History:• Began in the late 1960s• Term coined by Louis K. Meisel in 1969• It is also sometimes labeled as Super-Realism, New Realism, Sharp Focus Realism, or Hyper-Realism.
• Evolved from Pop Art and was a counter to Abstract Expressionism and Minimalisism
• “Photorealism “came out of Pop yet had the affectlessness of Minimalism and, at the same time, capitalized on the publics fondness for exact replication.”• Reaction to the ever increasing photographic media, which was threatening to lessen the value of imagery in art.• Tried to reclaim the value of an image.• Photorealism was international, but mainly practiced in the U.S.
• The use of a camera and photographs is an acceptance of Modernism• Invention of camera: 1. Caused scenic and portrait artists to quit and move tophotography because their work was claimed to be inadequate to thereal thing. 2. In the 19th and 20th century, artist used photographs asan aid in their painting but would deny it in fear that their work to becalled imitations. 3. Offered up a lot of experimentation.• Photography was a break in history and allowed artist to replicate something that they witnessed. (Cave Man Drawings)
MEISEL’S 5 POINT DEFINITION FORORIGINATORS• Use of camera and photograph to gather “info”• Use of mechanical or semi-mechanical means to transfer “info”• Artist must have technical ability to make the piece seem photo realistic• Work must be exhibited by 1972 to be considered a Central Photo Realist• Artist must have devoted at least 5 years towards photorealistic work
The difference between Photorealism and Pop Art:Photorealism• Tries to reclaim and exalt the value of an image.• sustains the fact that reproducing paintings from photograph is not mere imitation.Pop Art:• usually for commercial usage• mainly pointing out the absurdity of much of the imagery.• Focusing on humor or leisure purposes.
STYLES AND IDEAS• All styles revolve around the photograph• Artists try to represent a frozen moment in time• The photographs slide must be transferred to the canvas, 2 primary methods to do so Technical method• The use of machines or projectors to slide the image onto the canvas
Richard Estes (1932-1990)• Used color photographs• The paintings generally consist of reflective, clean, and inanimate city and geometric landscapes.• Didnt included litter or snow around the buildings, because he thought they would draw attention away from the buildings.• Settings were always in the daytime, never the nighttime
• Avoided using famous cityscapes• strive to create a three-dimensional feel• early 1960s are of city dwellers engaged in everyday activities• Beginning around 1967, he began to paint storefronts and buildings with glass windows and their reflections.
Charles Bell (1935 – 1995)• Subject matter was mainly of vintage toys, gumball machines, and dolls and action figures.• He created work in a scale as much as ten times life size, with clear and vibrant colors.• Brings out majesty and wonder to the mundane.
CHUCK CLOSE • Born in Monro, Washington 1940 • Bachelor’s in art from University of Washington • Major in art from Yale • Focuses on portraits of friends and family • Master of the Grid method • 1988 spinal infection left him quadriplegic • Had to relearn how to use his hands to continue his work • Work featured at multiple museums including National Gallery of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Tate gallery and more. • Paints faces because “He has a difficulty recognizing faces” • Later works features a concept of pointillism mixed in • Later work branched into non-rectangular grids and topographic styles of regions with similar color
The Big Self Portrait1969 acrylic on canvas"The thing I like about a photograph is that itrepresents a frozen, poem like moment intime."--Chuck Close
Ralph Goings 1928• best known for his paintings of hamburger stands, pick-up trucks, and California banks• visually engaging because of the variety of texture, light play and reflections• reveal the visual beauty and fascination of the pictorial subject• Its a democratic triumph: all things become equal in both their power and vacuity.
DUANE HANSON• Born January 17th, 1925 in Alexandria Minnesota• Master of Fine Arts degree from Cranbrook Academy of Art after a period of teaching high school art• 1987 honored with Duane Hanson Day, a proclamation in Broward County.• Introduced into Florida Artists Hall of fame in 1992• Social Observer
STYLE-HANSON• Heavily influenced by the Pop Art sculptor George Segal• Known for life-like sculptures made from variable materials such as polyester resin, fiberglass, bondo, and bronze• Original pieces depicted brutally violent subjects• First pieces cast in fiberglass and vinyl• Clothed sculptors appropriately and posed them for action shots• Used real life models and adjusted as needed• Predominately middle or lower class, blue collar
MODERN PHOTOREALISM• Movement continues and includes some of the originators• New photo realists build upon the foundations of the originators• Many newer artists have strayed from original strict definition• New tech allows artists to be able to be far more precision oriented
OVERVIEW• Movement began in late 1960s early 1970s• Not possible without the invention of the photograph• Photorealism is about catching a frozen moment in time• Photorealism is not about the photo, but rather the skill behind duplicating the image or how they adjust the image.