Memorizing The Presidents

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Understand how memory works and develop skills in order to improve - adapted from Ron White’s (Guinness Memorizing Record Holder) “Improve Your Memory, Double your Sales”

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Memorizing The Presidents

  1. 1. Memorizing The Presidents To Improve Your Total Recall Adapted From Ron White’s (Guinness Memorizing Record Holder) “Improve Your Memory, Double your Sales” By James Maginnis Organizational Kinetics Copyright 2008 - 2010
  2. 2. Why? • We would all agree that our lives would be much worse with worse memory – and better with more – Similarly, improving our memory can improve our sales • Sales is the rare profession where we’ll never know how much we might make as our incomes increase in direct proportion to us getting better… – This is why we work to hone our presentation skills, for which a crucial ingredient is… our memory, in order to recall not only product and competitive information but also names and faces for stronger client relationships • Just as sales can be learned, so can memory! – These techniques shown to help prevent Alzheimer's
  3. 3. Agenda • How does memory work? – Emotions and sight are more important than our hearing, touch, or other intelligences for remembering • E.g.: Ron Clark’s “Presidents Song” fails for most students • We’ll learn three basic tools for better memories – Humorous Pictures with e-Motion in a familiar Place • We’ll use these to memorize the U.S. Presidents – Anyone can learn the first 20 in less than half an hour. And, continue to know them even six months later. – We will take about an hour for everyone to learn all 44 – Same method can be used to better recall anything
  4. 4. How Does Memory Work? • We are all visual, auditory, and kinesthetic but we tend to use one sense more says Dr. Carl Jung – “I can’t see what your saying, show me how you did it!” – “I hear you loud and clear; sounds like a great idea!” – “I can’t put my finger on it; so, let’s explore it deeper!” – Howard Gardner identified 7 types of intelligence (later adding an 8th while others have identified 1,400 more) • But, Neuroeconomics shows emotions are key to memory and that simple pictures are the best as sight is processed 25 times faster than hearing – Esp. funny moving images in familiar surroundings: “That image reminds me of a funny story at home…”
  5. 5. Thinking of an Elephant… • Doesn’t produce an image of letters (or notes of a song) • Recall produces a picture seen of an actual elephant • Easier if made vivid by being humorous • For more “brain training,” see http://www.pbs.org/saf/1402/
  6. 6. Basic Tools for Better Memories • A Picture, converting abstract words or ideas into sound-a- like pictures, especially if we create them ourselves • With Motion, especially something funny or odd • In a Place, which then provides a “filing cabinet” for sequencing items to help in recalling them in proper order
  7. 7. For An Example… • Let’s work to memorize the 44 U.S. Presidents • First, pick 5 items in 4 rooms (for 20 locations) at home for places easy to remember… such as: – Bedroom: closet, bookcase, dresser, lamp, bed – Bathroom: shower, towels, toilet, sink, cabinet – Kitchen: refrigerator, toaster, stove, dishwasher, table – Living room: stereo, fireplace, chair, end table, couch • You need to visualize standing in the middle of each room and seeing your items in order – Create images of your own actual home – not these! • Review after learning each room’s presidents
  8. 8. Create Your Filing Cabinet • This is no small task to complete before starting • You must make your own personal filing cabinet (can be used for any future memorization tasks) • Pick any four rooms in your home (from bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, living room, garage, family or Arizona room, office, library, garden, game room) • Pick any five items in each room, IN ORDER… looking around each room in your mind from left to right, pick five unlikely to be moved items: like, – bedroom: closet, bookcase, dresser, lamp, and bed
  9. 9. First Room: Bedroom • Has a closet, bookcase, dresser, lamp, and bed – Draw five items in the order found in your first room • Close your eyes and recite your five items…
  10. 10. Second Room: Bathroom • Has a shower, towels, toilet, sink, and cabinet – Draw five items in the order found in your second room • Close your eyes and recite your five items…
  11. 11. Third Room: Kitchen • Has a frig, toaster, stove, dishwasher, and table – Draw five items in the order found in your third room • Close your eyes and recite your five items…
  12. 12. Fourth Room: Living Room • Has a stereo, fireplace, chair, table, and couch – Draw five items in the order found in your fourth room • Close your eyes and recite your five items…
  13. 13. Make Nine (9) Room Drawings Quickly make two (2) drawings for each of your four (4) rooms and one more of the first room…
  14. 14. Let’s Begin • We can later use these rooms and items to help us remember any list of words, or even numbers • For learning the presidents’ names, we first need to see an appropriate amusing image on each of our familiar items (positioned in order) around the four rooms of our home: draw them as we go. • I’ll suggest pictures for the presidents only for the purpose of teaching you this memorization trick; in the future, you’ll create your own images… which will further build your ability to recall lists.
  15. 15. Washing Machine • There’s a washing machine in my bedroom closet! Can you hear the sloshing of the machine and feel the vibrations through the floor? Can you make it as real as possible in your mind?
  16. 16. Damn • There’s a damn on my bedroom bookcase! Can you hear the roar of the water coming through this damn? What did you say? The thundering damn is so loud, I can’t hear you!
  17. 17. Thermos • There’s a thermos on my bedroom dresser! Can you smell the hot soup in the steaming thermos? Doesn’t it make you hungry?
  18. 18. Medicine • There’s medicine falling off my bedroom lamp! See an open medicine bottle break open and spill pills all over – they’re everywhere! (gonn’a need a broom to clean up this mess)
  19. 19. Man rowing • There’s a man rowing in my bedroom bed! Hear the sound of the oars in the water, which is splashing all over the room! (gonn’a need a mop)
  20. 20. Let’s Review • Washing machine sloshing in my closet! • A Damn thundering on my bookcase! • Thermos steaming on my dresser! • Medicine falling all around my lamp! • Man rowing splashing in my bed!
  21. 21. Eyes Closed • Then, let’s everyone say the list of items together with our eyes closed: “washing machine, damn, thermos, medicine, man rowing.” That’s great!
  22. 22. Let’s Use Those Images • Now, we’ve stored 5 images (washing machine, damn, thermos, medicine, and a man rowing) into our five items or locations of our first room (closet, bookcase, dresser, lamp, and bed) – Can you visualize standing in your first room and seeing the five items around you with the five silly, moving, “real” images we’ve created on top of them? • Let’s use those five images to help us remember the first five presidents of the United States… • Who was the first President of the U.S.?
  23. 23. 1. George Washington (1789-’97) • Washing machine (Bedroom: closet) Can you hear the sloshing of the machine and feel the vibrations through the floor?
  24. 24. 2. John Adams (1797-1801) • A Damn (Bedroom: bookcase) Can you hear the roar of the water coming through this damn? What did you say? The thundering damn is so loud, I can’t hear you!
  25. 25. 3. Thomas Jefferson (1801-’09) • Thermos (Bedroom: dresser) Can you smell the hot soup in the steaming thermos? Doesn’t it make you hungry? Thermos image from http://www.popgadget.net/2006/03/lipstick_thermo.php
  26. 26. 4. James Madison (1809-’17) • Medicine (Bedroom: lamp) See the open medicine bottle break open and spill pills all over – they’re everywhere! (gonn’a need a broom to clean up this mess)
  27. 27. 5. James Monroe (1817-’25) • Man rowing (Bedroom: bed) Hear the sound of the oars in the water, which is splashing all over the room (gonn’a need a mop)
  28. 28. How To Review • First, think to yourself your five items: such as the closet, bookcase, dresser, lamp, and bed • Read out loud while visualizing the five images with action: such as a washing machine sloshing, damn thundering, thermos steaming, medicine falling, as well as a man rowing who is splashing • Then, read the five names: such as Washington, Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe • Try closing your eyes and recite the five images • Then, trying to keep your eyes closed (look if you have to) and call out the five President’s names
  29. 29. Presidents 1-5 (Bedroom) • Closet: Washing mach. • Bookcase: A Damn • Dresser: Thermos • Lamp: Medicine • Bed: Man rowing • Washington • Adams • Thomas Jefferson • Madison • Monroe
  30. 30. 6. John Quincy Adams (1825-’29) • Q-ball damn (Bathroom: shower) This damn isn’t holding back water but billiard q-balls… it’s a q-ball damn! Look out, this is gonn’a hurt!
  31. 31. 7. Andrew Jackson (1829-’37) • Jack (Bathroom: towels) See the bright red jack. Oil is getting all over father’s new towels! He’s gonn’a be mad!
  32. 32. 8. Martin Van Buren (1837-’41) • Van burning (Bathroom: toilet) There’s a burning van crashing into the toilet! Flames and smoke are going everywhere – hear the water sizzling! Burning car image from http://www.treehugger.com/files/2006/06/dude_torch_my_r.php
  33. 33. 9. William Harrison (1841) • Hairy (Bathroom: sink) It’s Chewbacca pitching in Boston. He’s Hairy! There’s gonn’a be a lot of hair in the sink! Chewbacca image from http://bostondirtdogs.boston.com/Headline_Archives/2005/09/chewbacca_shoul.html
  34. 34. 10. John Tyler (1841-’45) • Tie (Bathroom: cabinet) See Dad’s shinny new tie – he left it hanging over the medicine cabinet… don’t get your toothpaste on it!
  35. 35. Presidents 6-10 (Bathroom) • Shower: Q-ball damn • Towels: Jack • Toilet: Van burning • Sink: Hairy • Cabinet: Tie • John Quincy Adams • Jackson • Van Buren • Harrison • Tyler
  36. 36. Presidents 1-10, Eyes Closed • Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe • John Quincy Adams, Jackson, Van Buren, Harrison, Tyler
  37. 37. 11. James Polk (1845-’49) • Polka dots (Kitchen: refrigerator) There polka dots everywhere! Everything is covered in polka dots! Even the ice!
  38. 38. 12. Zachary Taylor (1849-’50) • Tailor (Kitchen: toaster) A tailor make suits… he or she measures and then sews it to fit just right. Is something burning?
  39. 39. 13. Millard Fillmore (1850-’53) • Fill more gas (Kitchen: stove) The car is empty… it’s time to fill it with more gas. Is that safe to do in front of a stove?!?
  40. 40. 14. Franklin Pierce (1853-’57) • Pierced earring (Kitchen: dishwasher) Imagine an earring that is pierced right through the door of the dishwasher. Now, the door won’t close!
  41. 41. 15. James Buchanan (1857-’61) • Buick, canon (Kitchen: table) That old Buick car has a cool way to pick up speed… a Buick Cannon! BOOM! Zoom!
  42. 42. Presidents 11-15 (Kitchen) • Refrigerator: Polka dots • Toaster: Tailor • Stove: Fill more gas • Dishwasher: Pierced earring • Table: Buick, canon • Polk • Taylor • Fillmore • Pierce • Buchanan
  43. 43. Presidents 1-10, Eyes Closed • Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe • John Quincy Adams, Jackson, Van Buren, Harrison, Tyler
  44. 44. Presidents 11-15, Eyes Closed • Polk, Taylor, Fillmore, Pierce, Buchanan
  45. 45. 16. Abraham Lincoln (1861-’65) • Ugly bearded man (Living room: stereo) Lincoln once joked, “If I were two-faced, would I be wearing this one?” After becoming president, a 6-year old girl hinted to him that his face might look better with a beard! Photo of Lincoln taken by Alexander Gardner, November 8, 1863.
  46. 46. 17. Andrew Johnson (1865-’69) • Ants drawing (Living room: fireplace) There’s hundreds of ants all over the fireplace… and, they’re drawing! One is whistling. They are all marching.
  47. 47. 18. Ulysses S. Grant (1869-’77) • College campus (Living room: chair) There’s a college campus in my living room. All of the students are in class, so it’s very quite now. Many received grants to help pay their bills.
  48. 48. 19. Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-’81) • Haze, smoke (Living room: end table) That dirty pipe is making so much smoke that I can’t see in here… there’s such a haze… Ow, I stubbed my toe!
  49. 49. 20. James Garfield (1881) • Garfield, the cat (Living room: couch) Look at that big cat… and, that big smile… it has to be… Garfield!
  50. 50. 16-20 Presidents (Living Room) • Stereo: Bearded man • Fireplace: Ants drawing • Chair: College Campus • End table: Haze, smoke • Couch: Garfield • Abraham Lincoln • Andrew Johnson • Grant • Hayes • Garfield
  51. 51. Presidents 1-10, Eyes Closed • Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe • John Quincy Adams, Jackson, Van Buren, Harrison, Tyler
  52. 52. Presidents 11-20, Eyes Closed • Polk, Taylor, Fillmore, Pierce, Buchanan • Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Grant, Hayes, Garfield
  53. 53. Congratulations! • You now know the first 20 presidents! You can go home and impress your family and friends!
  54. 54. 21. Chester A. Arthur (1881-’85) • Author, book signing (Bedroom: closet) There’s a woman signing books from inside my closet… she must be a famous author!
  55. 55. 22. Grover Cleveland (1885-’89) • Wristband (Bedroom: bookcase) See the poster of two arms wrestling… one arm is wearing a large red wristband. Is it a Colbert Wristband? Adrien Grenier
  56. 56. 23. Benjamin Harrison (1889-’93) Hot dog bun image from http://wvhotdogblog.blogspot.com/2007_08_01_archive.html; hair from http://www.photoshopsupport.com/elements/tutorials/extract-hair/select-hair-start.jpg • Hairy hot dog bun (Bedroom: dresser) Invented to hold a hot dog – this one’s gonna’ tickle going down! Do you like your chili topping with sauerkraut or coleslaw? No one has ever been able to figure out why buns are sold in a different number as hot dogs (8 vs 10)!
  57. 57. 24. Grover Cleveland (1893-’97) • Grover, the Muppet (Bedroom: lamp) That’s Super Grover leaping off my lamp to fly away! Below, Grover is sitting with my son Barrett (when he was five) and me. Super Grover image from http://muppet.wikia.com/wiki/Super_Grover
  58. 58. 25. William McKinley (1897-1901) • Thick and thinly (Bedroom: bed) I like to eat sandwiches made from bread sliced thick and meat sliced thinly while in bed… do you?
  59. 59. Presidents 21-25 (Bedroom) • Closet: Author, signing • Bookcase: Wristband • Dresser: Hairy hot dog bun • Lamp: Grover, the Muppet • Bed: Thick & thinly • Arthur • Grover Cleveland • Benjamin Harrison • Grover Cleveland • McKinley
  60. 60. 26. Teddy Roosevelt (1901-’09) • Roses of felt (Bathroom: shower) See the Teddy Bear with a bouquet of felt roses. Ahhh! They are very soft.
  61. 61. 27. William H. Taft (1909-’13) • Taffy raft (Bathroom: towels) That raft is made candy taffy! And, it’s all stuck to the towels. First they were oily and now they’re all sticky. Dad may want to just throw those towels out!
  62. 62. 28. Woodrow Wilson (1913-’21) • Wood rowboat (Bathroom: toilet) That man is in a wood rowboat. He is huffing as he rows with all his might… what is he rowing from? From going down the toilet!
  63. 63. 29. Warren G. Harding (1921-’23) • Hard ring (Bathroom: sink) There’s a ring on my sink that’s so hard… I bet it would cut glass. Now, that’s a hard ring!
  64. 64. 30. Calvin Coolidge (1923-’29) • School fridge (Bathroom: cabinet) The refrigerator from the school’s lounge is behind my cabinet! Can you pass me the chocolate cake!
  65. 65. Presidents 26-30 (Bathroom) • Shower: Roses of felt • Towels: Taffy raft • Toilet: Wood rowboat • Sink: Hard ring • Cabinet: School fridge • Teddy Roosevelt • Taft • Woodrow Wilson • Harding • Coolidge
  66. 66. Presidents 21-30, Eyes Closed • Arthur, Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, Grover Cleveland, McKinley • Teddy Roosevelt, Taft, Woodrow Wilson, Harding, Coolidge
  67. 67. 31. Herbert Hoover (1929-’33) • Hoover vacuum (Kitchen: refrigerator) That Hoover vacuum has such suction that it sucked all the food out of the freezer! What’s for dinner now?
  68. 68. 32. Franklin Roosevelt (1933-’45) • Tank spin (Kitchen: toaster) That tank is spinning around on my toaster! Look out, it’s going to fire!
  69. 69. 33. Harry Truman (1945-’53) • Hairy blue man (Kitchen: stove) There is a hairy blue man in my kitchen! Won’t you stay for dinner? (What do you feed a hairy blue man?)
  70. 70. 34. Dwight Eisenhower (1953-’61) • Bright in sun power (Kitchen: dishwasher) The power of the sun is really bright! I can turn it to electricity and run my dishwasher as Arizona is especially… bright in sun power!
  71. 71. 35. John F. Kennedy (1961-’63) • Hen knee tea (Kitchen: table) I’m having some Hen-knee tea. The kettle is whistling… Would you like some?
  72. 72. 31-35 Presidents (Kitchen) • Frig: Hoover vacuum • Toaster: Tank spin • Stove: Harry blue man • Dishwasher: Bright in sun power • Table: Hen knee tea • Hoover • Franklin Roosevelt • Harry Truman • Dwight Eisenhower • Kennedy
  73. 73. Presidents 21-30, Eyes Closed • Arthur, Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, Grover Cleveland, McKinley • Teddy Roosevelt, Taft, Woodrow Wilson, Harding, Coolidge
  74. 74. Presidents 31-35, Eyes Closed • Hoover, Franklin Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, Kennedy
  75. 75. 36. Lyndon Johnson (1963-’69) • Twin dungeons (Living room: stereo) Two doors leading to twin dungeons. Which one will you take? Ha ha! Dungeon door from http://www.gifs.net/image/Everything_Else/Doors_and_Gates/Dungeon_door/7976
  76. 76. 37. Richard Nixon (1969-’74) • Six sons (Living room: fireplace) This family has six sons! I think the boy looking through the telescope might be too close to the fire. Ow!
  77. 77. 38. Gerald Ford (1974-’77) • Bare gold sword (Living room: chair) This 16-carot bare gold sword balances quite well on my living room chair.
  78. 78. 39. Jimmy Carter (1977-’81) • Cream of tartar (Living room: end table) Cream of tartar is an acid salt (first made 7,000 years ago in Iraq) used in cooking (like cakes) as well as to clean brass and copper cookware. Season image from http://www.mccormick.com/Products/Herbs-and- Spices/Spices-A-to-Z/Cream-of-Tartar.aspx
  79. 79. 40. Ronald Reagan (1981-’89) • Ray Gun (Living room: couch) I like to play with a ray gun in the living room or the park… it’s especially fun to shoot it in the dark! ZZZAP!
  80. 80. Presidents 36-40 (Living Room) • Stereo: Twin dungeons • Fireplace: Six sons • Chair: Bare gold sword • End table: Cream of tartar • Couch: Ray Gun • Lyndon Johnson • Nixon • Gerald Ford • Jimmy Carter • Reagan
  81. 81. Presidents 21-30, Eyes Closed • Arthur, Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, Grover Cleveland, McKinley • Teddy Roosevelt, Taft, Woodrow Wilson, Harding, Coolidge
  82. 82. Presidents 31-40, Eyes Closed • Hoover, Franklin Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, Kennedy • Lyndon Johnson, Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Reagan
  83. 83. 41. George H. Bush (1989-’93) • Burning bush (Bedroom: closet) In the Bible, the burning bush is the location at which Moses was told by Yahweh to lead the Israelites out of Egypt.
  84. 84. 42. Bill Clinton (1993-2001) • Thin nun (Bedroom: bookcase) A nun is a woman who has taken special vows committing herself to a religious life. This nun is very thin!
  85. 85. 43. George W. Bush (2001-’09) • Large W (Bedroom: dresser) There is a “w” on my dresser – it is a very BIG “w!” Do you think we could move it? It seems quit heavy.
  86. 86. 44. Barack Obama (2009-’13) • Rack-o pajama (Bedroom: lamp) That boy must really like to play the Rack-o card game since he has Rack-o pajamas. Would you like to play a game of Rack-o? Pajama image from http://www.kidspyjamas.co.uk/acatalog/Kids-Pyjamas.html
  87. 87. Presidents 41-44 (Bedroom) • Closet: Burning Bush • Bookcase: Thin nun • Dresser: Large W • Lamp: Rack-o Pajama • Bush • Clinton • George W. Bush • Barack Obama
  88. 88. Presidents 1-10, Eyes Closed • Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe • John Quincy Adams, Jackson, Van Buren, Harrison, Tyler
  89. 89. Presidents 11-20, Eyes Closed • Polk, Taylor, Fillmore, Pierce, Buchanan • Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Grant, Hayes, Garfield
  90. 90. Presidents 21-30, Eyes Closed • Arthur, Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, Grover Cleveland, McKinley • Teddy Roosevelt, Taft, Woodrow Wilson, Harding, Coolidge
  91. 91. Presidents 31-40, Eyes Closed • Hoover, Franklin Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, Kennedy • Lyndon Johnson, Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Reagan
  92. 92. • Bush, Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama Presidents 41-44, Eyes Closed
  93. 93. Congratulations! • You now know ALL 44 presidents! You can go home and really impress your family and friends!
  94. 94. 1. George Washington (1789-1797) Washing machine (R1: _____ I1: _____) 2. John Adams (1797-1801) Damn (R1: _____ I2: _____) 3. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) Thermos (R1: _____ I3: _____) 4. James Madison (1809-1817) Medicine (R1: _____ I4: _____) 5. James Monroe (1817-1825) Man rowing (R1: _____ I5: _____) 6. John Q. Adams (1825-1829) Q-ball damn (R2: _____ I1: _____) 7. Andrew Jackson (1829-1837) Jack (R2: _____ I2: _____) 8. Martin Van Buren (1837-1841) Van burning (R2: _____ I3: _____) 9. William Harrison (1841) Hair, lots (R2: _____ I4: _____) 10. John Tyler (1841-1845) Tie (R2: _____ I5: _____) 11. James Polk (1845-1849) Polka dots (R3: _____ I1: _____) 12. Zachary Taylor (1849-1850) Tailor (R3: _____ I2: _____) 13. Millard Fillmore (1850-1853) Fill more gas (R3: _____ I3: _____) 14. Franklin Pierce (1853-1857) Pierced earring (R3: _____ I4: _____) 15. James Buchanan (1857-1861) Buick, canon (R3: _____ I5: _____) 16. Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) Bearded man (R4: _____ I1: _____) 17. Andrew Johnson (1865-1869) Ants drawing (R4: _____ I2: _____) 18. Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877) College campus (R4: _____ I3: _____) 19. Rutherford Hayes (1877-1881) Haze, smoke (R4: _____ I4: _____) 20. James Garfield (1881) Garfield, the cat (R4: _____ I5: _____) 21. Chester Arthur (1881-1885) Author, book signing (R1: _____ I1: _____) 22. Grover Cleveland (1885-1889) Wristband (R1: _____ I2: _____) 23. Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893) Hairy Hot Dog Bun (R1: _____ I3: _____) 24. Grover Cleveland (1893-1897) Grover, the Muppet (R1: _____ I4: _____) 25. William McKinley (1897-1901) Thick & thinly, sliced (R1: _____ I5: _____) 26. Teddy Roosevelt (1901-1909) Roses of felt (R2: _____ I1: _____) 27. William Taft (1909-1913) Taffy raft (R2: _____ I2: _____) 28. Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) Wood rowboat (R2: _____ I3: _____) 29. Warren Harding (1921-1923) Hard ring (R2: _____ I4: _____) 30. Calvin Coolidge (1923-1923) School fridge (R2: _____ I5: _____) 31. Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) Hoover vacuum (R3: _____ I1: _____) 32. Franklin Roosevelt (1933-1945) Tank spin (R3: _____ I2: _____) 33. Harry Truman (1945-1953) Harry blue man (R3: _____ I3: _____) 34. Dwight Eisenhower (1953-1961) Bright in sun power (R3: _____ I4: _____) 35. John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) Hen knee tea (R3: _____ I5: _____) 36. Lyndon Johnson (1963-1969) Twin dungeons (R4: _____ I1: _____) 37. Richard Nixon (1969-1974) Six sons (R4: _____ I2: _____) 38. Gerald Ford (1974-1977) Bare gold sword (R4: _____ I3: _____) 39. Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Martyr (R4: _____ I4: _____) 40. Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) Ray Gun (R4: _____ I5: _____) 41. George H. Bush (1989-1993) Burning Bush (R1: _____ I1: _____) 42. Bill Clinton (1993-2001) Thin nun (R1: _____ I2: _____) 43. George W. Bush (2001-2009) Large W (R1: _____ I3: _____) 44. Barack Obama (2009-????) Rack-o Pajama (R1: _____ I4: _____) Make a 44 American Presidents (with memory keys) Review List

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