Relates to things like phrenology etc and picked up on by the Nazi ’ s etc... Does relate to the idea of portraits for categorising and social status
Portraiture - photographer examples
Black & White Portraits Celebrating Diversity
Diane ArbusHer controversial portraiture looked beyond the superficial and into her subjects often troubled souls. But her magazine work show she could have a split personality.
Margaret Bourke-WhiteOne of the original Life magazine staff photographers, Bourke-White was a pioneer inboth photojournalism and womens work roles. Her images of World War II--especially the liberation of concentration camps--were deceptively simple. Her images would often be the perfect combination of fact and beauty.
Richard AvedonHis up close, show-every-hair-follicle approach to portraiturecan be jarring, but his ability to render both his and his sitters personalities in each image he creates is uncanny.
Sally Mannhttp://www.aperture.org/shop/books/immediate-family-2592"Manns subjects are her smallchildren (a boy, a girl, and a newbaby), often shot when theyresick or hurt or just naked.Nosebleeds, cuts, hives, chickenpox, swollen eyes, vomiting—the usual trials of childhood—can be alarmingly beautiful,thrillingly sensual moments inManns portrait album. Herambivalence about motherhood—her delight and despair—pushes Mann to delve deeperinto the steaming mess of familylife than most of us are willing togo. What she comes up with isastonishing." —Vince Aletti, TheVillage Voice
Sally Mann"Immediate Family, which was published in 1990, must be counted as one of the great photograph books of our time. It is a singularly powerful evocation of childhood from within and without..."
Edward CurtisCurtis built an illustrious career documenting Native Americans in the 1900s. The images resonate 100 years later.
Fazal Sheikh• The portrait is central to Fazal Sheikh’s work. For more than two decades, as he has worked in different communities around the world, the invitation to sit for a portrait has been the principal means by which he has established a link with his subjects and been allowed to enter and document their lives. Often these have been people in crisis: displaced from their homes and their countries, at risk from violence, poverty and prejudice.
Elliott Erwitt A perceptive street photographer with a sharp sense of humor, a sensitivityto the human condition, and an affinity for dogs. It is almost impossible to be depressed after looking at his work!
Dorothea Lange Best known for her famous photos of the Depression, including Migrant Mother,Nipomo, California, Lange was active from the 1920s to the early 1960s and was one of the most influential photographers in American history.
Portraiture Photography was also used as a form of official identification
Lewis Hine By championing the cause of poor immigrants, child laborers and other downtrodden folksthrough his powerfully straightforward photos, Lewis Hine showed us how the "Other Half" lived. His passionate photographs enlightened the world and brought about legislation that has protected millions since his work appeared in the early 20th century.
Henri Cartier-BressonThe father of Photo Reportage and co-founder of the legendary Magnum photo agency, "HC-B" has influenced generations of photojournalists, documentary photographers and street photographers. Influenced and inspired by classical and impressionist art and freed by the portability of the Leica, HC-B changed the way we look at the world around us.
Imogen Cunningham Cunninghams carreer spanned the first three quarters of the 20th century photographed many of her subjects draped in exotic clothes in images with moralthemes and tableaux representing works of poets. Later nudes were shocking for their time, but rather tame now.
George HurrellDuring Hollywoods Golden Era, publicity photos had the power to make or breakstars. George Hurrell, who perfected the "glamour" portrait, was the most sought after glamour photographer by the big names and the wanna-bes.
Andre KerteszKertesz used the camera to transform the chaos of the street into lyrical scenes. A brilliant, influential teacher and artist.
William KleinHis brief involvement with photography yielded an influential body of work that has been called confrontational and immediate. They seem to be a furious protest against the establishment. Uncompromising and bold, the images are mostly street photos that stare when others would avert their gaze. He almost dares you to look at them.
Alexander Rodchenko• I want to take some quite incredible photographs that have never been taken before… pictures which are simple and complex at the same time, which will amaze and overwhelm people," wrote Alexander Rodchenko in his diary on March 14, 1934. "I must achieve this so that photography can begin to be considered a form of art."
Annie LeibovitzOne of todays most influential and admired artists, renowned for her vivid and distinctive style, Annie Leibovitz is an American original and a master of self-promotion. Her portraits of BruceSpringsteen, Jody Foster, Michael Jackson, Miles Davis, Greg Louganis, Mikhail Baryshnikov, John Lennon and more combine a keen eye with a quick wit.
Nicholas Nixon His early work showed a remarkable mastery of large format photography insituations where one would expect to see 35mm cameras; his portrait work includes a series on four sisters taken over a 15-year period and images of people with AIDS.
Sebastiao SalgadoA photojournalist in the best sense of the word, Sebasiao Salgado is fascinated with people whowork hard in all parts of the world. From landless workers trying to claim property for themselves in Brazil to Oil workers putting out fires in Kuwait, Salgados lens captures the beauty in his subjects gritty reality. Look at his work: Workers and Genesis (below)
Cindy Sherman Sherman uses photography as a tool to manipulate images of women thathave been spawned by popular culture, with herself as the leading character in most of the images she creates.
Jason TilleyThe Beautiful People Project – portraits taken across India over a 10 year span
Edward SteichenAs the curator of the photo collection for the New York Museum of Modern Art, Steichen was the man behind The Family Of Man, a late 1950s photo exhibition and recently-republished bookthat was a watershed in the history of photography because it gave photography mass appeal asan expressive, fine art. His curatorship brought about a grand era for "Concerned" photography.
Raghu Rai• Magnum Photographer from and based in India.
Maurice Broomfield• Broomfield was “one of the first industrial and architectural photographers to use his corporate commissions to make visionary photographic studies of the workers and the environments in which they worked,” writes the Host Gallery, which, last year, put on the first retrospective of the photographer’s iconic images of industrial Britain from the 1950s to the 1970s.
Paul Strand A white picket fence. A poor Adirondac family. Paul Strands pure vision anduncompromising technique gained him international accolades as a master ofAmerican photography, especially in the 1950s. His black and white photos are exquisite and memorable.
WeegeeA crime news photographer in the 30s and 40s in New York, Weegee is possibly the most well known street photographer. Crude and direct, his photos have an immediacy and impact that affect the viewer to this day. His later work, distorted portraits that he called "photo charicatures", have a similar in-your-face quality.
Edward Weston Westons immaculately constructed images imbue forms of common objects with a sensualitythat transcends the subject. Sharp, detailed and rich in tonality, his closeups, nudes and nature photographs brought the power of photography as an objective tool of observation to new heights. Youll never look at a pepper quite the same way again.
Minor WhiteA teacher as well as a photographer, Minor White crafted works of beauty that were also explorations of his inner self. His best known work was made of the natural wonders in the American West. He experimented with alternative processes, non-narrative sequences and techniques that would stretch the bounds of photography.