building trust with social dialog that begins withnon-intimate topics and then slowly progresses– KISS: Keep It Simple but Smart, then more complex
    • 81True Even For Virtual Agents(Like MS Bob & Paper Clip)From “Relational Agents16” by Timothy Bickmore and Justine Cassell• Users prefer computers that compliment, usehumor, cultural lingo, & deepening self-disclosure• Resnick & Lammers showed it is easier to alteruser behavior by corrective error messages viadifferent humanness levels for user self-esteemdifferent humanness levels for user self-esteem– Task-oriented computer-ese for low self-esteem, morehuman-like for high-esteem, Resnick/Lammers 1985• REA is a real-time, life-sized Real Estate Agentthat responds to turn-taking gestures,allows herself to be interrupted, repairsmisunderstandings, and elicits trust bytalking about the weather, herself, etc.
    • 82The Critical Friendship Goal• Closeness: each conversational topic has aprerequisite familiarity before introducing it(especially for sensitive topics like money)>> This is why cold calls frequently fail! <<>> This is why cold calls frequently fail! <<– Topic coherence and relevance: such as from weather,to Boston weather, and finally to Boston real estate– Task goals: discovering hidden key personal needs– Logical preconditions: such as one must first determineif a person is a student before asking them their majorIf you can’t “Dad was replaced by a small gizmo thatcould do everything he could; even Mom bought one!”
    • 83Defining Power (Net Zero Sum)• The ability of one to control the behavior of others• Solidarity (or Brown and Levinson’s 1978 SocialDistance) is “like-mindedness” or similar behaviordispositions (e.g., similar political membership,family, religion, profession, interests, gender, etc)• Familiarity develops with reciprocal exchanges,beginning with non-intimate topics and graduallyprogressing to more personal and private topics– Growth can be represented by the breadth (number oftopics) and depth (public to private) of information• Affect (trust) is degree of apreciating above two
    • 84Defining “Face”• Goffman defined “Line” as patterns of action bywhich individuals present an image of themselvesand “Face” as “the positive social value a personeffectively claims for himself by the line othersassume he has taken during a particular contact.”assume he has taken during a particular contact.”• Face is maintained by having one’s line accepted– Events incompatible with how we want people to seeus must be avoided or mitigated so not to lose face– Face threats from overt power, low familiarity, socialdistance, and speech (informing, requesting, rejecting)can force one to back off, to work “under the radar,” doredressive (pos or neg) strategies, or perform poorly
    • 85Redressing Face Threats• Grice’s (1975) communication rules are: speaktruthfully, say no more or less than required, norandom topics but follow the “flow,” and be clear• Missing manners to avoid Face Threatening Acts• Missing manners to avoid Face Threatening Acts– E.g.: simple statements in text can be read as “flames”• Could instead say nothing (but little profit in that)• But, familiarity can turn threat into building bonds– Building common ground starts with the weather, etc.,building affective reactions (smiling), synchronizingspeech and appearance, and affirmations (small talk isprimarily about taking turns showing agreement)
    • 86Sample Face Threat Redressings(“Pass the salt” could be heard as a command)• Best: “I’m sorry, but I’d be grateful for the salt.”– Oriented towards the listener’s autonomy concerns withan apology, incurred debt, and imposition minimization• Pos: “Hey buddy, you want to pass me the salt?”– Incorporates esteem needs and assumed compliance– Incorporates esteem needs and assumed compliance– And, uses common ground, humor, & rewards/promises• Off the record: “Mhm, I find this food a bit bland.”– Plausible deniability with innuendo and ambiguous hint• Min: “Could you just nudge that salt over here?”• Def: “Excuse me, sir, would you pass the salt?”• Pessimistic: “You’re not passing the salt, are you?”
    • 87Influence of Small Talk on Affect• Avoiding face threatsby sidestepping majorpower imbalances• Showing appreciationfor other’s contributionsfor other’s contributions• Establishing a commonground through stories• Increasing familiarity &solidarity by keeping tocontextual topics• Building coordinationand positive affect withshort synchronizationsFrom “Relational Agents16” by Timothy Bickmore, Justine Cassell
    • 88Resolving Bottlenecks• First overt cause of conflict is the current or pastclash of values, personalities, or social norms– Be flexible and objective; accept differences and others– Be appreciative; give a smile or small gift (buy a drink)– Switch perspectives and positions to walk in their shoes– Switch perspectives and positions to walk in their shoes• Include someone objective or whom they respect– Respected figures include Doctors, experts, and Mom• Look ahead or even suspend discussions untillater, logic is constant but emotions are not (e.g.:people are more generous during the holidays)• But, there is also another unspoken root cause
    • 89Discovery• Must be practiced because it’s not easily taught• Establishing a relaxed conversational rapportthat includes learning about the prospect isessential before discussing the product on offer• When it’s time for the final close, the answer willbe so obvious no real decision will be required• While most professionals claim to know how keythis is, few are able to do so efficiently due to notunderstanding basic human thinking and neverhaving been trained on how to phrase questions– As a result, mismanaged efforts end up un-selling
    • 90#3: Shrink Kit Outline• “All people are out of their minds!” - Dr. Ellis17– Handling a neurotic or disordered buyer / company• Understanding common verbal behaviors / clues– Since, people almost never say what they really mean<Home>– How to negotiate with a difficult buyer (never argue!)• Neuroeconomics (buying is emotional, not logical)– Self-centered, concrete, contrast, short-term, & visual– How to sell to the old brain and raise the unconscious– Using crisis and shock, sell respectfully to the heart– the goal is always a commitment, before any informing• Change Agents persuade for more commitments
    • 91“People Are Out Of Their Minds!”(symptoms of unmet emotional needs => greatest need)• Dr. Albert Ellis: “[People] are not only disturbed.They get disturbed about their disturbances.”17– Murphy: any human system is inherently unreliable• 30% of Americans clinically dissociated neurotics– More doctor visits for neurotic stress than common cold– More doctor visits for neurotic stress than common cold– Blame themselves, overworked, powerless, depressed,codependent need to help, work as rescuers and fixers• 15% of Americans serious personality disorders– Detached, overemotional, and high risk for addictions,reckless behavior, and clashes with societal norms– “Persecuted” emotional vampires; work as councilors,law enforcement, teachers, religious leaders, and81% of high school bullies end up in management
    • 92Handling the Neurotic Company• All people / organizations exhibit some neuroses– Conspicuous consumption (i.e. over eating / using)– Constant need to check on others, micromanagement– Shooting messengers of bad news to solve problems• Criticizing (even constructively) only makes them• Criticizing (even constructively) only makes themworse – better to overload them with unimportantinformation, affirmations, gifts, 1-on-1 mirroring 18– Post-trauma → “distraction therapy” overload with info– Compulsive → provide affirmation esp. for failed efforts– Prevalent depression → extra kindness and small gifts– Denial → one-on-one focusing on mirroring behaviors
    • 93Talking With A Narcissist• Repeatedly find agreements, even the weather,and get closure (confirm, close, & leave a topic)• Sitting is better than standing for being calm• Never validate their self-destructive delusions• Never validate their self-destructive delusions• And, avoid trying to disprove their perceptions• Be assertive and keep positive: never say, “No”• No hedging or dilution such as “I feel awful, but”• Persuade by focusing on interests, not positions• Ask problem-solving and implication questionsthat use their cooperation for building solutions
    • 94Types of Personality Disorders• Borderline Personality Disorder: wide moodswings, rage, idealization and devaluation– BPDs are the most difficult to read and deal with• Narcissistic Personality Disorder: feelssuperior and entitled to getting special treatmentsuperior and entitled to getting special treatment• Histrionic Personality Disorder: needs chaos• Anti-social Personality Disorder: disregard forsocietal rules and demonstrates little empathy• Dependent Personality Disorder: preoccupiedwith their own helplessness and passivity
    • 95Personality Disorder Overview• Rigid and adversarial relationship perspectives– Chronic inner distress (fear of abandonment) causesexcessive need for diminishing and controlling others– Experts at blaming others (always better than self)– Lying is often justified by hidden agenda or revenge– Lying is often justified by hidden agenda or revenge– Motivated only by personal reasons (“Christ within”)– Often uses intense fits in order to fool the naive person• So, address their key P. A. S. S. emotional needs– Power: often associated by the “power of the purse”– Affiliation: they may need a new identity by association– Status: they need to feel important, visible, and special– Security: their need for safety overrides everything else
    • 96Handling Personality Disorders• Challenge carefully their attitudes about their rolein any negotiations, the accuracy of their views,high expectations of the world to go their way,and focus on reducing any and all their anxieties• Maintain control of conversation, slowing down tokeep the conversation simple and well focused• Here, one-on-one isn’t best; better to use a team• Brainstorm solutions, get validation from thosethey value, identify their particular strengths, andencourage them to be part of the solution in orderto support their wholly desperate need for control
    • 97Did You Hear? Use A Team!• Use a pair of mature, autonomous salespeoplewhere one is the closest possible customer copy– If prospect is a woman, have a woman on the team– If an engineer, best to have an engineer on the team• Thus, best to work with multi-person diverse team– Varying age, gender, speech pattern, background, etc.• In general, PDs are more focused and organized;team will help maintain control of the conversation– Ask neutral, circular, hypothesizing (to lead) questions– E.g.: One team member could ask the other, “What doyou see as the biggest challenge being faced here?”
    • 9878% Say Rudeness Increasing• Likely unstimulated people feeling a lack of control– esp. working with those of slower tempo under pressureto produce in a hostile and uncreative STJ environment– Connection to victims from hating what they can’t face– Absence of parental involvement and repeated threat of– Absence of parental involvement and repeated threat ofrejection for children will develop either bully or victim• And, people act according to the prevailing culture– With men likely to be more rude only to underlings– And, women equally rude to superiors and subordinates• Repeat offenders without conflict resolution skillsoften end up being passive and then explosive
    • 99Because Rudeness Sadly Wins• Univ of N. Carolina of 1,400 showed rude peopleare 3 times more likely to be in higher positions19– Workplace bullying linked to over a third of all stressillnesses (www.workingwounded.com, Joyner 2001)– “If you had to brand managers with psycho jargon,– “If you had to brand managers with psycho jargon,they’d be STJs on the Myers-Briggs personality test” –psychologist Ted Bililies (Investment Leadership20)– Harvard’s Teresa Amabile “Creativity in the workplaceget killed much more often than it gets supported.”21– Otto Krueger (Type Talk at Work with Janet Thresen),“Striving for efficiency, managers may produce a workforce full of hostility, stress, and absenteeism.”22
    • 100Types of Rude People• Reactive: poor socialization skills, poor inhibition,low verbalization skills, rapid escalation of anger,common subject of “anger management” referrals• Instrumental: more competent, very possessive,see others as needing them, and sees controllingsee others as needing them, and sees controllingbehavior as good and so no remorse. Consistentwith a borderline, bi-polar, or “closet” narcissist.• Antisocial: uses relationships to further otherinterests and does not develop such dependentattachments as the instrumental personality; justneeds to relieve the sense of being controlled.
    • 101Professional Victims• Less experienced; are more naïve and trusting– Blame themselves, finding it difficult to read people– Always puts the needs and feelings of others first– Often are high energy, hard working, and focused• Feel they have no control and few alternatives,• Feel they have no control and few alternatives,often embarrassed although ambivalent about it• Psycho-physiological reactions include fatigue,backaches, headaches, and inability to sleep• Displays weaknesses: being depressed, upset,and discussing it openly marks them by bullies• Bullies and victims have stereotypical relationshipviews plus overwhelming fear of powerlessness
    • 102Handling A Bully Or A Victim• Use a positive approach to get positive results– See rudeness / victim-ness as challenging not difficult– Do they need professional help or stress / overloaded?– See sales opportunity left by others just giving up early• Start neutral; be clear and direct; use light humor• No hedging like “Sorry, I feel awful about this”• Never “this is just how it is” or start extreme thenback off – as both force the person to save face• Be empathetic and never address anger directly• Use follow-ups for cooling down & getting off self
    • 103If You’re The Bully / Victim• Do you hear yourself saying, “I can always dobetter” or “I need to be in control of my feelings?”• Joke about being OCD? (Which is actually morelikely for a Social Phobic than OCD personality)likely for a Social Phobic than OCD personality)• Assertive Communication Training for withdrawnvictim; Empathy Training for disassociated bully• Social Skill and Sensitivity Reduction Training forhyper-vigilance “trust issues” common to both• Time Management (Daily Log) for avoidance• May need family intervention and couples therapy
    • 104Empathetic Better Than Active• Active Listening is not only about listening to thewords, intonation, and observing body languagebut also about asking key open-ended questions– Analytical, empty of two-way emotional involvement• Empathetic Listening is about more than gettingkey information in a non-judgmental way usinggood etiquette (often for a manipulative motive)• But, empathetic listening includes reactions withfeedback and checking emotional understanding– Honest in expressing disagreement (civilly) whilealso expressing genuine interest in the other’s opinion
    • 105But, Facilitative Is Best• Facilitative Listening goes beyond empathetic asit implies you are able to facilitate other person’sneed to communicate (building safe boundaries)– Being self-aware to exercise caution for the other(more than getting past the “words” to the meaning)(more than getting past the “words” to the meaning)– And so, more than achieving desired outcomes• This requires you have thought (and practiced)very carefully what you will ask and how you willrespond – including providing timely pauses – tofacilitate seeing and understanding all the options– Devoid of any selfish motives other than to help
    • 106Handling Everyone Else 23• Drivers like to dominate proceedings: you mustnot challenge this desire but be mildly submissiveby only offering suggestions (“Power” strategy)• Communicators are motivated most by new ideasand the opinions of others (“People” strategy)and the opinions of others (“People” strategy)• Planners dislike conflict and so need more time todecide as well as guarantees (“Promise” strategy)• Analysts focus on the details on implementationand maintenance tasks (“Proof” strategy)• Assertive: Power/People; Open: People/Promise;Passive: Promise/Proof; Controlling: Proof/Power< Which style above would best sell to you? >
    • 107Perhaps, Shock For Stubborn• Cop answers domestic violence call – they don’twant him there – he passes right by the couplein heated debate (they pay him little attention),reads a paper for a while, makes a mock phonecall during which he yells, “What do you meancall during which he yells, “What do you meanthis is tool late to call!” to first get their attention.– See George Thompson’s Verbal Judo (1993)24• Salesperson works all morning making hundredsof small icons to throw out of a bag as soon asshe enters a sales call and yells, “These are thecustomers you’ll gain by using my services!” Herassistant cleans up as she continues her pitch.
    • 108Distraction Therapy (continued)• William Booth would often talk to his umbrella likea madman in order to attract a crowd and was soconfrontational England’s Lord Shaftesbury evencalled him the Anti-Christ. But, he attracted overhalf of London’s Christians to his churches andhalf of London’s Christians to his churches andhis Salvation Army is now in over 100 countries!– Business guru Peter Drucker called the $2 billion a yearcharity unique among all charities and “By far the mosteffective organization in the United States. No one evencomes close to it in respect to clarity of mission, abilityto motivate, measurable results, dedication, and puttingmoney to maximum use.” (Forbes, August 11, 1997)
    • 109Verbal Judo 24• Best way for a cop to get hospitalized is by layingdown the law with lines like, “I’m not going to saythis again!” and “Why don’t you be reasonable?”– Parents, judges, etc often similarly kill all win-winopportunities; only really useful when not expectedopportunities; only really useful when not expected– The same is true of the ageless positional negotiatingminuet that starts with an extreme anchoring point andtends to lock participants into positions to save face• In the real world, egos and codependences oftenproduce settings that simply prevent mutual gains– Learn how to use words and phrases to lead, persuade,clarify, diffuse, and navigate nearly any situation; avoidego mistakes as well as learn communication profiling.
    • 110Pathology Review• Any person or organization that does not perceiveits own pathology will eventually self-destruct– Usually by refusing to see internal problems and thenprojecting troubles (and “solutions”) on external sources• People never say what they mean - Virginia Satir• People never say what they mean - Virginia Satir– E.g.: 80% of products popular in surveys never sell!• Mental health begins with consciousness– Serge refers to this higher-order as spiritual “Presence”– Determine if current solutions have been coerced• Focus on future and goals, not past or present– Start by defusing anger with agreement, say yes a lot– Suzette Elgin’s The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense25
    • 111Exposure Behavior Theory• EBT assumes behavior is based on avoidance –avoiding things we fear: heights, failure, people• Accordingly, direct confrontation of the “monster”would be best way to overcome irrational fears• Goal is thusly to flood client with “monster” issues– Ask imposing, intrusive, uncomfortable questions,but only after reinforcing what they’re doing right• Allow your weaknesses be your strengths; whenApostle Paul prayed about his physical problems,God said, “Strength is revealed thru weakness”– “Avoidance is the cause of all anxiety; exposure is thecure for all anxiety” – the Tibetan Book of the Dead
    • 112Hidden Emotion Theory• HET assumes anxious behavior is based on onebeing too accommodating by avoiding feelings• Goal is therefore to expose the hidden feelings,address and resolve the underlying problemsaddress and resolve the underlying problems– “How would you feel?” “How might others feel?”• Problem not in past; it’s right now, but hidden– Must understand client’s emotional point of view• Being ready with ways to minimize their fears– “Stop letting other people cheat you out of the incomeyou deserve” “Your life may depend on this information”
    • 113Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy• CBT assumes behavior is based on our thoughts;not any objective reality of people or situations– How you think is how you feel so think better– First, thinking must be “monitored” to be altered– Requires one be verbal, independent, and reflective• Active Socratic confrontation by asking questions,“How do you know this to be true?” to rationallychallenge their self-destructive unauthentic ideas– We all think we must be perfect and loved by everyone– Trust is first required to help build critical thinking skills– The secret is Think Stopping: “No, wait. Slow down.”
    • 114Ellis’ ABC’s of Irrational Beliefs 26• A: Activating event triggering negative thinking• B: Belief triggered (or transferred) by this event• C: Consequence of ensuing dysfunctional feelings• D: Dispute feelings: question other possibilities• D: Dispute feelings: question other possibilities• E: Effect of dispute: new emotional consequence• Goal is to challenge & reframe ABC progression– No need to understand any personal childhood issues;focus on adult strengths for self-soothing self-validation– ABC plan focuses on conflicting beliefs to produce newfeelings and reengineer personal goals (to improve thebehavior and not the psyche) from rationality & control
    • 115Sport’s Self-Talk• All about gaining control to make solution-mindedpositive goal statements you want to come true,such as “How am I going to make this happen?”– See yourself doing / saying what you what to do / say• Your mind set should not be about whether you’llmake a mistake but how fast you can recover.Take one thing at a time, living in the moment.• Practice feeling in your “New Brain” and removingextra thoughts, like anxiety, from your “Old Brain”– Don’t try to control everything practice just doing it!• This has NOTHING to do with “The Secret!”
    • 116Not Necessarily Introspection• Behaviorists showed long ago that self-reflectionwas unreliable, providing only subjective gains– We’re all thieving liars - the MMPI personality test usesas proof youre a liar if you refuse to admit you’re a thief• Hence, the need for extrospection or external• Hence, the need for extrospection or externalobservations (preacher, teacher, a salesperson)– But, the external observer can still engage someone in“thinking aloud” to better understand their perspective• Discriminate and debate unrealistic demands fromignored rational solutions, “Where is it written?”– Creating transforming ideas for benefits of your product
    • 117The Satir Process 27• Making contact: slow down and pay attention toyour breath, thoughts, as well as those of others• Validating: value your resources, and of others• Becoming Aware: of your inner process and• Becoming Aware: of your inner process andbehavior, as well as conscious of those of others• Opening: gain insight of people’s differences andacceptance of resulting strengths & contradictions• Conscious Choosing: helping yourself and others• Seeking / Giving Support: proactively seek andgive support when needed, “How can I help?”
    • 118The Five Verbal Profiles(And, what they say in a stuck elevator)• Computer: “There is undoubtedly some perfectlysimple reason why this elevator is not moving.Certainly, there is no cause whatever for alarm.”• Placater: “Oh, I hope I didn’t cause this.”• Blamer: “Which one of you idiots did this?!?”• Blamer: “Which one of you idiots did this?!?”• Distracter: “Did one of you hit the Stop Button?Oh, I didn’t mean that; of course none of youwould do anything like that! Why do things likethis happen to me? There must be a reason.”• Leveler or Phony: “Personally, I’m scared.”< Which sounds like what you might say? >See Virginia Satir’s Peoplemaking (Science and Behavior Books, 1972)28
    • 119The Five Non-Verbal Profiles• Computer: “Stiff, rigid, moving little as possible”• Placater: “Cling and fidget and lean on others”• Blamer: “Shake their fists or index fingers; theyscowl and frown and loom over people”• Distracter: “Again cycle though the other modeswith their bodies just as they do with their heads”• Leveler or Phony: “Distinguished by the absenceof rigidity, fidgeting and leaning, & shaking hands;words and actions in harmony with true feelingscan sometimes be mistaken for flaming blamer”< Which looks like what you might do? >
    • 120The Underlying Fears• “Computer” (Earth force): afraid of own feelings• “Placater” (Water force): afraid that people willbecome angry and never come back again• “Blamer” (Fire force): afraid there is no real love• “Distracter” (Wind force): in full-time chaotic panic• “Leveler” (Emptiness force) displays genuinefeelings and is, of course, the easiest to handle• The hardest to spot, sadly often found in sales, isthe “Phony Leveler” (Evil force): fear losing controland disappearing (needing to control to feel real)< Which primary force or fear drives you? >
    • 121Comparing Profile TheoriesAncient Dr. Satir M. Gladwell DISCEarth Computer Maven/Teacher ConscientiousWater Placater [Technical] SteadinessFire Blamer Salesperson DominanceWind Distracter Social Connector InfluenceWind Distracter Social Connector Influence• Malcolm Gladwell’s “The Tipping Point” seems torefer to the Computer, Blamer, and Distracter, asthe Maven (or Teacher), Salesperson (persuader)and Social Connector (who likes casual meetings)• “Technical” profile is not an effective change agent• DISC provides corresponding VALUE profiles
    • 122Lack of Self Differentiation• Both Bullies (Fire) and Victims (Water) dependon external approval; Bullies push, Victims pull• Rebels only fake “Self” by opposing all positions– Either extravert (Wind) or seeming extrovert (Earth)– Either extravert (Wind) or seeming extrovert (Earth)• All threatened by debate: one adjusts just tooquickly, one overly demanding, one builds walls• But, such emotional responses to conflict is farbetter than no emotions at all (the sociopath)• No getting better, only aware & less at mercy tomomentary feelings (“sin free while still sinning”)
    • 123Typical Conflict Resolutions• Power Balance: balancing control challenges,often by excessive attention to each other’s faults• Bullying: one successfully forces (with facts andchaos by Rebel or guilt by Bully/Victim) the wayall others think and act (with group’s permission)all others think and act (with group’s permission)• Victiming: group agreement to project anxietiesonto but one member who then takes the “fall”• Emotional Distancing: group agrees to back offto reduce conflict intensity – new relationshipsoften overly important (rebounds) with increasedblame for others (Fire/Wind) or self (Earth/Water)
    • 124Group Theory Metrics• Boundaries: rigid/unclear roles or easy to speak• Power: but one dominator - or - team like equality• Freedom of expression: feelings hidden or open• Warmth: fun at someone’s expense or good times• Warmth: fun at someone’s expense or good times• Negotiation skills: forced compliance or unit amity• Moving from dysfunctional to healthy requireseveryone’s input to identify cultural influences,problems, goals, as well as potential solutions –we all know about danger of a “2-legged stool”• Will group (and each member) help or hinder?
    • 125Group Theory (continued)• While stereotyping bad, people do tend to behavein ways consistent with their group memberships• Habits passed on (cultural) so individual, family, &business problems are always generations deepbusiness problems are always generations deep– So, you must involve not just all the current members,but memories of founders and group heroes as well• When we hear words like Banker, Preacher, orLumberjack, we have common images strongerthan all the facts, guilt, and chaos in the world– So, you must either involve all their prejudices as wellor just face the simple fact that no sale is possible
    • 126Don’t Deal With What They Say• Important to understand power presuppositions(suggestions of power in a given linguistic stimuli)– E.g.: Even you should be able to understand this!• Power is commonly called a net zero sum product– This means either you have it or someone else has it– Must be on higher ground for the ethical use of power• Concede minor points to focus on important ones• Start as “Computer” and identify negotiation style– Compromise, helping, collaborate, avoid, or compete• Use bridging, clarifying, and strategy questions– To demonstrate concern and clarify other’s objectives
    • 127Review of Resolution Process• People don’t give up as invested in being right– Probe for vested assumptions, goals, and processes• Talk fast – but, slow down thinking & responses• Understand types of people and behavior styles• Understand types of people and behavior styles• Conflict resolution is a process and not an end• Learn to make peace with the impossible person– Practice saving face and being a grace dispenser• Use your own profile to develop an action planfor your own emotional and spiritual growth• Finally, learn to avoid being the difficult person
    • 128Neuroeconomics• Draws on neuroscience, economics, businessresearch, and psychology to confirm emotions(e.g.: hope and fear) form most economic choices– Simple pleasure of product vs. pain of losing cash (canexplain why consumers spend more with credit cards)explain why consumers spend more with credit cards)– New brain thinks, Middle brain feels, Old brain decides– Selling Probability = Pain x Claim x Gain x Old Brain– Consumers often can’t articulate what they want andproperly helping them requires finding higher ground• Unconscious “priming” of brand loyalty (“love”)and assimilation requires a repeated message
    • 129What Is The “Old Brain?” 29• Old Brain limits decisions and what Middle Brainsensory information will make it to the New Brain– Self-centered: center of “ME” for survival and well-being– Needs contrast: comparisons allow for quick decisions– And, concrete: appreciates simple, easy to grasp ideas– Short term: remembers only first and last Impressions– Visual: sight is processed 25 times faster than hearing– Emotional: key to memory success (and transferences)• Renvoise says diagnose the pain, differentiate theclaim, demonstrate the gain, deliver to Old Brain– Don’t say, “We are leaders...” But, “We are the only...”
    • 130Determining The Old Brain Pain• Open questions, summarize, give them the “pen”– Or, 10-20 in-depth interviews to find team motivations• What is the number one pressing problem?– Marketing is defined as positioning a bike, bus, or caras best solution to living a mile from work – BUT, it’sas best solution to living a mile from work – BUT, it’sfirst promoting living a mile from work to problem status– Selling too early may miss bigger problem and sale• Explore for what is the source, intensity (time andmoney spent on solution), and timing of the pain?– Loss of money, business control, personal energy– Take data from Competitive & Leadership Assessments• Then, raise the unconscious to the conscious
    • 131Raising The Unconscious• Conscious thinking makes only 5% of decisions– Harvard psychologist Daniel Wegner states,” Theillusion of will is so compelling that it can prompt thebelief that acts were intended when they could not be.”– Many more units are sold at $9.99 than at $10.00– Many more units are sold at $9.99 than at $10.00– Metaphors: Koala for warm and Polar Bear for cold• Understanding our metaphors and myths canhelp access what we really think and feel inside– Response latency, voice stress, and particular wordpairings can also indicate “demons” in responses• A backdrop of diverse experiences as well as arestlessness for quality can help raise the “dead”
    • 132Only Reason Sales Fail: Respect(After being unqualified: no use, budget, or sign off)1. You don’t respect the buyer or experiences– Is your solution for a problem they don’t even have?– Are you ignoring prospect’s preferred buying patterns?2. You don’t respect yourself or your profession– Be a life long student and learn how to say “No!”3. You don’t respect your products and/or services– Know your strengths & markets or, find another lineRespect comes from deep passions and strongconvictions – remember the effort you’ve made,commit to a fair price, and then brag, brag, brag
    • 133Relationships Come First• Traditional Sales Approach is to– Smile and dial, great opening, wow w/ great numbers,let the buyer think he is calling the shots and your onlyclient, and ask for referrals after a successful project• First, however, work to get out of your own way• First, however, work to get out of your own way– Ask uninformed questions forgetting your product– Brainstorm to see all solutions, looking to “free” internalresources first to help them solve their own problems– Avoid the comfortable, seeking the emotional & difficult• As they want the story teller to be entertaining and persuasive– Get in touch with your values and how they define you,as we too often use only our heads and not our hearts
    • 134Selling First To The “Heart”• Logic automatically and unconsciously comes inonly afterwards to justify decisions already made– Buyer states current vendor is deadline dysfunctional– Traditional sales advice is, “I understand. I have three– Traditional sales advice is, “I understand. I have threesurveys that rank us first in on-time performance.”– Better to talk from and to the heart, “Missed deadlines?That must have been very frustrating... I appreciate youbeing so honest with me. I could tell you we’re the mostreliable – and we are. I can’t promise we’ll never makea mistake, but here’s how to contact me 24 / 7 ”• More risk = more emotion = less facts & numbers
    • 135Selling Is Not Informing!• Galileo proved to his students at the Universityof Pisa that Aristotle was wrong to say heavieritems of similar size would fall faster, BUT theUniversity continued teaching Aristotle’s reality>> He had taught but not persuaded <<• Selling (as any changed behavior) doesn’t useteaching, debating, or even presenting skills– Intensity no substitute for long-haul value of integrity– So, Socrates (as did Christ) used questions to lead• Presentations & teaching come only after selling– If only Escalante, Coase, and van Gough knew sales!
    • 136van Gough, Coase, Escalante• Vincent van Gough sold only one picture in hislife out of over 2,000 works (The Red Vineyard)• Ronald Coase was awarded the Nobel prize forEconomics in 1991 for a paper he wrote in 1937Economics in 1991 for a paper he wrote in 1937• Jamie Escalante sent more East LA HS studentsto college (& AP Calculus exam) than HollywoodHS, but after “Stand and Deliver” fame, he wasreassigned to asbestos removal and kicked out– Alas, John Perex, VP of Teachers Union, explainedafterwards, “Jaime didn’t get along with some of theteachers at his school; he pretty much was a loner.”
    • 137Persuasion Is Not Reason• The compliance or motivation by words, tone, etc.– Aristotle detailed 4 kinds of appeals: Ethical, Personal,Practical, and Rational (with the last being the weakest)• Best augment combines ethical and personal– Ethical: rooted in how people see you, your consistency– Personal: knowing their selfish best interests; “if they’vesomething to gain or lose, you’ve got something to use”• Practical appeal best sold with offbeat humor– Broken rhythm in not doing what is expected in order tosurprise and soften – also key to using all four appeals• Don’t rely on logic; lead them with open questions
    • 138Broken Rhythm• Bruce Lee30, perhaps the most accomplishedmartial artist, strongly believed “broken rhythm”was essential in overcoming others; dependenceon routine and predictability (like practiced salesscripts), he said, produced a “classical mess”scripts), he said, produced a “classical mess”– Change target, technique, stance, pace, attitude, etc– Sales is about helping people decipher their values• Don’t sound like your reading a script; be moredeliberate, practice different routines w/ surprises• Consider other perspectives, selling to differentaudiences (say, teenagers) while staying focused
    • 139The Most Persuasive Words• Save• Safety• Sex• Love• You• Money• Commit• New• However, thenumber oneword peoplemost like to• Love• Proven• Discovery• Guarantee• Why/Because• New• Free• Results• Easy• Healthmost like tohear overand over isTheir name!
    • 140Persuasion Overview• More small talk needed for active extroverts thanpassive introverts (w/ more of a task orientation)• Develop a rapport based on a common ground– Look for clues from what’s hanging on their walls– Move to economy or light politics in social environment– Move to economy or light politics in social environment(or light personal topics when filling awkward silences)• Plan Ahead: your bottom line, their substitute,everyone’s interests, and all possible outcomes– Let your secret Plan-B help shape your Plan-A strategy• Persistence & patience for actions of commitment– Know best possible & minimum you are willing to walkaway with: “Will you if you can’t do that, can you ”
    • 141Goal Is Always A Commitment• THE goal is a commitment based on a respect foryour opinion and trust for your recommendations– Relationships only end from low commitment level (it isnever due to communications, compatibility, or effort)• Most people are twice as likely to agree to even• Most people are twice as likely to agree to evenoutlandish requests after agreeing to a small one– Group commitments also increase individual actions• Compliments based on smaller actions increaseschances of making larger actions & commitments– Help people to positively see themselves as a buyer– Marketing is only about creating qualified sales leads!
    • 142Becoming A Change Agent(when products require new processes)• After assessing vision support, convey credibleexpectations with empathy and involvement forthe pain and work a proposed change may bring– Persuasion is the fruit of efforts towards understanding• Kurt Lewin asserted change requires unfreezing• Kurt Lewin asserted change requires unfreezingthe status quo, changing to a new state, and thenrefreezing the new change to make it permanent– Present deficiencies to arouse dissatisfaction to crisis– Get top support to tie rewards to use of new products– Establish new beliefs, target goals, stop rumours– Provide training & celebrate “death” of old systemUnfreezing Movement Refreezing
    • 143The Status Quo Learning CurveProductivityUnfreeze PhaseUnfreeze Phase Change PhaseChange Phase Refreeze PhaseRefreeze PhaseEither decreaserestrainingforces And, then expecttemporary declineRestrainingForces“Today’s illiterate are not those who cannot read or write, butthose who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.” -- Alvin TofflerTimeProductivityOr, increasedriving forcestemporary declinein performancebefore formalizingchanges forimprovementDrivingForces
    • 144Vectors of Development144© 2005 Accelerating.org
    • 145• Culture – underlying values and goals• Structure – authority relations, coordinationmechanisms, communications, and job design• Technology – processes, methods, tools, etcWhat Can Be Changed?• Technology – processes, methods, tools, etc• Physical Setting – workplace space and layout• People – skills, expectations, and behaviors• How can such changes help sell the product?TechnologyPhysicalSettingPeopleStructureCulture
    • 146Organizational Kinetics(innovative products require a crisis)• Organizations tend to move in straight lines untilimpacted by collisions with other social groups– Inertia is the tendency to maintain the status quo– Best motivator is thusly competent competition (crisis)• Inert Organizations rarely adopt innovations, arefocused on survival, and fail to constantly test• Dynamic Organizations are fast, active, learning,proactive, and agile enough to “create change”• Peter Drucker said, “The best way to deal withthe future is to create it. By the time you catchup to change, the competition is ahead of you.”
    • 147Six Crisis Forces For Change• Workforce is more culturally diverse and manyemployees are lacking in the most basic skills• Technology is replacing narrow, routine taskswith those requiring team, multi-tasking efforts• Economic Shocks such as Asian real estate• Economic Shocks such as Asian real estatecollapse and Russian devaluation of the ruble• Competition is more global, involves moremergers, and includes more Internet commerce• Social Trends include delaying marriage, anti-smoking attitudes, and the popularity of SUVs• World Politics such as U.S. embargo of Lybia,Soviet collapse, and Black rule in South Africa
    • 148#4: Enemy Mine• Effective interaction begins by looking inward– At the well-being of your company as well as yourself– “Whoever has a why to live for can overcome any how”• Integrity is good, but where does a firm begin?– Learn BSC, AIE, SWOT, CSF, Mission, Values, Vision<Home>– Learn BSC, AIE, SWOT, CSF, Mission, Values, Vision• Personal makeover by embracing incompleteness– Senge: “[Quality] starts with turning the mirror inward”– Lewin: “You cannot understand unless you change it”• Finding the higher ground (for trust & openness)– With faith, urgency, better relationships (and sleep!)• Social Proofing: as the last step of marketing issales so, the last step of sales is marketing
    • 149INTEGRITYTo be “true” to oneself, oneneeds admirable goals,a clear understanding of wherea clear understanding of whereone will and can stand,a process of honest review,and a day-to-day plan for howto get things done and paid for.
    • 150In business, these conceptsare formalized in
    • 151Mission StatementAn unidentified soldier in WWIIAn unidentified soldier in WWIIthat could not state his missionwas automatically shot.
    • 152SWOT AnalysisStrengths, Weaknesses,Opportunities, and Threats.
    • 153Marketing PlanThat is updated quarterly.
    • 154Implementation PlanWith good time and resourceperformance metrics.
    • 155Financial PlanIncluding aWorking Capital Policy.
    • 156These five concepts, however,can carry a real punchonly when they are based on astrong and legitimate
    • 157Vision“Great minds have purposes,others have wishes.”others have wishes.”Washington Irving“Where there is no vision,the people perish.” Proverbs 24:18
    • 158Sounds Good, But How to Start?• Looking inward for business planning starts bywork on Balanced Scorecards (BSC), SWOTanalysis, Critical Success Factors (CSF), andshared Vision, Mission, and Values Statements– 2/3 of firms utilize some sort of Balanced Scorecards– 2/3 of firms utilize some sort of Balanced Scorecards• Glossary: “The measures appearing on the Scorecard shouldlink together in a series of cause and effect relationships.”– SWOT: leverage strengths and market opportunitiesand minimize weaknesses and competitive threats– CRM of key relationship marketing success factors• Vision states what the company intends to be(basis of culture), mission states strategic goalsto fulfill vision, values define action boundaries
    • 159Balanced Scorecards (BSC) 31An organizationaltool to translate amission strategy intoobjectives andmeasures organizedby four perspectives:by four perspectives:Customer (delivery,cust. sat., retention),Financial (cash flow,ROI), Processes (no.of projects, successrate, defects), andGrowth (promotions,illness, turnovers)Customer, Financial, BusinessProcesses, Learning & GrowthFrom http://www.balancedscorecard.org/BSCResources/AbouttheBalancedScorecard/tabid/55/Default.aspx
    • 1601.The economic model ofkey levers drivingfinancial performance2.The value proposition oftarget customersBased on an Understanding of theBasic Building Blocks of Strategy 32target customers3.The value chain of corebusiness processes4.The top critical enablersof performanceimprovement as well aschange and learningFrom http://www.worldofhr.com/Balance%20Score%20Card.ppt
    • 161BSC Follow-ons• Applied Information Economics (AIE) based oninformation value from decision theory and riskanalysis for a set of reasonable alternatives– HowToMeasureAnything.com by Douglas Hubbard33– Generally, Excel spreadsheet analyzing to maximize– BSC clarifies investment alignment with vision, buildsconsensus, and prioritizes customers needs whileAIE quantifies costs, benefits, and risks of investment• Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) is an accountingmethod to weigh total costs against benefits in $(everything can be measured in terms of dollars)
    • 162SWOT AnalysisInternal• Strengths• WeaknessesExternalWhat strategiesshould be used tooptimize yourstrengths and takeExternal• Opportunities• Threatsstrengths and takeadvantage of your(as well as yourcompetitor’s)weaknesses?Required to be a strategy or purpose driven
    • 163Strengths (S) Weaknesses (W)Opportunities (O)INTERNALFACTORSEXTERNALFACTORSSO StrategiesGeneratestrategies here thatuse strengths totake advantages ofWO StrategiesGeneratestrategies here thattake advantage ofopportunities byovercomeThreats (T)take advantages ofopportunitiesovercomeweaknessesST StrategiesGeneratestrategies here thatuse strengths toavoid threatsWT StrategiesGeneratestrategies here thatminimizeweaknesses andavoid threatsFrom Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective © Prentice Hall, 2000 34
    • 164Critical Success FactorsCustomersAcquisitionRelationship“What criteriadetermine who will beour most profitablecustomers?”“How can weacquire thiscustomer in themost efficient andeffective way?Gartner’s Model of Customer InteractionCustomersExtensionCustomersRetentionCustomersSelectionRelationshipMarketing“How can we keepthis customer for aslong as possible?”“How can weincrease the loyaltyand the profitabilityof this customer?”From Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective © Prentice Hall, 2000 35
    • 165Vision MissionPurposeStates what the companyintends to be like andintends to becomeStates what the companyintends to do and intends toachieveUseGuide the development andimplementation of culturaland marketing plansGuide the development andimplementation of strategicbusiness and financial plansEmphasisOn what the company is tobe, in the internalenvironment, on acontinuing basisOn what the company is todo, in the externalenvironment, on one-timebasis for reachable goalscontinuing basis basis for reachable goalsFocusOn people, principles,values, beliefs, and otherelements of the InternalEnvironmentOn customers, products,competitors, and otherelements of the ExternalEnvironmentNatureVery short, simple, andvivid, so that everyone canunderstand, remember, andvisualize it for motivationalpurposesHighly specific, detailed, andmeasurable, so thatsuccessful execution ofstrategic plans can beaccurately assessedManaging Corporate Culture, Innovation, and Intrapreneurship Odwin, Howard W. 1997 36
    • 166A Values Statement by All(Or Guiding Principles)A substantive effort by all members to identify thekey values believed to be more important thanmoney to define the boundaries that will supportthe creation of an organization that performs well,sustains itself, and creates a positive environment.sustains itself, and creates a positive environment.– Be open to change and risk failing to get better– Support trust, openness, honesty, and credibility– Management style, cultural beliefs, and motivations– Leadership (influence) to bring out the best in peopleTalent may win games, but leadership(rallying vision) wins championships
    • 167Finding The Higher Ground• Starts with shared team vision and managementwith clear objectives and appropriate measures– Be known for honesty, respect, faith, collaboration,results, and modeling a fanatical commitment to quality– Leadership that encourages bottom-up coordination– Leadership that encourages bottom-up coordinationwill be more effective in maximizing interaction capital– A Six Sigma team charter spells out a consensus37– Use of paired, mature, autonomous salespeople fornew markets with constantly changing requirements• At least weekly reviews, training, and mentoring– Review often how success is defined and measured• Neither good or poor reviews should ever be a surprise
    • 168Or, Organizational Faith• When top sales performers are interviewed, theyalways talk about their substantial ability to getthings done quickly within their own companies– This requires excellent internal networks filled withpeople that take full responsibility for their resultspeople that take full responsibility for their results• Which supports integrity being high on their list –that their customers can rely on them deliveringwhat was promised (and, in fact, always more)– Credibility is built after delivery and spent on upgrades• If sale fails, break large sale into simpler component sales• Being supportive, however, doesn’t mean “soft”or giving away free advice, but learning together
    • 169Means Spiritual Higher Ground• Halbert Dunn introduced the concept of wellnessin 1959 associated with today’s popular health andwellness programs, but he felt care goes beyondnutrition, weight control, and injury prevention as italso means dealing with one’s spiritual context.also means dealing with one’s spiritual context.– Spirituality is about the quality of relationships (whilereligion focuses on theological doctrines and rituals)– Ellison Well-being, Owen Openness, and Shaw Trust38– Dr. Serge’s “presence” (key says Harvard Bus. Review)– Community and organizational service projects basedon common values also help produce organizationsTo optimize the development of “human capital”
    • 170Maintain A Sense of Urgency• Fight complacency and baseless happy talk, workto set higher standards, and find external sources• Short-term results based on a strong & legitimatevision offer best chance for sustaining successesvision offer best chance for sustaining successes• Build a guiding coalition where everybody leads,everybody is responsible, and everybody acts• Develop strategies for how the shared vision canbe achieved with specific steps and timetables• Broaden stakeholder attitudes about realigningbusiness functions (active listening fundamental)
    • 171Basic Multisystemic Principles• Focus on building social capital with employee’swork colleagues, family, friends, and customers– SWOT analysis, action-orientation, 360 reviews forcontinuous measurable improvements, and whatever ittakes to build altruistic pro-social support systemstakes to build altruistic pro-social support systems– Collectively brainstorm and successfully identify aspecific behavior, the key success factors for change,and strengths in regards to associated social factors– Address control and relationship issues to predictwhich type of problems are associated with which typeof organizational structures and interaction patterns• Sales team management must take responsibilityto provide an environment where all can succeed
    • 172Measuring Integrity• A Motorola executive once claimed his companyonly hired for character and then trained for skills• How can one determine character in an interview?Bill Gates asks: Why are manhole covers round?Bill Gates asks: Why are manhole covers round?• He hires those that can say, “I don’t know.” But, Ihave found there are five levels of responses:1. Using distraction to pretend they didn’t hear question2. Making up an answer; temping with a little knowledge3. Saying, “I don’t know.” this is good, but better is4. Saying, “I don’t know, but this is how I would find out.”5. Then, returning with the answer: hire all you can find!
    • 173It’s Fairly Easy To Do, But• We understand the value of business plans, but• Few companies actually produce them – Why?– McGregor’s X-Theory of motivation describes a popularbelief that people dislike work and will avoid it if possible– Really poor choice “rewards” called “secondary gains”– Really poor choice “rewards” called “secondary gains”• More to the point, far fewer people create suchdocuments for developing their personal integrity?– Afraid to appear incompetent or admit you’re failing tolive up to such standards of integrity and planning?– Believe in McGregor’s Y-Theory of motivation in thatyou believe work in necessary to psychological growthbut just don’t believe you have the time to do the work?
    • 174McGregor’s Motivation Theories• Man dislikes work andwill avoid it if he can• Must be forced to putout the right effort• One would rather be• Work is necessary topsychological growth• People want to beinterested by work• People can seek andX-theory Y-theoryvs.• One would rather bedirected than acceptresponsibility• Man is motivated byanxiety about security• Most men have littlecreativity - except forgetting around rules!• People can seek andaccept responsibility• Self-discipline is moreeffective and severe• Men are motivated byhope to realise potential• Creativity is widelydistributed & underused
    • 175Famous Vision Statements• Henry Ford (1908): “To produce a car everyonecan buy in order to democratize the automobile”• IBM: “To be the world’s best service organization”• IBM Accounts Payable: “To be the world’s best• IBM Accounts Payable: “To be the world’s bestAccounts Payable organization” (saved $1 billion,won awards, created a major product for IBM)• Sony: “To be known for changing the worldwidepoor-quality image of Japanese products.”• Harley-Davidson: “Fulfill dreams via motorcycling”• Pepsi: “Beat Coke.” (most famous short vision)• Martin Luther King, Jr: “I have a dream ”
    • 176Turn The Mirror Inward• Senge’s personal mastery (or health) is aboutcontinually clarifying and deepening our personalvision, of focusing our energies, of developingpatience, and of seeing reality objectively.– This “starts with turning the mirror inward; learning to– This “starts with turning the mirror inward; learning tounearth our internal pictures of the world, to bring themto the surface and hold them rigorously to scrutiny.” p.9– Drucker said, “Faith is not what today is so often calleda ‘mystical experience,’ something that can apparentlybe induced by the proper breathing exercises or byprolonged exposure to Bach (not to mention drugs). Itcan be attained only through despair, through suffering,through a painful and ceaseless struggle.”
    • 177Personal BSC & Strategy Map• What are the areas of life that motivate you?– Career, health, religion, service, education, freedom• What are your key measurable area objectives?– What are your particular strengths and weaknesses– What are your ideals (or hero level) for each area?– Pick 3-4 most important with 1-2 metrics for each• Assess each ideal and goal by the dimensions ofrelationships with others, practices, and learning– Write a story board (or action plan) for accomplishingeach goal from these perspectives. What support andeducation do you need? Which comes first or later?• See K. Rampersad Hubert’s Personal Balanced Scorecard 39
    • 178Epidemic Lack Of Engagement• The average American employee wastes morethan two hours each day – $759 billion a year!– From incompatible personal and corporate visions• Marshal Goldsmith says the PBSC elements aredivided among the following four perspectives:divided among the following four perspectives:– Internal: your physical health and mental state (tocreate value for yourself and others): How can youfeel good in your skin at work and in your spare time?– External: relations with your spouse, children, friends,employer, peers, and others. How do they see you?– Knowledge and learning: your skills and learningability. How can you remain successful in the future?– Financial: financial stability: meeting financial needs?
    • 179Building A Personal Vision• How do you want to change the world? How doyou want people to feel / behave towards you?• Who were your favorite childhood heroes? Minewere Mary Poppins and Serpico as I most valuenever selling out as well as making chores fun.never selling out as well as making chores fun.• What most motivates you? For me, it’s learning.• Better is a “Vision Story” bringing such answers tolife: how can you use this story to get “unstuck?”– Rich Dad Poor Dad’s Rob Kiyosaki made his milliondollar career from mocking his real “poor” Dad’s faileddreams for education reform. Was father or son right?• Use your answer to suggest your ideal employer and/or job
    • 180“A” Level Sales People• How Ed Zore differentiates “A” and “B” level sales– Good work habits with at least 3 appointments a day– High degree of integrity for building relationship trust– And, ever higher level of product knowledge / expertise• “Finally, you have to be willing to collaborate• “Finally, you have to be willing to collaboratebecause the competition is getting tougher.”40– Can collaboration and competition live side by side?– End-to-end firms now fail in the “New” economy wherethe most valuable skill is networking for partnerships asoverprotecting markets #1 reason for growth to plateau– The same is becoming true for employees – we need totrade tasks within strengths for ones needing more skill
    • 181Embrace Your Incompleteness• You have skills (networking) and traits (OCD) thatmay be better suited to certain tasks and others(deadline deficient and disliking low stress tasks)that make you a poor match for things like doingdata entry for customer data for the firm’s CRMdata entry for customer data for the firm’s CRM• It may be time to job share – by tasks, not hours!– Marketing was started this way, to do “boring” research• A pair of sales people with different personalitiesnot only provides success in more environments,better accountability, and delegate tasks at home– Say, one better for paperwork and one for cold calling
    • 182Premise of Idea Infection• The effects of our childhood and friends are fargreater than nature (genetics) on our choices– A narcissistic mother passes her disease to her childjust as likely as an HIV mother (the child has little say);thus, here are more new self-help books for narcissisticthus, here are more new self-help books for narcissisticchildren of self-absorbed parents than even diet books• In truth, we never make our decisions alone!– Neurotic behavior is the transference of repressedevents into our daily decision-making: such as sexwithout love, drugs without illness, food without hunger– Complexes are split-off psychic fragments from traumaas others primarily determine our picture of ourselves– People often commit crimes from perverted risk needs
    • 183Object Relations Theory(and Organizational Behavior Theory)• Describes how interactions develop one’s thinking• Self Psychology integrates modern systems theoryto develop a unifying framework of subjectivity– Shows wide disparities between a structured worldview– Shows wide disparities between a structured worldviewand archaically organized thinking will often producechronic misunderstandings where, say, a client is seenas difficult and a salesperson is seen as un-attuned– The resulting relationship borderline personality disorderis based on internal conflicts and primitive defenses; thedeveloping relationship naturally becomes a hindrance• BPD therapy suggests maintaining an unemotionalsearch for client self-awareness and new thinking
    • 184Borderline Personality Disorder• “Genetic” sensitivity to invalidating environments– An invalidating environment is clinically defined as onein which a person’s feelings are discounted as eitherinaccurate or inappropriate with common comments like“problem solving would be easy if only you were more“problem solving would be easy if only you were moremotivated,” “had better character,” and “didn’t get angry”– Where focus is on the individual called Entity Theory• Organizational behaviors are based on the same crucialfactors that set the stage for individual personalities; thus,they likewise often exhibit deviant and irrational behaviorsand can similarly benefit from psychotherapy efforts– Start the conversation talking about someone else
    • 185Psychology Genetics• What if displacement and disillusionment createa “psychological genetics” within a people thathas eliminated all opportunities for recovery?• All communication books assume we’re able to• All communication books assume we’re able tomake rational choices (most assume the sameabout the other person), but none address inplain language how to make good choices andclear communication when everyone’s broken– Life Rule #1: the things that most upset us in othersare just those issues we refuse to see in ourselvesthus, it’s always easier to have good advice for others
    • 186Narrative Therapy (NT)• Moses came to the King of Egypt with ten plaguesand dire warnings, but the story was for the Jews• Narrative Therapy allows a more open discussionby creating distance between effects and personalproblems by talking about them in the third personproblems by talking about them in the third person– Helping us accept how we have become alienated fromour own values, hopes, and commitments by being partof an socio-political “mob” for a self-destructive reality– Goal is the realization that problems are always largerthan self and are being sustained by one’s environment• Rediscovered values are re-weaved back on top– Reintroduction of split-off ego only brings back hostileworld our disorders were designed to defend against
    • 187Some Biblical Narrative Stories• The Bible is full of neurotic codependent misfits –but, they overcame their issues, not “cured” them(psychotherapy and religion too often encouragesself-destructive behavior) with purposeful stories– Such as codependent passivity (“goodie” Sarah),rescuing (Abigail), avoidance (Jonah), anxiousness(Jacob), victim-ness (Joseph), failure (Saul), success(Solomon), suicide (Judas, Peter), depression (Elijah),grief (Job), adultery (David), and addiction (Samson)– Plus, physical issues like just being elderly (Abraham),unattractive (Leah), poor health (Paul), poor (Gideon),speech problems (Moses), and unpopular (Zacchaeus)
    • 188Narrative Therapy Outline• One might have people compare their stories tolegendary stories of great heroes and values toexamine how one might get back on course– Key to the process are outside listeners who have dealtwith similar problems and can share their testimonies– Thus, integrates well with the teamed sales approach• The targeted listener is then asked if any image inthe shared struggles stood out and resonated withtheir own stories and how such epiphanies mightbe integrated into an improved version of their life– The associate does the same with the rewritten story
    • 189Externalize and Empower• One acknowledges the client’s problem-saturateddominate self-story but works for more articulationwith continued clarifying and extending questions• Always use externalizing language (such feelingsinvaded their life rather than having such feelings)• Finally, identify potential audiences (whom wouldthey most like to tell their story or discoveries, orwhose input or stories might add the most value)• Provide rewarding statements for “their” ideas• All this empowers as well as opens parallel issues• Narratives (stories) can answer any objection
    • 190Narrative Therapy Limitations• Final goal is a step-by-step plan on how to mature– Helps “breaks the ice” before getting down to work– So, while building a subjective reference to understandquality, don’t discard the critically valid objective side• We want to unfreeze inaccurate political rightness• We want to unfreeze inaccurate political rightnessand refreeze a healthier measurable worldview– No need to include the popular postmodern relativismor feminist “realities” tacked onto most narrative efforts– Goal is not to simplify creating customer satisfaction,but to teach improved critical thinking for the greatestsale and a sustainable long-term customer relationship• Even heroes like Batman overcame real problems
    • 191Personal NT Vision Quests• Primitive societies required youths to go on a“Vision Quest” to define a purpose and meaningfor their lives BEFORE being considered an adult• Dr. Suler of Rider University recommends this:– Wander alone outside your home for at least four hours– Wander alone outside your home for at least four hours(no planned activities, but better if physically taxing)– Ponder on some inward issue or problem (perhaps asbasic as “Who am I?”), but also let your mind wander– Expect an answer (or partial answer) to your question– Every half hour, sit and jot down the time, location,what has happened, and any thoughts or insights– After, summarize seeking a sign (for free association)
    • 192Control Old Brain = More $$$• It’s not smarts, strength, or beauty but the abilityto delay gratification with more reason and spirit– “Emotional Intelligence” coined by Salovey and Mayer– “Some people handle anger well but can’t handle fear.Some people can’t take joy. “ – Dr. Jerome KaganSome people can’t take joy. “ – Dr. Jerome Kagan• Develop goals and a direction, strategize actions,upgrade skills & environment, master psychology• The ability to plan, learn, and double-loop learn –building personal and external controls over theamygdale (whence comes delight, disgust, fear,anger) begins with developing emotional maturity
    • 193Emotional Development• Pull back from moments of anger, sorrow, shameand reflect (slow down) to see the real root cause• When alone, review actions (or consider onesundone) that are emotionally difficult and noticeundone) that are emotionally difficult and noticewhere in your body the feeling is the strongest– Like fears of clients leaving, cold calls, and hearing “no!”• Give that feeling all the energy and attention itneeds to live, breath, and grow without analysis– Do this until it has burned away (may take several tries).We must embrace our feelings instead of just resistingthem. Only then can we clear them and be free of them!
    • 194Reflective Thinking• Seek multiple interpretations of troubling events– Master inquiry skills in order to avoid hours of arguingand develop emotionally supportive environments• Dr. David M. Schnarch calls compromise the“tyranny of the lowest common denominator”“tyranny of the lowest common denominator”– Take time to understand cause and effect connections• Work towards a shared “memory of the future”– Stimulating double-loop learning and bridging the gapbetween what you know and what you need to knowby reviewing what is known, unknown, and assumed• Like active listening, it involves a lot of questions– Journaling helps one reflect on daily experiences
    • 195Get Enough Sleep!• The clinical sign of whether you have a sleepdisorder is just needing an alarm to wake up• After about 18 hours without sleep, your reactiontime doubles (continually getting worse) and thenyou’ll likely start 2-20 sec. bouts of “micro-sleep”– Another 2 hours and you’ll react as if legally drunk– 2 more hours your body signals for a lot more calories• Sleep is key to the preservation of brain cells!– Sleep improves memory, ability to learn, insightfulness– Similar benefits come from restful periods in the day– A night of sleep is even better than a night of studying
    • 196Building Energy For Sales• The greatest gift of any top performer is energy– Unskilled optimists outsells average by 21% - 57%– No excuses: great sales people are in there sellingwhile poor ones are regularly just giving excuses– Know your prospects and attack their problems and– Know your prospects and attack their problems andaspirations systematically, so you can enthuse them• Build an atmosphere where it is OK to fail– “Learn to fail or fail to learn,” says Tal Ben-Shahar– Blow off steam at times with exercise or a fun hobby– Consider many sources for differing points of view– Network with colleagues and seek social support– Journal and review for continually better results
    • 197“If We Meet, Kill Me”• Don’t be a slave to the 8-second first impression– Buddha said, “If you meet me on the street, kill me” toteach that our first impressions (whether bad, good, orso good to seem like heaven) are always totally wrong– In the same way, the Bible’s Jacob (the deceiver) was– In the same way, the Bible’s Jacob (the deceiver) wasrenamed to Israel (fights with God) only after Jacobhad defeated his poor first impression of man and God– The moral is we can truly know a person only afterdestroying our first impressions – or, emptying our cup• You want to likewise “kill” the customer so you’reselling to the real person and truly greatest need– Don’t assume, often question what you think you know
    • 198Don’t Blink, Think!• Don’t blink key decisions says LeGault & Lewis41– While emergencies & sales must sometimes make onthe fly “Old Brain” decisions, most should be deliberate– W. Edwards Deming said, “Experience alone teachesnothing. If you do not have a theory as a framework tonothing. If you do not have a theory as a framework tounderstand your experience, you do not accumulate 30years of experience; you merely repeat one 30 times.”– “Learning that Lasts” collaborative inquiry & application• First step of Systems Thinking is to move awayfrom knee-jerk intuitive “feelings” to establish thebaseline and target, calculate gap, find problems,develop and implement a improvement process,and track with about six key metrics and adjust
    • 199Importance of Mentoring(#1 reason people quit is lack of training)When Individuals learn in anorganization only by themselvesin a box, then the organizationdevelops a stagnant eyelashlearning curve.Next = Past + Now; Organizationalmemory allows people to start wheretheir predecessor left off, adding tothe organization’s knowledge andcontinuing the learning process aftera short startup period.a short startup period.Old employee leaves withknowledgeAbilitytoDoJobTime New employeebeginsEYELASH LEARNING CURVEAbilitytoDoJobTimeRAPID LEARNING CURVESee Joiner, Brian l. (1994). Fourth Generation Management: The New Business Consciousness. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc..42New employee comes on;picks up almost whereprevious employee left off.
    • 200Ignore “Personality Types”• A third of firms are giving personality assessmentsto applicants to ensure a “cultural fit” or to existingworkers to “pigeonhole” communication efforts– All of loosely (without any research) based on MBTI– Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): developed by awoman with only a political science baccalaureate afterreading “Personality Types” by Jung (who didn’t believein statistics and did no research). Jung believed in onlyusing the categories of fun, duty, skills, and intimacy toshow that people were different and specifically warnedagainst the type of pigeonholing being done today.• 25 years of research shows they are not valid!
    • 201Every Enterprise And Personneeds the standard RHETI Enneagram typesfor vision and confidence (Challenger), theability to bring people together and listen to them(Peacemaker), ethical standards and qualitycontrol (Reformer), the ability to serve andcontrol (Reformer), the ability to serve andanticipate people’s needs (Mentor), effectivemarketing and promotion (Achiever), a welldesigned product and sensitivity to its emotionalimpact (Designer), technical expertise andinnovative ideas (Investigator), teamwork andself-regulating feedback (Troubleshooter), aswell as energy and optimism (Enthusiast).
    • 202And, People Change• Studies show people often change measuredpersonality types within six months and thattests often given in statistically poor ways (e.g..:with applicants getting help with their answers)• Plus, diversity is good and differences shouldget worked out in less than six months – butneeds resolution and real communication skills• Real message is only that people are differentand real quality is about handling differences inpeople with greater flexibility, creativity, and fun– Stability requires conflict and free flow of information
    • 203Stability Requires Change• Culture is emergent result of relational patterns– The core elements being the commitments made– Rather than being static – built on tornadoes of energy• In fact, stability comes from constant change– Diversity and free flow of information provide stability• Good, flexibly, creative discussions should– Identify the conclusions someone is making– Ask for the data that lead to the conclusion– Ask for the reasoning that resulted in the conclusion– Infer a possible belief or assumption person is making– And, test with feedback by stating your inference
    • 204Systems Thinker Thinking• Every system is designed to generate the resultsit is currently creating (and blaming doesn’t help)• Realize that all people and relationships change– Graphing trends of behaviors will show relationships• Consider different perspectives and feedback to• Consider different perspectives and feedback tosee big picture & identify leverage opportunities– No quick decisions, even if everyone agrees to one• Irrational childhood beliefs coloring perceptionsare but part of a systems language of people,characteristics, relationships, and environmentsthat represents a self-sustaining energy system– Learn to focus on relationships to see the big picture
    • 205Avoid Positive Visualization• Beland suggests that before every test and classpresentation that teachers should guide studentsin practicing positive visualizations, supportiveself-statements, and relaxation techniques.– But clearly, no one ever wins simply by wishing• Marva Collins instead starts every K-12 class with– Shakespeare’s Richard the III on conscience, Aristotle’sessay views on ethics and virtues, Ralph WaldoEmerson’s “Self-Reliance,” and Plato’s “Republic”• Encouraging great values, “slow” practice with lotsof feedback, and coaching team spirit is far better
    • 206Proverbs 23:7• We have no real control over our chronological,intellectual, physiological, or emotional age– Nevertheless, many believe happiness is simply a stateof mind one can select like deciding on a seasoning• There is nothing more popular in modern self-help• There is nothing more popular in modern self-helpliterature than the concept of “positive thinking”– The most popular of these wishing texts is StevenCovey’s Seven Habits of Highly Effective People wherethe New Age practice of visualization is prominent• The original verse often misquoted from Proverbs23:7 (“As a man thinks in his heart so he is”) hasmore to do with the source of our motivations.
    • 207Avoid Steven Covey• Covey’s material is speculative at best (with nopublished research for objective peer review)– His self-hypnosis techniques involve reprogrammingoneself and are allegedly so powerful, “if you visualizethe wrong thing you will produce the wrong thing”the wrong thing you will produce the wrong thing”• Covey calls these LDS teachings in “The DevineCenter” (Bookcraft, 1982) and they’ll “enable theindividual to grow and develop until eventually hecan become like [God]” (Devine Center, p. 246)• “It seems easier to be God than to love God,easier to control people than to love people, [and]easier to own life than to love life.” Henri Nouwen
    • 208Avoid Most Self-Esteem• Dr. Dyer’s “conflict with Ego” effect positivethinking has on inner peace is only the logicalinconsistencies from our escalating self-esteem– Self-esteem development workbooks define the termas “one’s appreciative opinion of inner self-worthas “one’s appreciative opinion of inner self-worthindependent of the external world” (sounds good)– But, society often locks up people for their opinions(such as believing that they are Napoleon) when suchare not consistent with the common worldview• Such self-esteem is an accurate measurementonly of poor critical thinking resulting in a falseself-image the clinical definition of insane
    • 209NOT All Opinions Are Valid!Hypotheses orIntelligent hunch(Input)Valid Opinionand Action(Quality Output)Check withIPO Analysis(Processing)“Wishful Thinking”or “Blowing Smoke”“Peacock” or “Weasel” 43Critical Thinking meansidentifying assumptions,issues, and criteria forjudgment for makingsound conclusionsfrom the evidence.All questionsare “valid”TextbookTheory andControlledExperiences
    • 210Avoid Just Getting Along• A 2006 Partnership for 21st Century Skills surveyof HR showed a plea to educators to focus onproducing graduates that were better at gettingalong rather than developing basic knowledge– The 5 skills most core to success in the workplace weresaid to be professionalism/work ethic, teamwork, oralcommunications, ethics/social responsibility/honesty,reading comprehension (math & science farther down)• A 1990 National Center on Education & Economystudy stated “We found little evidence of a far-reaching desire for a more educated workforce.”
    • 211Dr. Jamie Escalante• East Los Angeles Garfield High School– Overcame strong racist attitudes– Built a calculus program that rivaled a handfulof exclusive private academies and surpassedof exclusive private academies and surpassedHollywood High for passing AP Calculus exam– Over 400 math students a year (by 1990)• Reform required a new principal, Henry Gradillas– Previous one threatened to fire him for coming in early• Escalante’s students went on to graduate fromMIT, Harvard, Yale, Berkeley, USC, and UCLA
    • 212Toughening Math Standards• First, 7-week summer sessions (every grade) tomake up for poor Junior High math programs– Braving the ensuing wrath of the community• Then, tutoring Sessions before and after school– Open admission: anyone could join his classes!– Open admission: anyone could join his classes!• Finally, increase standards for new teachers– He refused to hire teachers without the background– This is where he went too far, because quickly• This all meant some classes had 50 students– Alas, used by teachers union to get him dismissed– Then, teachers and aids Escalante hired were forcedto quit, taking large pay cuts to move to other districts
    • 213Alas, No Room For The Best• John Perex, VP of teachers union, said, “Jaimedidn’t get along with some of the teachers at hisschool. He pretty much was a loner.” (1990)• New principal that reassigned Jamie to asbestos• New principal that reassigned Jamie to asbestosremoval said, “They’re just disgruntled formeremployees, such backbiting only hurts the kids.”• 2 years later, only 4 students passed AP Calculus– Sports fans would be outraged, for comparison, if ateam showed such a change after replacing a coach• What’s up with a system that values workingwith others more highly than effectiveness?
    • 214“Sales Proofing”• Escalante failed to develop momentum from pastsuccesses by building marketing narrative relatingto the disenfranchised parents and failing teachers• He failed to create a crowd of enthusiastic corecheerleaders for parents and teachers to mimic– Allowing few vocal sour grapes to create the “majority”• Most all people are imitators rather than initiators– Turkeys will even mother stuffed polecats that “cheeps”– Similarly, we laugh at obviously fake canned laughter• Market wins come from hinting everyone is buying– Effect strongest during uncertainty – so, create a crisis
    • 215Fire You, Then Them, Up!• Carmine Gallo44(author of Fire Them Up! andformer anchor, host, business correspondent forCNN, FOX, CNET, and CBS) says to change theworld, improve your business, or get ahead onemust first master these skills (working inside out):must first master these skills (working inside out):– Ignite your own enthusiasm (from building energy)– Win with a consistent memorable vision (quests, BSC)– Sell benefits putting your listeners first (know thy self)– Tell powerful and actionable stories (1st about yourself)– Ask for input and deal with objections (growth plan)– Reinforce optimistic outlook (blow off steam, sleep, fun)– Encourage people to reach their potential (metrics)
    • 216#5: Buyer Cycle Outline(supporting how buyers view buying45)• Who is the Buyer / Prospect?– Making buyer preferences and needs assessments• Buyer cycle behaviors and tailoring selling efforts• Cold call, follow-up meeting, and the trial close<Home>• Cold call, follow-up meeting, and the trial close– Isolate objections, overcome, and summarize solution• Buyer Reactions (whether “yes,” “no,” or other)– Support the buyer and make the skeletons dance– Learn, don’t tell; and, position, don’t present• Closing (good opening, energy, & understanding)– Sample scripts for reactivating a stalled sales process
    • 217Who is the Buyer / Prospect?• A Prospect (often many people) influences sales– You spend time with suspects; you invest in prospects– Policy makers are the most powerful organizationalmembers and control all long-term decision making– Financial Prospects control money (cost and credit)– Financial Prospects control money (cost and credit)– Implementers manage a department (company image)– Users seek products that are safe, makes like easier,but mostly easy to use. They do not have the powerto purchase but they can make the product look badafter deciding to reject it (treat them like speed bumps)– Multiple hats can be worn by a single person (ie CFO)• A Buyer is Decision Maker who’s already bought!
    • 218Primary Buyer Preferences• Emotional appeal: smell, color, and packaging• Logical appeal: performance, value, and usability• Four example primary considerations are:– Product: “What can it do and how well?”– Cost: “How much and is it worth it?”– Cost: “How much and is it worth it?”• Initial cost, total cost, discounts, value, and support = ???– Company: “Can they be trusted to deliver?”– Seller: “Do you solve my problems or make money?”• Judged on knowledge (company, product, market, andcompetition), credibility (trust is first product), presentation,and attitude necessary for performance, quality, reliability,usability, reputation for quality, pricing and customer support• People buy the presentation (not the product)!
    • 219Verbal and Non-Verbal Clues• Look for verbal signals for a buying decision– Questions: “When can I have it?”– Positive Statements: “I like it.”– Requirements: “I need it.”• Look for non-verbal signals for a buying decision– Facial expressions such as a look of concentration– Body movements: for example, nodding in agreement– Mannerisms like leaning forward or an open posture• You may miss these – if you are unsure, ask aquestion to determine the level of acceptance– “When would you like it?” or “Do you like it?”
    • 220Web 2.0 Webinars• “Web 2.0” refers to trends of greater informationsharing and inspiration with existing technologies– Live “cool” interactions (also Wiki and BBS systems)– GoToMeeting, WebEx, MS Live Meeting, Yugma, etc.– Helps global decision makers meet and decide to buy– Helps global decision makers meet and decide to buy– 70% of tech purchases based on webinar/webcast info• Best meeting days are Wednesday and Thursday– Contact before and after, 30 min show with team Q&A,never do anything you haven’t practiced, & use headset– Little non-verbal clues: talk slower, more questions, usesmall talk with personal photos, & mouse click feedback– More “social networking” with Linkedin, Ryze, & Spoke
    • 221Needs Assessment• “Reaching your full potential? 90%? Or 70%?”• Why not? (alas, the buyer usually doesn’t know)– Likely could look better, attract more customers, anddo a better job as compared to the competition butknowing them better than they requires higher groundknowing them better than they requires higher ground• Could be non-specific or implied needs or explicit needs likelocal printing for faster brochures, our competition uses high-end desktop publishing software, or needs for training• Needs can be (or combination)– Emotional (to be liked, order by DM, or safety by user)– Organizational (performance, finance, or image)– Personal (power, recognition, or achievement)
    • 222Three Types of Personal Needs• Power: person enjoys taking personal control ofany and all decisions that impact other people• Recognition: person enjoys work for its own sakeand believes in rewards for exceptional effort• Achievement: person just wants to be liked• Power and Recognition often needs of upper mgtwhile Achievement more for middle management– Probing questions to help determine, then discussion ofimpact, & finally promotional material to move buyer– A computer, say, may improve work performance, butpurchase likely driven by personal or emotional needs
    • 223Buying Cycle Buyer Behaviors• Buyers exhibit different behavior at each salesinteraction (or stage) in the buying cycle, but noteveryone starts at the same place. You mustrespond individually at each stage to be effective.• Unaware: buyer is satisfied, unaware of problems,and cannot relate problems to business objectives• Aware: buyer is forced to see a problem and sizeit up, but may not be able to influence purchase• Consider: when a buyer is aware of a problem,they naturally consider the consequences of notaddressing (possibly less than cost of product)
    • 224Buyer Behaviors (continued)• Preference: after deciding to fix a problem, onebegins to develop (generally emotional) attitudesabout features and criteria for the “best” solution• Shop: buyer compares options to match buying• Shop: buyer compares options to match buyingcriteria, usually emotional ones (focus of selling)• Buy: “closing the sale” after sales has effectivelydemonstrated product’s ability to meet criteria• Review: buyer then assesses value or logic tovalidate emotional preferences/agenda just used– Buyers need follow-up statistics to confirm purchases
    • 225Sales Efforts for Buying Cycle• Unaware: Fact finding – ask about personal andcorporate processes which buyer is involved• Aware: Probe – ask about characteristics• Consider: Agree – ask to prioritize criteria• Consider: Agree – ask to prioritize criteria• Preference: Influence – focus the buyer onbuying criteria that best selects your product• Shop: Recommend – suggest your product ifbest; then other’s (always solve their problem!)• Buy: Close – after an effective presentation• Review: regular follow-up customer care calls
    • 226Buying Cycle Example• A sales manager has started hiring sellers withexcellent product knowledge but no basic sellingskills and does not think this to be the cause of arecent sales drop (“new hires should pick it up asthey go along”). Which is the best solution???they go along”). Which is the best solution???– Larger performance-related bonuses– Comprehensive training program for all sellers– Commitment to hiring only experienced sellers in future• At the Consider stage, this manager looked atnon-training alternatives as past instructor-ledprograms were too time consuming & expensive
    • 227Buying Cycle Example (Cont)• After being embarrassed in an executive meetingby numbers from dropping sales, this managerdeveloped personal criteria to address problem– Low-cost training guaranteed to improve sales that issufficiently flexible so as not to disrupt schedulessufficiently flexible so as not to disrupt schedules• When sales go up from a small CBT purchase,more is purchased without considering if best• NO NEED, NO SALE (it is harder to sell to happypeople): thus, probing questions that elevateproblems with clear implications to crisis status– Re-examine priorities, criteria, options, personal needs
    • 228Start With Cold Call Openings“Good morning. I am ___ from ___. We ___.”“Can you help me with a few quick questions?”“How do you currently ___?” How long does ittake to be successful? How much money, time,take to be successful? How much money, time,and space is currently devoted to this effort?”“Okay then, as far as I understand it, you have[problems]. But, also [good features]. If I was toshow you a system that had all the same [goodfeatures] and none of the [problems] of yourcurrent system, how interested would you be?”“When would be best for a meeting to discuss it?”
    • 229You Must Give Before You Get• This starts with the tone set, the impression made,rapport built, & agenda positioned in the opening– Evaluate results with specific preset objectives/rubrics• “Mr. Customer, thanks for taking the time to talk• “Mr. Customer, thanks for taking the time to talkwith me. Mr. Referral said you were doing someinteresting things in He may have mentionedwe [Executive Summary (you, your product, &company, review your purpose and agenda for themeeting, and then bridge to needs)] To give me abetter picture, what are you doing in Here areprojects we have been very successful with.”
    • 230Three Rules Of Reciprocation• Rule #1: a person must return a favor– Purchasing doubles after receiving a small gift• Such as key chain, pen, address labels, or even just a soda– This is why Hare Krishnas insist on giving flowers– Corollary to Rule #1: works even if they don’t like you– Corollary to Rule #1: works even if they don’t like you• Rule #2: small favor means you could do more– Large commitments twice as likely after small ones• Rule #3: a person must return a refused favor– If your won’t do me the “favor” of buying this largeitem, can I ask you to at least buy this small one?– Starting negotiations high but not unreasonable
    • 231Foot-in-the-door Technique• Ask a small favor, then keep asking bigger ones– People wearing a charity’s pin are likely to contribute• Or, ask three easy “yes” question, then trial close– “Do you feel your child’s education is important?”– “Do you feel your child’s education is important?”– “Do you think completing their homework important?– “Don’t you agree that a good set of reference books willhelp a child do well on their homework assignments?”• “Well then, it sounds like you’ll want to hear aboutthis fine set of encyclopedias I have to offer at anexcellent price. May I come in? No? Well, perhapsthen you could help me out with a few referrals?”
    • 232Commitment Is The Key• If one takes ANY stand, likely to take another– Committing with “yes” to “Are you doing well?” doubleswillingness to buy over just “I hope you are doing well”• Buyers are always twice as loyal as prospects– Possible with ANY small purchase (say, loss leader)– Possible with ANY small purchase (say, loss leader)• During Korean War, almost all American POWsbecame full-time collaborators and supporters ofcommunism while the Chinese used NO torture– “Would you agree America is not perfect? Would youmake a list of problems? Would you read your list –after all, it’s what you really believe? I quoted you!”– America tries to “win hearts” in Iraq with water boarding
    • 233Giving = Supporting the Buyer• A buyer may accept a statement– Always be ready to support a favorable reaction– Agree, expand to state advantage of product, andprobe to further develop benefit of stated feature– Buyer: “You are reliable!” Seller: “Yes, that’s true! So,– Buyer: “You are reliable!” Seller: “Yes, that’s true! So,would an extended warranty be of interest to you?”• A buyer may ignore a statement– Ask more open questions (don’t lose your place or givetoo much information) – who, what, where, etc. areharder to shut down, use sight sellers, and try closing• A buyer may reject a statement– Listen, rephrase, test understanding, isolate, & answer
    • 234Supporting the Buyer (continued)• How would you like to be sold to? For me, youshould not mail, call, or visit but rather e-mail.• And, always follow up with a thank-you note• Majority of sales happen after the fifth contact• Majority of sales happen after the fifth contact• Treat objections only as a request for moreinformation “I had not fully communicated ”– Use questions to warmly effect a turn-around– When buyer is wrong, say “You’re right ...and, manypeople feel the same way. From years of experience,[NO however] I’ve found that in fact (insert the truth)”– Hearing the most “No’s” makes the most money!!!
    • 235Supporting the Buyer (continued)• Think of any objection as a positive processdevelopment which can likely lead to a close– “That’s a good point. I’m glad you mentioned it.”[with good eye contact, open and attentive bodylanguage, and with your head tilted to one side]language, and with your head tilted to one side]• Rephrase as a question to clarify the objection:– “When you say the product is too expensive, is it thatyou are concerned about the value for your money?”• Explanation with more details, Revelation toremove smoke screen covering real issues, andResolution with the buyer working out outcomes– In the end, acquire at least one referral per encounter
    • 236“Prospecting” by Zig Ziglar• Step One: “Mr. Smith, if your best friend were towalk in here at this moment, would you introducehim to me” [Of course] “Then, Mr. Smith, let meget you to do this: why not introduce me to yourbest friend who has a need for our service?”best friend who has a need for our service?”• Step Two: Get an introduction (phone or note)• Step Three: First ask for as many names aspossible and then go back and ask for the details• Step Four: Ask for more: “Who do you jog with?”• Step Five: Ask to prioritize and finally report back
    • 237Concluding a Call• “Last impressions are lasting impressions”• Be relevant: relate to previous discussion• Be yourself: but also be adaptable• Think about the desire result (close sale, move• Think about the desire result (close sale, moveforward on sale, schedule meeting, move up todecision maker, get reference for another sale)• Plan your conclusion carefully (reserving time fora proper conclusion) and thank them for time• Arrange follow-up, set next agenda, agree toaction, get feedback, and thank the buyer
    • 238Follow-up Sales Meeting• Start talking about issues that tie to your solution• Recommend your product by describing featuresand payoffs that satisfy specified dissatisfactions– Needs arise from a problem with the situation as– Needs arise from a problem with the situation asexpressed either in vague or specific dissatisfactionNo need, no sale! First concern is not the product• Try closing as you have demonstrated the actionsolves the stated needs, you have earned theright to close: “You have seen how our productcan revolutionize your system. For you to benefitfrom this, I need your authorization to proceed.”
    • 239If Planning Another Meeting• 5 minutes before end: summarize the main pointsof presentation and arrange for next meeting– Be aware of info limit with no time limit or end early• Agree to actions to be completed (such as audit ofthe current working situation) and what you hopethe current working situation) and what you hopeto achieve during next meeting (building therelationship, anticipation, and commitment)• Get feedback on needs, problems, and benefits– “How useful was this meeting?” (I found it really useful)– “Our product does so and so, are you happy with that?”– “How well did we meet your expectations?”• Thank the person for their time to meet with you
    • 240Before Concluding The Sale• Summarize how product/service solves problem– With the 3 main agreed benefits or key benefit points,identify recognition of the situation that the buyer is in,name a problem, summarize the effect it is having onthe buyer situation, and describe the product benefitthe buyer situation, and describe the product benefit• SITUATION, PROBLEM, EFFECT, PRODUCT BENEFIT– Pausing to get the buyer to say “Yes!” each time• Propose and get agreement for activity or eventthat either advances the sale or results in a sale• Questions should always be built with soft wordsaround actions that leads the buyer to an order– Therefore, Never ask them to “sign” a contract!
    • 241Try A Trial Close• If you are unsure about your buyer’s feelingstoward you or your product, attempt a trial closeto find out how serious are the buyer’s intentions• Or, you might try the question, “Do you need any• Or, you might try the question, “Do you need anyadditional information to make your decision?”• If she or he has little money or decision makingpower, then it’s probably time to change yourstrategy or switch to a buyer with more “strings”– Might you be able to save them money fast enough toafford the purchase before their bill will come due?
    • 242Example Closing Questions• “What about installing a pilot system to evaluatethe benefits? If you are satisfied with the results,we can then proceed with the full implementation.”• “I propose we implement in stages. If we startnext week, we’ll have everything installed andnext week, we’ll have everything installed andtested in three months. Are you happy with that?”• “I’ll have a contract in your office by Friday. Assoon as you give the go-ahead, I’ll arrangedelivery & installation within 2 weeks. Is that OK?”• Softer: “Would you okay the paperwork”, “shall wecomplete the formalities”, or “fill out these forms?”• Then stop talking and wait for an answer!
    • 243Dealing With Trial Responses• “I don’t like the color” Find out why before• Contradiction: “But, it’s the latest color.”• Reflective thinking: “So, you don’t like the color?”• Interpretation, translation, assumption: “Oh, so• Interpretation, translation, assumption: “Oh, sowhat you are saying is that the color is too dull?”• “If” and “will:” “If I can get X color, will you buy it?”• Platform changes: “How do you like the fabric?”• Before all that, “The color is an important factor.What exactly is it about the color you don’t like?”< First, just ask “Why?” >
    • 244Four Types of Objections• Doubt– Offer proof, testimonials, demonstration, guarantee• Misunderstanding– Apologize for confusion and clarify – emphasizingbuilding a desire for a solution not a particular productbuilding a desire for a solution not a particular product• Disadvantage– Maximize other advantages & minimize disadvantage• Price (know you’re A, B, C, D’s)– Agree (not cheap, but good value), Build a barrier (byrestating benefits and being a complete solution),Compromise (offer something that costs little for free,like training), Discount (last resort and special deal)
    • 245You Must Isolate Objections!• Get the buyer to confirm that it is the only issuestanding in the way of progressing the sale– Failing to isolate likely leads to just more objections– If isolated, answer objection If not isolated, listen,rephrase, test understanding, isolate, and answerrephrase, test understanding, isolate, and answer– Taking notes will greatly help you listen and isolate• May require a follow-up call or presentation– If so, begin by checking there are no other objections– Try statistics, opinions of others, sight tools, etc.• Remember to anticipate, control the conversation,question as needed, and aim to advance or close
    • 246Never Invite Objections!• The fastest way to instigate objections is to givean answer when you should be asking a questionor when a question had already been resolved• Questions are always safer than opinions “I’m• Questions are always safer than opinions “I’msurprised to hear this, as I want to understand.May I ask about your thinking in saying that?”– Never say, “I’ll try” or even worse, “It’s not my fault”• Salespeople can easily affect what buyers do, but– We expect every meeting to be as crisp as USA-Today• Anticipate Objections by the experiences of others– Mgt should reward the finding of new buyer or prospect
    • 247Selling Is Not Telling!• “Features and benefits” presentation often comesonly after the initial consultative selling effort if notafter the delivery itself as part of ongoing support– The problem is that telling is quicker, easier, and safer• Was the visit about telling the prospect about X orY, or was it to learn about them? If only telling,you’re not closing a sale but just a presentation!• The Buyers major role should be telling you stuffnot asking product questions – guide them to tell.• Your first opening questions should naturallydirect dialog to a comfortable and unforced close
    • 248Position or Spin, Not Present• Proper positioning reduces customer objectionsand translates from techie talk to customer speak– Many people have been wrongly trained not to ask such“risky” questions they don’t already know the answer to• “Answerman” salesperson should become a product councilor• “Answerman” salesperson should become a product councilor– Buyer may try to push you back to your product dump• Only 3-minute summary, then get back to dialog of questions• Open with “Unlike other companies, we ”; thenprovide hunches; finally, progress to one idea• Finally, “Can you give me five minutes to help withsome specific feedback why we weren’t selected?”– This can win the next proposal if not steal back this one
    • 249Pre-closing Metrics• Have you built the prerequisite customer energy?– Coaching encouragement skills are also key to sales– Enough boasting? “Many don’t know we’re #1 in ”• Check understanding of decision process, budget,time frames, priority, and fix what needs fixingtime frames, priority, and fix what needs fixing– This is certainly not just how many X do they need?– Do you know the problems better than they? Theyshould like you just for the improved problem definition.• Is the product positioned as the only solution?– Are you positioned as the primary source of advice?• Closing is the job of the salesperson, not buyer– 80% fail to close when buyer ready, making 60% angry
    • 250Responses to Buyer Reactions• “YES” (Only 1 in 15 closes in large companies)– Stop talking while contract are being signed, check thateverything is correct, thank the buyer, summarize andreview the implementation plan (or buyer may forgetbenefits and alienate or distract buyer), and thank thebenefits and alienate or distract buyer), and thank thebuyer again (then again with email or letter)• “NO” (Can happen as you walk in, agree & turn it)– Then, the closing effort simply becomes a trial close– You might as well make the family “skeletons” dance– Manage objections by listening and rephrasing as aquestion to clarify before isolating and answering– And then, attempt yet another closing question
    • 251“Don’t have the time ”• So, in other words, what you’re saying is that itwould be great to be able to take advantage ofmy offer it’s just that you are so back loggedthat you feel the potential time savings it couldbring simply isn’t worth some effort?bring simply isn’t worth some effort?• That’s the great thing about my business, thebusier I am, the more money I’m making isthat the same for you in your business?• If time wasn’t an issue for you, which product orservice I’ve shown has the most appeal to you?
    • 252“Don’t have time ” (continued)• “Satisfying” buyer who previously bought the firstacceptable solution and skipped all alternatives– Probe for needs and stress speed whenever possibleas well as completeness of solution as compared tothe new needs so issues will get solved this timethe new needs so issues will get solved this time– Or, “Chunk” presentation of only “What, so what, andnow what?” Say, “As a result, I am recommending Ican do this If you can Are you happy with that?”• “Fast and Furious” buyer who previously chosethe “best” only by what seemed the most familiar– Ask, “How did you make a purchase last time?” Then,prove how this purchase is just like last time(s) - onlymore so - with data, visuals, stories, and testimonials.
    • 253“No budget ” Or, “Too costly ”• I know price is an important consideration. Whatare you comparing it against in thinking this?• I’m sure you’re not saying the products you’vepurchased in the past ended up to be worthless?Can I invite you to one day of training for free?Can I invite you to one day of training for free?• Based on our conversations, if money wasn’t anissue, there are certainly issues within yourorganization that could use some improvingwhere do you see the biggest gaps to exist?• Wow, really? So, is your company expanding orshrinking? Normally, budgets getting shot is asign of rough times. Is that the case for you?
    • 254“Already own” / “Do it internally”• Are there objective metrics your company usesor are decisions made more from the gut?• So, the company has paid for this product orservice in the past? How did the company goservice in the past? How did the company goabout making that purchase? Was that purchasesomething you were actively involved with?• That’s exactly what Company X said two yearsago, but we worked through assessments thatshowed a gap. Today, the company just postedthat they saved enough time over the past twoyears to pay for one of their full time employees.
    • 255More Ways They Say No• “Not decider” – Who is the decision maker?• “No Need” – Our clients report a 40% increase.• “We’re too small” – Do you know what yourcompetition is doing? We’ve delivered solutionsto over 1,000 of the local area businesses.to over 1,000 of the local area businesses.• “We only use proprietary solutions” – Are you notretailing your applications? Poor interfaces andpoor documentation are likely reasons why, andwhy systems fail. But, industry leading interfacesand documentation are exactly what we do best.• Don’t memorize scripts; learn good methodologyto answer and reactivate a stalled sales process
    • 256Continually Clarify Positions• “What do you have for me today?” Can mean“I’m sure that you don’t have anything for metoday, but let me quickly make sure of it.”• “I need X.” Can mean I don’t feel a need for• “I need X.” Can mean I don’t feel a need foranything – I don’t know what I need, but I heardyou have X. Let me quickly make sure of it.”• Reply with: “What are your concerns?” Or, “Canwe back up a bit, I would like to ask about ”• Use questioning in the opening, assessing needs,in positioning your product, resolving objections,as well as closing to continually clarify positions
    • 257Clarify Objections (continued)• “No, I must have it delivered before you can ship”may just mean “I need to be billed in this quarter”or “I need it this year for tax purposes” when, say,the most expensive parts can be shipped early.• The only way to know is to ask more questions!• The correct response is never a product answer!• “A new X is 3 times more expensive than a Y!”– “X is better, provides growth, let me show you why ”or, “So, what you’re saying is ” can be very irritating– Better, “Yes, I see your point. I should have mentionedthat. Tell me what you need specifically, and why?”
    • 258Price Objection Example• Buyer: “Price is too high.”• Seller: “Yes, but it has twice the benefits of others,halving the time to bring products to market.”• Buyer: “But, the price is more than I should pay.”• Buyer: “But, the price is more than I should pay.”• Seller: “Here are visuals for all the benefits weagreed the product or service provided you.”• Buyer: “It still doesn’t seem worth it.”• Seller: “Let me see if I can get a special deal ongetting you some free training.”• Buyer: “I’ll buy.” [note: sale didn’t need a discount]
    • 259Make The Skeletons Dance• One who flatly rejects your product has thoughtabout it, in fact, more than one willing to listen• What is the single biggest objection? Then,brightly agree, even brag about it: “Absolutely!”– “You’re known for being expensive and less reliable!”“Yes, we are more expensive and less reliable! Why isthat? Because, our product can do the work of threemachines and can be repaired with no down time.”• Don’t try to hide the “rotting rhinos” – they won’tremain hidden long and will kill repeat business– Unless you’re selling a 3-week business cycle productor the competition is just as sleazy as your company
    • 260Barry Maher’s Skeleton Protocol• List every negative issue to your prospects,yourself, and any others as if you’re a competitor• Then, list the advantages of these negatives– The advantage of flimsy is it’s cheap and available– The advantage of flimsy is it’s cheap and available– The advantage of causing a huge loss for a customeris that there’s little risk in assuming all future losses– And, every pos has neg: “It can’t work, it’s too cheap!”• List the reasons for each negative to fill out thestories behind the advantages of the negatives• Create at least six benefits for each negativeuntil they each become an ultimate selling point
    • 261Be Buyer Emotion Chameleon• Whatever emotions the buyer exhibits– Angry: “ We have to take action!”– Surprised: “I’m hungry!”– Worried: “What happened at last week’s meeting?”– Passive: “It’s October 14th.”• A seller should be fully synchronized– If they talk about “meshing,” you had better say “mesh”– Sync with words, appearance, and emotions (or heart)• Subtlety radiates confidence and intimacy– Don’t be obvious, of course, about such syncing efforts– But, people sell more who talk faster than the Buyer
    • 262“50 Ways To Close Your Sale”• Assumptive Close– “I can meet on Thursday. What time would you like?”• Secondary Question or Forced Choice Close– When any answer affirms primary question (ie: stopping– When any answer affirms primary question (ie: stoppingby): “Should I stop by at 7:00pm or 8:00pm tonight?”• Alternative Close (offering two distinct options)– “Do you want just the single computer system initially orshould I also deliver the back-ups at the same time?”• Sharp Angle Close– If the buyer asks, “Does it come with backup?” you thenreply (of course) with “Would you like one if it does?”
    • 263Closing Scripts (continued)• Order Blank Close– Write out details of an order and ask reflex questionslike spelling of name and address. If they stop you, say“I understand how you feel. I am only listing the detailsfor analysis.” Then, ask for a signature. If they hesitate,grab the pen back, shake it, and exclaim, “Darn pen’sgrab the pen back, shake it, and exclaim, “Darn pen’sbeen clogging all day, but that should do it. Try it now.”• Ben Franklin Close or Balance Sheet Close– “Any decision is clearly only as good as the information.Whenever Ben Franklin (or my father) was faced with atough decision, he used a decision matrix listing all ofthe positives and negatives.” After listing six positives,let them list negatives (without help, people rarely comeup with more than price and one more) to compare.
    • 264Closing Scripts (continued)• Not A Salesperson For A Salesperson Close– “I really enjoy the consulting side of my business, it’swhat I’m really good at. But, I have to be honest. Weare now at the point where I’m not really at my best. Iam sure you, conversely, are an excellent salesman –am sure you, conversely, are an excellent salesman –are you not? So, to speed things up, how about yousell me on why you should not buy from me today?”• Lapsing Memory Close– “This sheet of paper represents what you know today.”Fold the paper in half. “This is what you’ll recall in aday.” Repeat several times. “Don’t you want to make adecision with the most information?” If the client claimsto need more time, “That’s cool, I’ll wait down the hall.”
    • 265Closing Scripts (continued)• Only Four Possibilities Close– “There are only four possibilities: you buy or you don’tbuy, your need it or you don’t need it – can we agreeon that? Well, let’s review what might happen in eachcase. If you don’t buy and don’t need it, you’ve spentcase. If you don’t buy and don’t need it, you’ve spentnothing and got nothing. If you buy it and don’t need it,you’ll have a small expense with no benefit. If you buyand need it, you’ll have a small expense with a bigpayoff. But, if you don’t buy it and end up needing it,you’ll end up with a potentially devastating expense.What exactly would the consequences be? Moreover,how would you feel if you needed it but didn’t have it.And, isn’t it, as they say, better to be safe than sorry?”
    • 266Closing Scripts (continued)• Puppy Dog Close (If “Dog” too big, try a puppy)– If they still won’t buy, try breaking down the sale into asmaller component with a “guaranteed / no risk” offer• Summary with Cutting Back Secondary Close– “As we’ve agreed Mr. Customer, the new Jiff-o-Matic is– “As we’ve agreed Mr. Customer, the new Jiff-o-Matic isthe fastest, the easiest, the most cost-effective ” evenadd two or three of the dancing skeletons. Say, “Itmakes sense to me, what do you think?” If he doesn’tsign, push the Premier until you’re sure he won’t buy it,then cut back to your secondary recommendation,slowly selling the negatives: “Now the Deluxe is not ”A good salesman can cut back two or three times, but ifyou cut back too fast, you’ll only cut your own throat.
    • 267Closing Scripts (continued)• Always Pulling Back Close (best for sales people)– “Why should I buy?” (doesn’t like to be told what to do)– “Perhaps, you shouldn’t” – you might even start to packup saying somberly “Maybe this isn’t right for you.”– If they stop you, continue several more “take-away’s”– If they stop you, continue several more “take-away’s”• “I don’t know if you will qualify for this product,” “This has beenso popular, you may not be able to get one,” and “If you hadcome to me earlier, you would have qualified for a better deal.”– Can “fight” with management for product availability orfor special characteristics – even if you “lose,” you win• If you choose to “win” with your boss, do it a little at a time– Use business card with “Find out how you can qualify”
    • 268Closing Scripts (continued)• Shifting Risk Close– Prospects need to believe the risk involved in beingyour customer is less than not being your customer• Need to increase perception of safety being with you• Also means increasing perception of your credibility• Also means increasing perception of your credibility– You want to help them feel safer – just as insuranceand legal protection are normal risk protectors/shifters• Remind them it’s not about the cost, but the consequences– Share sources of risk information, provide a similarsupporting story, and then ask for any first handpersonal experience dealing with such consequences• “With just a pen’s stroke, you can stop worrying.”
    • 269Closing Scripts (continued)• Always-Be-Closing scripts include Presidential,Niemen Marcus, Kreepy Krawly, Raccoon, Pity,and the Now or Never (or Fire Sale) closes• Finally, is the Walk Back and Apologize Close• Finally, is the Walk Back and Apologize Close– Walk back into an office with, “Mr. Customer, I just hadto come back here and apologize to you. It’s completelymy fault. You know, sometimes when you’re in a hurry,when you’ve got appointments waiting sometimeswhen you’re explaining something over and over to alot of different people, well, you just don’t do the kind ofjob that people have a right to expect. If I had just donemy job, you would have purchased more from me.”
    • 270The “Decoy”• Given 3 choices, people usually pick the middle• But, if two are very different and the middle one issimilar but not a good deal as compared with thethird, people naturally choose the last onethird, people naturally choose the last one• For example, if an electronic magazine was $59 ayear while a physical subscription was $125, mostpeople (esp from the Web) would choose $59/yr.But, If a third option existed for an electronic andphysical subscription for $125, most would but it.• Always offer choices and consider a “decoy”
    • 271Closes For Five Verbal Profiles• Computer: Balance Sheet close with focus ondetails of implementation with “proof” strategies• Placater: Team up to overcome “incompetence”overloading with questions on shifting risk aftermany agreements leading to Order Blank closemany agreements leading to Order Blank close• Blamer: Summary with Cut Back close (continuepulling back) after submissively addressing PASSemotional needs with expert testimony; may needmultiple visits for timing or cooling down (2-on-1)• Distracter: Sharp Angle with shocks like tossingwads of “lost” money on the floor and Order Blank• False Leveler: Broken rhythm with logical visuals
    • 272“50 Ways To Close” (review)• Do everything you can to build sense of urgency• Don’t hide the contract. A large stack of them onyour desk screams, “This is a routine form. It’s nobig deal. Clients sign a lot of these every day.”big deal. Clients sign a lot of these every day.”• In most complex sales, there will likely be severalclosing questions before you can ask for the order• But, it’s more about a process of developing trust;when done correctly, the close takes care of itself– you’re just asking them for what makes sense• Remember, the Close begins with the Opening
    • 273#6: Sales Cycle Tracking Outline• What is Customer Relationship Management?– Profile the person, department, and company– Account record, grouping accounts, and customer plan– Profile buyer behaviors & attractive qualities over time<Home>• Personal time management and Pareto Analysis– Building a calling plan as a basis for your calendar– Steps for turning leads into prospects and sales• High ratios for problems areas in sales technique– Ratios: Suspect to Prospect; Prospect to Approach;Approach to Proof; Proof to Decision; Decision to Order
    • 274Customer Relations Mgt• CRM is the intelligent IT practice for finding,marketing to, selling to, and servicing customers– Requires a database of customer information & agentsupport software for collaborative and analytical efforts– Timely, accurate, complete, no duplicates, secure data– Timely, accurate, complete, no duplicates, secure data– Key for data mining referrals and best markets, etc– Leading vendors are SAP, Siebel, Oracle, Salesforce• CRM is also organizational philosophy in dealingwith customers’ needs and expectations includingemployee training, processes, as well as finances– This implies every job is about customer service• 6-sigma Voice of the People; ISO 9001:2000 Cust Satisfaction
    • 275Profile the Person, Dept, Co.• What do you do? How long have you been inyour role? How did you get into this job? Whatare your future plans? What did you do prior?• What department are you in? How many in the• What department are you in? How many in theteam? What technologies are key (support,admin, or design)? Who do you report to?• What are the top initiative or business problemscurrently being worked on? How successfulhave past effort been? How was that measured?• Help solve all problems, even if send to others.
    • 276The Account / Prospect Record• Standard business information– Name, address, nature of business, contact phonenumber(s), buyer name(s) with title and other details,best time to call, other DMs, and DM process, etc.• Report on each call (Call Report)• Report on each call (Call Report)– Who, needed follow-up activities, sales, buyercommitments, possible sales, contract exp, andcompetition to be prepared for next meeting/call• Activity between calls– Details of all phone calls and meetings, etc.
    • 277Grouping Accounts• Usually into three groups:– Key Buyers with a lot of potential that form the basisfor profits by frequently making large orders,especially those who could easily go elsewhere– Solid and Steady Buyers who have been making– Solid and Steady Buyers who have been makingorders for a long time with your sales organization– Marginal Buyers with low risk and low priority orders• Primarily by new orders, sudden large orders,new management (that may be suddenly for oragainst you), recent or expiring leases, etc.
    • 278Customer Maintenance Plan• For canvassing, sales, database, andorganizational skills for detailed records• Why?– Provides buying history with agreed actions– Provides buying history with agreed actions– And, better preparation and focus for sales calls– It saves valuable time and embarrassment whentransferring a territory from one seller to another– Bottom line: it closes more sales!• Only records & planning that support selling withan easy system for data retrieval and reminders
    • 279Profile Buyer Behaviors• Fact finding: including usually profiling peopleand their organizations before every meeting• Probing: to identify and magnify potential andexisting problems of time, profit, and prestigeexisting problems of time, profit, and prestige• Agreeing: to be allowed to make a proposal andto always consider alternatives• Influencing: by persuading one of benefits• Recommending: solutions as a friend• Closing: by summarizing, gaining commitment,and planning effective follow-ups
    • 280Attractive Quality Over Time3.Exciting – how can thecustomer be wow-ed?2.Revealed Performance– just ask the customerFrom Hinshitsu (Quality), The Journal of the Japanese Society for Quality Control, XIV:2, pp.39-48, April 1984Airline phones were exciting,expected, and are now gone– just ask the customer1.Basic / Expected –assumed items requireonly reviewing notes0.Indifferent or Annoyed
    • 281Personal Time Management• Emptying: clean up & clear out collection points• Deciding: capture everything; define outcomes• Grouping: tracking systems, workflow models,and even coaching to organize all emails, paperdocuments, and meetings by how and whenand even coaching to organize all emails, paperdocuments, and meetings by how and when• Executing: weekly reviews based on purpose,vision, goals, areas of focus, projects, actions– See Getting Thing Done by David Allen– Personal Information Management (PIM) software< Alas, all unplanned work (often called fire-fighting) is the #1 silent killer of efficiency! >
    • 282Personal Pareto Analysis(80% of results comes from 20% of work)• Know what is important to boss and customer• consensus on updated prioritized High /Medium/Low to-do list and performance goals with boss• Maintain uninterrupted time for correspondence• Maintain uninterrupted time for correspondence• Do daily personal brainstorming when most alert• Have organized office & calendar, ready for fires• Do at least a simple PERT chart for all projects• Delegate, Listen, and Network well at all times• Daily exercise, alone time, friends, & good sleep– Stress management, relaxation therapy, and plan fun
    • 283Building a Calling Plan• To keep in regular touch with accounts (keyones more often) to make more sales, buildbuyer relationships, & use time more effectively• Select criteria for grouping accounts and group(usually 3 groups: key, solid, and low priority)(usually 3 groups: key, solid, and low priority)• Decide on call frequency for each group andplan overall calling cycle (or calendar of calls)• Review each account and group regularly (anaccount, say, may be moved to another group)• Remember priority is always, of course, to spendmore time selling and less time building tools
    • 284Basis for Calendar of Calls• Call frequency for each group (say, once a monthfor key accounts, every two month for solidaccounts, and quarterly for marginal accounts)• Number of accounts (there’s only one of you)• Number of accounts (there’s only one of you)• Whether you plan on visiting or calling (could besimply: “I’m calling to check that you’re still happywith the new printers and the quality of servicing.What’s the latest feedback from your staff?”)• Routing plan for efficient use of travel time (andnot driving/flying repeatedly over the same paths)
    • 285Steps of the Selling Cycle(turning leads into prospects and sales)• Suspect: cold calls in your sales territory and / orfact-finding efforts to see if your time is worth it• Prospect: as in any contest – you must focus onbuyer & consider what your competition might dobuyer & consider what your competition might do• Approach: decision maker about need, authority• Proof: by explaining benefits (pricing, etc)– Only discuss competition if issue raised by buyer• Decision: ask for a commitment or lose to others– At least pre-commitment, trial, or demonstration• Order: record signature / authorization / install
    • 286Sales Cycle Stages(align Selling Cycle with Buyer Cycle)• Suspect: buyer unaware of need or problem– Seek potential emotional connection for their lacking• Prospect: fact-finding with open questions aboutobjections, current situations, and operationsobjections, current situations, and operations– Identify problems with existing methods and solutions• Approach: magnify uncovered problems andconfirm needs and your solution as a match– Probe for potential concerns, financial impact, as wellas resulting professional and public image of purchase– Buyer is aware; so, get agreement to consider yoursolution and alternatives it’s now time to recommend
    • 287Sales Cycle Stages (continued)• Proof: help buyer to set preferences and buyingcriteria as well as influence by focusing onstrengths and recommending your solution andprove it works this ensures he or she willchose your solution even if they shop around• Decision and Order: The Buyer expects you toask for a commitment so, do just that!– When you are closing the buy, you summarize theagreed benefits and gain commitment to proceed– National average closing rate is about 10% to 15%• Follow up: help buyer confirm their satisfaction
    • 288Sales Cycle Tracking• Record the date for completing each step andcalculate 5 key ratios (to improve overall sales)– Suspect to Prospect Ratio• You might decide there are too many suspects / leads to track– Prospect to Approach Ratio– Approach to Proof Ratio– Proof to Decision Ratio– Decision to Order Ratio• Track completed, ongoing, aborted steps by client– Forecast based on average length of sales cycles– Price cuts oblige higher closing rates or more prospectsHigh ratios indicateproblem areas insales techniques
    • 289Sales Cycle Tracking Example• 100 suspect, for example, in your Sales Territory• 50 later qualify for money, authority, need, etc.• 32 turn out to match their need to your solution• 24 believe that you fully satisfy their aspirations• 24 believe that you fully satisfy their aspirationsand needs as well as being within their budget• 15 you can enthuse for commitment to purchase• 8 finally complete order, installation, and fullypay for all product and services as well as• 6 that follow-up with additional future upgrades
    • 290First High Suspect: Prospecting• Largest ratio in this example was two Suspectsto each Prospect may be the biggest problem– National average is also to only qualify 30% to 60%• This means you are not screening the accounts• This means you are not screening the accountscarefully enough... may need to do it personally• Your probing skills are deficient and you likelyneed to spend more time getting information• You may not even know what a prospect is• Or, your Sales Territory may not have enoughpotential (not sufficient number of likely buyers)
    • 291Not A Suspect: Approach• Prospect to Approach ratio is 1.56, this is about:• Good telephone skills (thorough and courteous);you know when to answer and when to hang up• Good planning and strategizing (you’re doing well• Good planning and strategizing (you’re doing wellplanning appropriate sales approaches beforemeeting with the buyer and doing presentation)• Good prospect research (for good knowledge ofthe buyer’s situation, needs, and objectives)– Matching customer’s needs well with your products• You have a good buyer orientation and focus!
    • 292Least Likely Suspect: Proof• Approach to Proof ratio is 1.33; this is examplearea of least difficulty or greatest skills, thus• You showed good knowledge of pricing options• You clearly understand your product adequately• You clearly understand your product adequately• You have done well in discussing the buyerneeds that met by your product in presentation• You are proficient at identifying & magnifyingbuyer problems (you have done a reasonablejob probing for problems, developing explicitneeds, and helping the buyer know the product)
    • 293Another Suspect: Decision• Approach to Proof ratio is 1.6, this is about• You’ve not made enough benefit statements– How is the buyer to know your solutions will work?• You seem to have poor demonstration skills and• You seem to have poor demonstration skills andare tuning out buyers (not getting their point ofview nor what will make them more successful)• You may not be making sufficient use of salessupport literature as a proof source to overcomeobjections (doubt, misunderstandings, price, etc)• You are not recommending the best solution!
    • 294Second High Suspect: Order• Second largest ratio was 1.88 Proofs to eachOrder thus, this the second biggest problem• Suggesting poor closing skills (need to do abetter job summarizing the agreed benefits,better job summarizing the agreed benefits,proposing action plans, and waiting for answers)• You may not understand how decisions aremade in the buyer’s organization (who is DM?)• You are likely not probing enough for theconsequences of fixing or not fixing the mainproblem facing the buyer’s organization
    • 295#7: Complex/Coaching Outline• Daley’s Socratic Selling from asking questions• Complex Sales vs. Small, simple sales– Small about closing while large about investigating– Goal is not about closing but commitment for next step<Home>– Goal is not about closing but commitment for next step– Push vs. Pull and Hard vs. Soft selling – which is right?• Sales Coaching requires a coaching culture– Feedback is the first language of coaching– Self-coaching just as important as by management• Post call debriefing or post-mortem• Listening and vocal charisma exercises
    • 296Daley’s Socratic Selling• Socrates viewed coercion and persuasion assins of the Rhetoricians and preferred viewinghimself rather as a midwife of existing truth– Listen to the buyer and help them to think and decide• 1) intro topic 2) invite buyer to share interests 3)offer benefits for sharing 4) ask for more details5) check for urgency & deadlines 6) what mostbothers them 7) what most motivates them 8)summarize 9) get them to agree 10) recommend11) answer questions & objections 12) close
    • 297Complex Sales• Most of the decision is made when the seller isn’tpresent, during intervals between the sales calls– Neil Rackham says that opening the call, investigatingneeds, presenting benefits, handling objections, andclosing are less important as the sale is more complex;closing are less important as the sale is more complex;Where building the perceived value is most important– Unleash expertise for change by adding value every day• In small sales, if you can’t close you can’t sell, butin complex situations, it’s if you can’t investigate– Implication Questions: Are you fully satisfied with yourservice contract? No, in what way? Why is it importantto solve this problem? How much would you save?
    • 298Complex Sales (continued)• Start a 10-minutes sales pitch with a good buyer-centered vision statement and benefits summary– Buyers will become irritated if you just throw a series ofblunt interrogatives mostly about your selling needs– Link questions to their statements and external forces– Link questions to their statements and external forces– Identifying consequences of perceived dissatisfactions• Goal is not a sale but a sales cycle commitment– Get them to set up meeting, call 2 satisfied customers,set up introduction to the or another decision maker– Jerry Vass’ Soft Selling only persuades CEOs withbusiness-oriented payoff presentations for obtainingcommitments in less than 15-minutes (after much work)
    • 299Push-Pull Sales ApproachesPUSHTellsTestsGoodfor SalesGood forTimeResultsPushPullSells (traditional)AUTOCRATDEMOCRATTestsConsultsJoinsPULLfor SalesGood forCustomer(Tannenbaum, A S, et al. 1974. Hierarchy inOrganizations. Jossey-Bass. Shelfmark HD38.T29)Pulling usuallybetter for long-term success
    • 300Pushing vs. Pulling• Every sales consultant or book author can bedivided in two groups: either hard or soft selling– Both hard/soft are right at different times and situations• Low-cost, short-term, or good-for-them are hard!• Low-cost, short-term, or good-for-them are hard!– We all have at least one friend or family member whosmokes, drinks, eats too much, etc try to get them toquit and go to church more often with just whispering.Then, try that approach with a similar teenager LOL– Low-cost fitness centers are a classical hard sale• Even the “Horse Whisperer” eventually hog-tied the horse– Won’t work for multiple decision makers or over $100k
    • 301Hard vs. Soft Selling• So, if the products or services are simple, cheap,and good for you, try being hard good exampleis a $50 quit-smoking product that’s guaranteed!– It’s time to end topic negotiations and lead the buyer– Fitness salesmen have been know to even throw abox of donuts while yelling, “Might as well eat these!”• Then, if the large, complex, sale exists where thecompetition is similar, you’d better be very soft• Except that you can change it to a small, simplesale by only selling a component rememberthat a buyer is always better than a prospect!
    • 302Sales Coaching• Top-performance requires a coaching culture– Money is literally left on the table without coaching• Because coaching is the only way to change fast enough– Sadly, only a third of companies do anything formal• Yet, the primary reason people quit is to find one that does• Yet, the primary reason people quit is to find one that does• First rule of coaching: always self-assess first– Start with strengths (1-on-1) to build common ground– Use in-depth questioning skills just like with customer• Daily Issues, Weekly or Quarterly Reviews andYearly asking, “How am I getting in your way?”– Be specific and focus only on a few things at a time• Always close with Action Plan and then follow up
    • 303Feedback: Language Of Coaching• Role Play (switch being the customer and seller)• Practice scripts (including critical pauses)• Practice writing proposals to common buyers• “Listen to me” exercises to experience modeling• “Listen to me” exercises to experience modelingand mirroring differing emotions, communicationstyles, body language, and contact methods• In first three sales calls, focus on the process– Experience moving too early (or late) with features– And, when it’s time for features, focus on benefits– Review every step and alternatives with your coach
    • 304Encouragement is Key• Employees are usually discouraged by officepolitics, unclear expectations, dishonesty,withheld information (right to know not need toknow), discouraging comments or tone (negative“Pygmalions” more common than positive ones),“Pygmalions” more common than positive ones),tolerance for poor performance, and feelings ofbeing taken for granted – employee of the monthawards don’t address any of these key concerns• Asking “How can I motivate them?” automaticallycreates an us vs them discouraging environment– Better question is “How am I getting in their way?”
    • 305Self-coaching / Post-call Debrief• Preparation: Did I plan a sales-call strategy? DidI do my customer, product, industry homework?Did I know everyone who was going to be there?Were they qualified decision maker / influencer?Were my material appropriate and professional?Were my material appropriate and professional?• During Call: Did I fit in, eye contact, note taking?How often did I talk? Did I begin with words ofempathy? Did I keep my ideas bite sized? WereWhy questions effective? Did I dig deep? Did Iuncover all objections? Did I listen? Did I conveyfaith in myself? Did I accomplish what I need to?What could I have improved? Create action plan.
    • 306Self-coaching / Listening• Get out of the way of your customers discoveringyour products on their own by simply listening– People want others to just listen – advice is cheap, apaper with both Dear Abby & Billy Graham costs 50¢– Listening encourages growth and reduces tension– Listening encourages growth and reduces tension• The first person we need to listen to is ourselves– The first goal is to stop over committing yourself!– Next is ability for a greater articulation of your values• Write a Value Statement of who you are and what you believe• What did you find out? Write an Action Plan for improvements– Understand the destructive ways you talk to yourself– Thus, you should have a better idea of what you mostenjoy, are good at, and how to get out of your own way
    • 307Listening Coaching (continued)• I have found note taking to be invaluable – so,evaluate the notes taken during each sales call– Evaluate listening at planning, arguments, training, etc.• Listening means encouraging others to talk more– List ways to improve in this area and then practice– List ways to improve in this area and then practice• The children’s game of telling a story around acircle shows how poorly we listen – again, practice– Get feedback from others on ability to get a story right– Practice listing all the sounds you hear in 5 minutes– List situations and people when you are most focusedand able to see other’s views without judgment?– List non-verbal clues (good & bad) to the listening levels
    • 308Self-coaching / Vocal Charisma• Never underestimate the power of your voice– You must learn to speak with more energy, music, andemotion to sound credible with proper tone & breathing• Record yourself speaking to make improvements– Read newspaper after marking it for when to breath– Banish non-words: “um,” “ahh,” “you know,” “so,” etc.– And annoying sounds: lip smacking or popping sounds• Copy yourself voicemails to review at day’s end• Observe yourself speaking in front of a mirror– Note muscle tension, breathing too often or too deeply,using your diaphragm, and ability to express feelings
    • 309Vocal Coaching (continued)• Speak before two or three friends or colleaguesand give a 30 second advertisement on yourself– Get feedback on being warm, interesting, passionate,convincing, enthusiastic, clear, articulate, professional,well paced, commanding, pleasant, and trustworthywell paced, commanding, pleasant, and trustworthy• Make sure all of your vowel sounds are correct and clear• Your mother was correct, good posture helps proper breathing– Try reading it authoritative, warm, energetic, or mellow– Vary pitch, inflection, placement, tempo, and rhythm• Shower singing can help find your natural voice• Grow from painful recognition of mistakes throughnoticing improvements until it’s all second nature
    • 310Tom Sant’s Six Rules• In The Giants of Sales, Tom Sant says there aresix rules that transcend every top sales method– Method matches buyer’s preferred mode of buying– Method is flexible, self-correcting, incorporating lessons– Process itself creates value, usually intellectual, for boththe buyer and vendor separate from closing the sale– Methodology increases sale efficiency, either makingthe sales cycle shorter or enabling the salesperson tohandle an larger volume of accounts successfully– Methodology based on measurables, but this only worksif you work it (by matching your preferred selling mode)– Methodology transferable across all skill levels!
    • 311In Conclusion• Sales is a higher calling not a genetic disposition– Sales, teaching, and evangelism are all the same thing• Stop selling to the customer you think they shouldbe (or you would be) & sell to who they really arebe (or you would be) & sell to who they really are– Sales is about helping buyers be unhappy about nothaving what they need to fully live up to their potential– And, not about customer satisfaction over conspicuousconsumption desires to reduce the pain of their fears• This is not done by presentations of facts, figures,and forceful personalities but by speaking to theirhearts to help them make more honest decisions
    • 312In Conclusion (continued)• RULE #1: Know your customer and be flexible!– Buyer pays salary; solve their problems before yours• RULE #2: Know your product and yourself!• RULE #3: Find and stay on the higher ground!– Don’t satisfy their wants; meet their needs and prove it• Focus on 3 R’s: Reputation, Reliability, Rapport– Selling is not presenting, telling, or informing it ispersuading growth for ever shifting buyer and markets• Under promise to over deliver for building trust– Somehow promise a minimum improvement of 20%over all current and alternative solutions and then beable to verify the product delivered significantly more
    • 313Some Ageless Sales AdviceThe 50 rules my grandmother gave my mother onhow to control husbands reduces to the following:1. Make it his idea: mumble some suggestion andthen change the subject only to tell him days later,then change the subject only to tell him days later,“that was a very good idea of yours the other day”2. Use people’s opinions he values more than yours3. Encourage solutions and not discourage problems4. Repetition (aka branding, like wearing a bow tie):be known for one food like your famous apple pieor fried chicken – don’t try to cook everything well
    • 314Questions?But first, let’s double your memory(and so, double your sales)?Memorizing the Presidents
    • 315References1. http://www.00001001.ch/Resources_GetFile.aspx?PageID=328&ResID=12 for Johnson quote2. www.mstservices.com/text/OKC%20SOC%20Presentation%20042204.ppt for employee qualitiesesentation%20042204.ppt for employee qualities3. http://www.newsellingofamerica.org/univ.htmllists 30 top college sales programs alphabetically4. Selling Without Confrontation by Jack Green5. Blink (art of not thinking) by Malcolm Gladwell6. 5-Sec Web site tests by Christine Perfetti athttp://www.uie.com/articles/five_second_test/
    • 316References (continued)7. Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion byRobert B. Cialdini, Ph.D. HarperCollins, 19848. See Forbes.com article by Melanie Linder for“How To Tell Is Someone Is Lying To You”“How To Tell Is Someone Is Lying To You”9. You’ve got to be believed to be heard by Decker10.Negotiated Collusion by Cassell and Bickmore11.12 Tips For Making Small Talk (Mar 4, 2005)12.Never Eat Alone (And Other Secrets to Success,One Relationship at a Time) by Keith Ferrazzi13.SellingPower.Com May 2008 p.54 “Linked in?”
    • 317References (continued)14.The Crying Game by Dr. Richard Bolstad15.Toyota’s Five Why’s is explained at Wikipedia16.Relational Agents by Bickmore and Cassell17.Albert Ellis quote from a NY Times interview17.Albert Ellis quote from a NY Times interview18.See mirroring more fully explained at Wikipedia19.Univ. of North Carolina study of 1,400 workers20.Investment Leadership by Ted Bililies p.8721.How to Kill Creativity, Harvard Business Review22.Type Talk at Work by Otto Krueger23.Understanding DISC: Negotiation Strategies
    • 318References (continued)24.Verbal Judo by George Thompson (& Jenkins)25.The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense by Elgin26.The Practice of REBT by A. Ellis and W. Dryden27.The Satir Process by Sharon Loeschen27.The Satir Process by Sharon Loeschen28.Peoplemaking by Virginia Satir29.Selling to the Old Brain by Renvoise and Morin30.How to Use Broken Rhythm Attacks: Joe Lewis31.What is the Balanced Scorecard by BSC Institute32.World of Human Resources (3/2002, now gone)33.HowToMeasureAnything.com by D. Hubbard
    • 319References (continued)34.Electronic Commerce: A Managerial PerspectivePrentice Hall, 2000, Slide 7 (April, 2003)35.Electronic Commerce: A Managerial PerspectivePrentice Hall, 2000, Slide 12 (April, 2003)Prentice Hall, 2000, Slide 12 (April, 2003)36.Managing Corporate Culture, Innovation, andIntrapreneurship by Howard W. Odwin (1997)37.6-Sigma (by SME) Project (by SixSigma.us)Charter (by isixsigma), & Team Charter Example38.Ellison Well-being (‘82), Mink/Owen Openness(‘94), Shaw Trust (‘97) scales are standardizedmeasurements of personal & group well-being
    • 320References (continued)39.Personal Balanced Scorecard by K. R. Hubert40.Zore on Sales Success by Theodore B. Kinni41.Think! Not in a Blink by Michael R. LeGault andMoneyball: Winning an Unfair Game by M. LewisMoneyball: Winning an Unfair Game by M. Lewis42.Fourth Generation Management by Brian Joiner,New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. (1994).43.Wikipedia on avoiding peacock & weasel terms44.Fire Them Up! Seven Secrets by Carmine Gallo45.Some info New Horizons Seminars Sales CyclesBasics, Mastering Cold Calls, Closing the Sale