Regional Analysis of Impediments to Fair Housing (RAI) Part 1

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Regional Analysis of Impediments to Fair Housing (RAI) Part 1

  1. 1. CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC.Part 1:Seven/50Regional Analysis of Impediments to Fair Housing (RAI)OCTOBER 2012 DRAFT In partial fulfillment of the requirements of Fair Housing Planning for the Seven|50 Southeast Florida Prosperity Plan—HUD Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Initiative PART 1, SECTIONS: 1 Introduction: Analyzing Impediments to Fair Housing 2 SEFLA Region Background Data 3 Fair Housing Profile 4 Lending Profile 5 Identified ImpedimentsSEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |1Carras Community Investment, Inc.
  2. 2. Executive SummaryThis report contains a Regional Analysis of Impediments to fair housing (RAI) which identifies, explains, and analyzes the fair housingmilieu in Southeast Florida (SEFLA). It is produced in partial fulfillment of HUD defined Fair Housing Equity Assessment (FHEA)requirements for the Seven|50 regional plan. This plan is being produced by a consortium led by the South Florida and Treasure CoastRegional Planning Councils as a grantee of HUD’s Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Initiative. The counties included in thisanalysis, listed in order from north to south, are 1) Indian River, 2) Martin, 3) St. Lucie, 4) Palm Beach, 5) Broward, 6) Miami-Dade, and 7)Monroe.Summary of Key Findings: 1. SEFLA Region Background Data   The region has very high levels of cost-burdened households especially for renters. 60% of renting households, regardless of income, pay more than 30% of their monthly income on housing costs while 46% of household that own pay the same proportion.   Our analysis identifies single female householders with children as especially in need. As a region, one third of all single- female households with children are below poverty level.   efficient public transportation options are lacking throughout the entire region—the development of which are especially essential near areas that are primarily minority and renter-occupied when employment opportunities are not located near these areas 2. Fair Housing Profile   Assisted housing units are highly concentrated: 94% of all units within properties that offer assisted housing are assisted.   The vast majority of assisted housing units are reserved for renters in the 55-60% AMI. Only 627 of the nearly 85,000 assisted housing units in SEFLA are reserved for those in the lowest income bracket, and therefore those in the greatest need of affordable housing opportunities. 512 of these are in Broward County compared to only 40 in Miami-Dade (which has the highest poverty rate in the region at 17%); none are located in Indian River, St. Lucie and Martin Counties.   Disability is, over the 5-year period and for each county, the largest alleged discriminating factor in fair housing complaints (43%). This is followed by race (17%), national origin (13%), and familial status (11%). 3. Lending Profile   There are disparities in loan origination rates and subprime lending rates across the seven South Florida counties. Though these disparities are seen across racial groups, the data suggests no racial group at a significant disparity or disadvantage across all seven counties. 4. Top 10 Identified Impediments   1: Lack of Knowledge, Awareness of, or Education on Fair Housing Protections   2: Fair and Equal Lending Disparities   3: Housing/Lending Discrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, National Origin, Religion, Sex, Familial Status and Disability   4: Shortage of Affordable Housing Opportunities   5: Violations of Federal, State and Local Housing Laws CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |2
  3. 3.   6: Housing Market Segregation  7: Predatory Lending  8: Limited Funding to Meet Need for Affordable Housing  9: Zoning/Land Use  10: Improvement of the Housing Discrimination Complaint Process CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |3
  4. 4. 1. Analyzing Impediments to Fair HousingThe right to fair housing choice is among America’s most basic civilrights as defined by federal, state and local laws and as such it isstructurally integral to the Sustainable Communities RegionalPlanning Grant program. Specifically, HUD defines impediments tofair housing choice as: • Any actions, omissions, or decisions taken because of race, color, religion, sex, disability, familial status, or national origin which restrict housing choices or the availability of housing choices • Any actions, omissions, or decisions which have the effect of restricting housing choices or the availability of housing choices on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, disability, familial status, or national origin.All households, regardless of arbitrary factors such as familial statusand race are guaranteed equal access to housing opportunitiesyet disparities in the receipt of these opportunities based in suchgrounds are still commonplace throughout regions. The seven-county Southeast Florida Region (SEFLA) is no different.Sustainable Communities Regional Grantees are thereforerequired to complete a Fair Housing and Equity Assessment (FHEA)and recommended to produce a Regional Analysis ofImpediments to fair housing (Regional AI) in hopes of addressingthese disparities.The broad purpose of performing a Regional AI is to increasehousing choice through assembling fair housing information andidentifying problems. More specifically focusing on furthering fairhousing on a regional scale allows grantees to: Figure 1: SEFLA Region 1. Overcome spatial segregation making assisted housing accessible to all in all areas of the metro region, which overcomes jurisdictional and artificial program delivery barriers. CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |4
  5. 5. 2. The ability to integrate assisted housing waiting lists into one regional waiting list & the integration of racial or ethnic groups into areas where they have low impact (areas where they compose less than 30% of population). 3. To make public housing a path to social mobility rather than housing of last resort by modernizing them to be appealing to both current residents and suburban residents. 4. To secure the cooperation of other important actors whose impact upon fair housing is substantial (jobs, schools, transportation agencies, social service agencies, Government not for Profits, Government Agencies). 5. To break down the statistical racial disparity between HUD’s public housing program and its Section 8 existing housing program by encouraging more non-minorities by promoting desegregation within assisted and insured programs by establishing a one stop metropolitan wide housing assistance, marketing, information and referral center. 6. To discourage discrimination in all programs by encouraging all persons regardless of color, national origin, sex, disability or familial status to consider all housing options.This report contains the SEFLA Regional AI. The counties included in this analysis, listed in order from north to south, are 1) Indian River, 2)Martin, 3) St. Lucie, 4) Palm Beach, 5) Broward, 6) Miami-Dade, and 7) Monroe. While the study area is relatively large andheterogeneous, there are definite benefits to conducting an AI at this scale as many fair housing issues, especially those mostintractable, are best addressed at a regional level. By analyzing fair housing on this level, the jurisdiction seeks to overcome spatialseparation and segregation by eliminating housing delivery barriers, integrating waiting lists between jurisdictions, and broadening thehousing choices available to all eligible participants throughout SEFLA.As outlined in the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, Fair HousingPlanning Guide, recipients of HUD’s housing and community development grants must certify that they will affirmatively further fairhousing (AFFH). These provisions are found within the mandate of Section 808(e)(5) of the Fair Housing Act. The extent of the AFFHobligation has never been defined statutorily. However, HUD defines it as requiring a grantee to: 1. Conduct an analysis to identify impediments to fair housing choice within the jurisdiction 2. Take appropriate actions to overcome the effects of any impediments identified through the analysis 3. Maintain records reflecting the analysis and actions taken in this regard. Grantee jurisdiction providing opportunities for inclusive patterns of housing occupancy regardless of race, color religion, sex familial status, disability and national origin.This report fulfills the first of three AFFH requirements by reviewing impediments to fair housing choice in the public and private sector. CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |5
  6. 6. Entity Engaged to Conduct the 2012, Seven-50 SEFLA Regional AICarras Community Investment Inc. (CCI, Inc.) CCI, Inc. is a nationally recognized leader in implementing asset-based strategies for housing and community development. Our professional expertise in affordable housing, fair lending, and economic development includes advisory services in market analysis, strategic planning, and financing. Over the past thirty years, CCI, Inc. has provided planning services to over 200 clients across the country, resulting in over $10 billion of investment in underserved communities. CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |6
  7. 7. Methodology and Data SourcesRegional Profile - Methodology This section includes background data on the jurisdiction to serve as bases for identifying and contextualizing impediments. Variable are chosen that relate to the degree of segregation and restricted housing by race and ethnicity, and families with children in particular (see table1). Variables and data sources are also chosen to parallel as best as possible a dataset compiled by HUD’s office of Policy Development & Research (PD&R). This dataset was intended to provide program participants with data to support this analysis and additional fair housing research. Regrettably however, the data package provided for SEFLA was incomplete (only data for the three most southern counties was provided -Broward, Miami-Dade and Monroe) and therefore inappropriate to use for the full regional profile. However, given that a large proportion of the population, especially minority residents, is located within Broward and Miami-Dade counties this information is still relevant to the discussion. Therefore, this data is summarized in the Appendix under the HUD PD&R Data Package section. Descriptions of their variables and methodology are cited directly from the FHEA 2012 Data Documentation guide provided to all entitlement regions through HUD’s regional planning grant program. Data within this section is collected at both the census tract and county level. Given the large area analyzed in this report most data is summarized at a county level. Data displayed within maps, however, utilizes census tract level data to show, in detail, the spatial relationship and patterns of variables within counties and throughout the region as a whole. Per the 2010 Census, a total of 1,333 populated census tracts exist across the seven counties of Southeast Florida: 29 in Indian River County, 43 in St. Lucie County, 34 in Martin County, 331 in Palm Beach County, 360 in Broward County, 508 in Miami- Dade County, and 28 in Monroe County. When reading the report maps, it is important to consider that lower population densities and distributions are likelier to occur in geographically larger areas such as those in the Western portions of most counties and the more northern counties. Most data comes from the American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. Where census 2010 data is available however it is used in place of ACS data to allay concerns about sampling error. Table 2 lists the specific data source for variables within the Regional Profile section. CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |7
  8. 8. Table 1: Data Sources for the Regional Background Profile Section Table 2: Populated Census Tracts by County Section Variable Data Source County Number of Populated Census Tracts Population totals and density Indian River 29 Demographics 2010 Census SF1 Age St. Lucie 43 Segregation Race and Ethnicity 2010 Census SF1 Martin 34 Tenancy Housing ACS 2006-2010 Palm Beach 331 Cost Burdon Broward 360 Family Poverty Rate Poverty ACS 2006-2010 Miami-Dade 508 Poverty By Race & Ethnicity Unemployment Monroe 28 Labor force Participation Rate TOTAL 1,333 Labor and Commuting ACS 2006-2010 Commute Time Commute Mode CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |8
  9. 9. Fair Housing Profile - MethodologyThe process creating a Fair Housing Profile included review national and local studies/reports, and data gathered from local agenciesand organizations. Major data sources include: • All most-recent existing AIs produced by local jurisdictions within SEFLA INDIAN RIVER ST. LUCIE MARTIN PALM BEACH MIAMI-DADE MONROE County BROWARD COUNTY COUNTY COUNTY COUNTY COUNTY COUNTY COUNTY • None • City Of Port • None • Palm Beach • Broward County • Miami-Dade • None Saint Lucie County • City Of Coconut County • City Of Fort • City Of Boca Creek • City Of Pierce Raton • City Of Coral Miami • City Of Boynton Springs • City Of Beach • City Of Hollywood Miami Beach • City Of Deerfield • City Of Fort • City Of Beach Lauderdale Miami • City Of Delray • City Of Lauderhill Gardens Beach • City Of Miramar • City Of North Entitlement • City Of West • City Of Margate Miami Jurisdiction Palm Beach • City Of Pembroke • City Of • Town Of Pines Homestead Wellington • City Of Plantation • City Of • Town Of Jupiter • City Of Pompano Hialeah Beach • City Of Sunrise • City Of Tamarac • City Of Westin • Town Of Davie • Florida Housing Data Clearing House (Existing Assisted Housing Inventory) • Data from various state and local Fair Housing Agencies o Florida Commission on Human Relations o Palm Beach County Office of Equal Opportunity o Broward County Office of Equal Opportunity | Civil Rights Division o Miami-Dade Office of Human Rights and Fair Employment Practices CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |9
  10. 10. Lending Profile- MethodologyLending data for this section was retrieved from the University of Florida Housing Data Clearinghouse. Racial lending data and overall2010 lending data by county and for the State of Florida were analyzed to identify disparities and trends in lending patterns by race,ethnicity and by county. The data used for the county lending analysis is original research, due to the fact that the most recent lendingdata in the existing county-level Analysis of Impediments to Fair Housing documents available (Miami-Dade & Broward County) arefrom the years 2008 & 2009. The data used in this analysis is more recent, from the year 2010.Identified Impediments to Fair Housing- MethodologyThis section of the South Florida Regional Analysis of Impediments to Fair Housing Choice examines the ten most prevalent impedimentsto fair housing choice in the region. This examination was done through the examination of available analysis of impediments (AIs) tofair housing choice documents for entitled communities within the study-recognized seven-county south Florida region, both at themunicipal and at the county level. Three countywide and twenty-eight municipal-level AIs were consulted in this analysis. Two countiesin the region, Martin County & Monroe County, lack entitled communities and information on the impediments to fair housing withinthese counties are not included within this analysis, though, since the issues pointed out in the other counties and municipalities in theregion are largely similar, it is likely that the non-entitled counties experience impediments similar to those discussed in this analysis. CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |10
  11. 11. CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC.2. SEFLA Regional Background Data: CONTEXTUALIZING THE FAIR HOUSING DISCUSSIONThis section discusses data primarily at the county and regional level, although maps are displayed using census tract level data tomore accurately represent spatial patterns. Municipalities and landmark areas are referenced occasionally to contextualize and orientthe discussion but are not the primary units of analysis.Demographics • Total Population: 138,028 Indian River • Population Density: 274.5 people/mi2 County • Dominant Age Group: 50-54 SEFLA, Total Population by Rank, 2010 • Total Population: 277,789 St. Lucie • Population Density: 485.7 people/mi2 County • Dominant Age Group: 45-49 Miami-Dade County 2,496,435 • Total Population: 146,318 Martin • Population Density: 269.2 people/mi2 Broward County 1,748,066 County • Dominant Age Group: 50-54 Palm Beach County 1,320,134 • Total Population: 1,320,134 Palm Beach • Population Density: 670.2 people/mi2 St. Lucie County 277,789 County • Dominant Age Group: 45 to 49 Martin County 146,318 • Total Population: 1,748,066 Broward • Population Density: 1,444.9 people/mi2 Indian River County 138,028 County • Dominant Age Group: 45 to 49 Monroe County 73,090 • Total Population: 2,496,435 Miami-Dade • Population Density: 1.315.5 people/mi2 County • Dominant Age Group: 45 to 49 Figure 2: SEFLA, Total Population by Rank, 2010 • Total Population: 73,090 Monroe • Population Density: 74.3 people/mi2 County • Dominant Age Group: 55 to 59SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |11Carras Community Investment, Inc.
  12. 12. The three most populous counties are, in decreasingorder, Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach.These three counties are similarly the densest in termsof population per square mile. Given BrowardCounty’s smaller land area however, populationdensity is actually higher within Broward than Miami-Dade. Map 1, to the left, shows that the region’spopulation is also concentrated in the easternportion of the counties, which is a reflection of bothhistoric settlement patterns as well as the Evergladeswamp areas to the west. In all, the region has atotal population of over 6 million and a populationdensity of around 800 people per square mile. Thatis equivalent to the 5th largest metropolitan region inthe United States. Map 1: Population Density, Seven-50 SE Florida Region, 2010 • Total Population: 6,199,860 SEFLA • Population Density: 807.4 people per mi2 • Dominant Age Group: 45-49 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |12
  13. 13. SEFLA, Population Density by Rank, 2010 Broward County 1444.9 Miami-Dade County 1315.5 7-County SE Florida Region 807.4 Palm Beach County 670.2 St. Lucie County 485.7 Indian River County 274.5 Martin County 269.2 Monroe County 74.3Figure 3: SEFLA, Population Density by Rank, 2010Race & EthnicityThree primary categories of race and ethnicity are discussed within this analysis (White, African American, and Hispanic/Latino). Thesethree categories account for the large majority of all persons living in SEFLA. Persons of other ancestries or of two or more races are notanalyzed in this report because of their less significant representation within the study area. It is important to note, people of Hispanicorigin may be any race. This should be kept in mind when comparing race and ethnicity, which is done throughout the report.Someone of Black or White race may also be categorized as Hispanic due to Census methodology.Within this section, the spatial and segregation patterns of residence by race and ethnicity are the focus. Beyond segregation patterns,race & ethnicity are analyzed in conjunction with other variables throughout the remainder of the Regional Profile; in analyzingequitable access to fair housing, understanding the relationship of race and ethnicity to other germane variables is fundamentallyimportant. CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |13
  14. 14. Indian River 15,465 12,397 116,346 White Black or African American Hispanic or Latino:Map 2: Indian River County Race/Ethnicity Dot Map Figure 4: Indian River County, Population by Race/Ethnicity 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |14
  15. 15. St. Lucie County 45,995 53,036 199,336 White Black or African American Hispanic or Latino:Map 3: St. Lucie County Race/Ethnicity Dot Map Figure 5: St. Lucie County, Population by Race/Ethnicity 2010Martin County CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |15
  16. 16. 45,995 53,036 199,336 White Black or African American Hispanic or Latino: Figure 6: Martin County, Population by Race/Ethnicity 2010Map 4: Martin County Race/Ethnicity Dot MapPalm Beach County 250,823 White Black or African 228,690 American 970,121 Hispanic or Latino: Figure 7: Palm beach County, Population by Race/Ethnicity 2010Map 5: Palm Beach County Race/Ethnicity Dot Map CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |16
  17. 17. Broward County White 438,247 Black or African American 467,519 1,102,231 Hispanic or Latino: Figure 8: Broward County, Population by Race/Ethnicity 2010Map 6: Broward County Race/Ethnicity Dot MapMiami-Dade County CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |17
  18. 18. White 1,623,859 Black or 1,841,887 African American Hispanic or Latino: 472,976 Figure 9: Miami-Dade County, Population by Race/Ethnicity 2010Map 7: Miami-Dade County Race/Ethnicity Dot MapMonroe County 15,071 White 4,194 Black or African American 65,409 Hispanic or Latino:Map 8: Monroe County Race/Ethnicity Dot Map CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |18
  19. 19. Figure 10: Monroe County, Population by Race/Ethnicity 2010SEFLA Region CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |19
  20. 20. Within the regions total population of 6.1 million, nearly 4.5 million are white accounting for two thirds of the population. 2.1 million African American persons and 2.4 Hispanics of all races reside within the SEFLA jurisdictional boundary. Monroe, Martin, and Indian River Counties have the largest percentages of white people in comparison to their total 39% populations. Similarly within these counties, the Hispanic and Black populations are relatively dispersed. St. Lucie County White has higher percentages of minority populations than the three 71% previously mentioned counties. Additionally within St. Lucie Black or African there is a segregated concentration of African Americans to American 20% the south of the St. Lucie County International Airport. Palm Hispanic or Latino Beach, Broward, and Monroe are more diverse in population yet they also have higher levels of segregation. Areas where African Americans are highly concentrated include north Miami-Dade County, central Broward County, and the BelleFigure 11: Race/ethnicity for the SEFLA Region, 2010 Glade and West Palm Beach areas in Palm Beach County. Central Broward County and north Miami-Dade County both have neighborhoods of historical African American affiliation including Sistrunk, Lauderdale Lakes and Lauderhill in Broward and Opa-locka and Miami Gardens in Miami-Dade. CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |20
  21. 21. Housing Housing occupancy by tenancy and monthly housing costs are the two major variables analyzed within this section. A breakdown of these variables by race and ethnicity is also undertaken. Housing occupancy by tenure relates to neighborhood stability in that high rental turnover tends to lend itself to fluctuating neighborhood conditions which is generally viewed negatively. A housing unit is considered to be owner-occupied if the owner or co-owner lives in the unit, even if it is mortgaged or not fully paid for. All other occupied units are classified as "renter occupied," including units rented for cash rent and those occupied without payment of cash rent. Monthly housing costs as a percentage of household income provides information on the cost of monthly housing expenses for owners and renters. The information offers an excellent measure of housing affordability and excessive shelter costs. Households spending more than 30 percent of their monthly income on housing costs and considered cost-burdened and tend to be at risk of economic hardship over time. The trends of housing occupancy by tenancy and housing costs burden on a county scale are similar throughout the SEFLA. Throughout the region, the vast majority of housing units are owner-occupied. This trend holds true for the white population of each county, but is reversed for both Hispanics and African American households in each county. Renter- occupied households as a whole are more likely to spend more than 30% of their monthly income on housing costs than those that own. When considering various incomes, within lower income brackets there are more renters than owners. Also within this income range, households that rent have higher probabilities of paying above 30% of their household income than those that own. Conversely within the higher income brackets there are more owner-occupied housing units and henceforth more owners are cost-burdened in these brackets. Proportionally, however renting households making less than $20,000 are the most cost-burdened group within each county in SEFLA In the region as a whole, there are 1.5 million owner-occupied housing units in comparison to .75 million renter- occupied units. Spatially, in the urbanized areas of the counties, owner occupied housing is prominent inland in the more suburban areas. Conversely rental opportunities are more common in the eastern and denser portions of the region. The region has very high levels of cost-burdened households especially for renters. 60% of renting households, regardless of income, pay more than 30% of their monthly income on housing costs while 46% of household that own pay the same proportion. Moving into the future, more affordable housing options is a key issue for SEFLA. CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |21
  22. 22. Indian River Households paying 30% or more of their income on monthly housing costs, 2010 Indian River County 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Less than $20,000 to $35,000 to $50,000 to $75,000 or $20,000 $34,999 $49,999 $74,999 more Owner-occupied Renter-occupied Figure 12: Indian River County, Cost Burdened households by tenure, 2010 Hispanic or Latino 14% origin 5% Black or African Owner- 14% 13,374 American 5% occupied housing units 81% White Renter- 44,186 occupied 93% housing units Renter-occupied housing unitsFigure 13: Indian River Tenancy by Race/Ethnicity, 2010 Figure 14: Indian River County, Housing Occupancy by Tenure, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |22
  23. 23. CARRASCOMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |23
  24. 24. St. Lucie County Households paying 30% or more of their income on monthly housing costs, 2010 St. Lucie County 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Less than $20,000 to $35,000 to $50,000 to $75,000 or $20,000 $34,999 $49,999 $74,999 more Owner-occupied Renter-occupied Figure 15: St. Lucie County, Cost Burdened households by tenure, 2010 18% Hispanic or Latino origin 9% Black or African 24% Owner- 24,763 American 12% occupied housing units 69% Renter- White occupied 84% 78,340 housing units Renter-occupied housing units Owner-occupied housing units Figure 16: St. Lucie County Tenancy by Race/Ethnicity, 2010 Figure 17: St. Lucie County, Housing Occupancy by Tenure, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |24
  25. 25. CARRASCOMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |25
  26. 26. Martin County Households paying 30% or more of their income on monthly housing costs, 2010 Martin County 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Less than $20,000 to $35,000 to $50,000 to $75,000 or $20,000 $34,999 $49,999 $74,999 more Owner-occupied Renter-occupied Figure 18: Martin County, Cost Burdened households by tenure, 2010 16% Hispanic or Latino origin 4% 12,140 Black or African 7% Owner-occupied American 2% housing units Renter-occupied 86% housing units White 47,063 96% Renter-occupied housing units Owner-occupied housing units Figure 20: Martin County, Housing Occupancy by Tenure, 2010Figure 19: Martin County, Tenancy by Race/Ethnicity, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |26
  27. 27. CARRASCOMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |27
  28. 28. Palm Beach County Households paying 30% or more of their income on monthly housing costs, 2010 Palm Beach County 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Less than $20,000 to $35,000 to $50,000 to $75,000 or $20,000 $34,999 $49,999 $74,999 more Owner-occupied Renter-occupied Figure 21: Palm Beach County, Cost Burdened households by tenure, 2010 Hispanic or 21% Latino origin 10% Black or 138,155 Owner- 24% African occupied 9% American housing units 384,995 Renter- 67% occupied White 87% housing units Renter-occupied housing units Figure 23: Palm Beach County, Housing Occupancy by Tenure, 2010 Figure 22: Palm Beach County, Tenancy by Race/Ethnicity, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |28
  29. 29. CARRASCOMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |29
  30. 30. Broward County Households paying 30% or more of their income on monthly housing costs, 2010 Broward County 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Less than $20,000 to $35,000 to $50,000 to $75,000 or $20,000 $34,999 $49,999 $74,999 more Owner-occupied Renter-occupied Figure 24: Broward County, Cost Burdened households by tenure, 2010 Hispanic or Latino origin 23% 18% Black or African 32% Owner- American 17% 205,387 occupied housing units White 59% 76% Renter- 463,511 occupied housing units Renter-occupied housing units Owner-occupied housing units Figure 25: Broward County, Tenancy by Race/Ethnicity, 2010 Figure 26: Broward County, Housing Occupancy by Tenure, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |30
  31. 31. CARRASCOMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |31
  32. 32. Miami-Dade County Households paying 30% or more of their income on monthly housing costs, 2010 Miami-Dade County 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Less than $20,000 to $35,000 to $50,000 to $75,000 or $20,000 $34,999 $49,999 $74,999 more Owner-occupied Renter-occupied Figure 27: Miami-Dade County, Cost Burdened households by tenure, 2010 Hispanic or Latino origin 66% 62% Owner- occupied Black or African 22% 347,024 housing units American 14% 480,532 Renter- occupied White 71% 79% housing units Renter-occupied housing units Owner-occupied housing unitsFigure 28: Miami-Dade County, Tenancy by Race/Ethnicity, 2010 Figure 29: Miami-Dade County, Housing Occupancy by Tenure, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |32
  33. 33. Monroe County Households paying 30% or more of their income on monthly housing costs, 2010 Monroe County 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Less than $20,000 to $35,000 to $50,000 to $75,000 or $20,000 $34,999 $49,999 $74,999 more Owner-occupied Renter-occupied Figure 30: Monroe County, Cost Burdened households by tenure, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |33
  34. 34. 22% Hispanic or Latino origin 12% Owner- Black or African 8% occupied 10,581 American 3% housing units 19,210 Renter- occupied 89% housing units White 95% Renter-occupied housing units Owner-occupied housing units Figure 31: Monroe County, Tenancy by Race/Ethnicity, 2010 Figure 32: Monroe County, Housing Occupancy by Tenure, 2010SEFLA Region Table 3: Occupied Housing Units by Race/Ethnicity and Tenure, 2010- SEFLA Region Occupied housing Owner-occupied housing Renter-occupied housing units units units Total 2,269,261 1,517,837 751,424 White 84% 87% 75% Black or African 12% 9% 19% American Hispanic or Latino origin 19% 17% 26% CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |34
  35. 35. Tenure of Occupied Housing Units: 751,424 1,517,837 Owner-occupied housing units Renter-occupied housing units Figure 33: SEFLA Region, Occupied Housing Units by tenure, 2010Map 9: Occupied Housing Units by tenure,2010, SEFLA Region CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |35
  36. 36. Tenure of Occupied Housing by County and for the SEFLA Region 60% 58% 57% 56% 57% 61% 60% 46% 51% 48% 50% 46% 43% 42% 34% 35% Renter-occupied Renter-occupied Renter-occupied Renter-occupied Renter-occupied Renter-occupied Renter-occupied Renter-occupied Owner-occupied Owner-occupied Owner-occupied Owner-occupied Owner-occupied Owner-occupied Owner-occupied Owner-occupied7-County SE Florida Indian River St. Lucie County, Martin County, Palm Beach Broward County, Miami-Dade Monroe County, Region Average County, Florida Florida Florida County, Florida Florida County, Florida Florida Figure 34: Seven-50 SE Florida Region Occupied Housing Units by Tenure and County, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |36
  37. 37. Households paying 30% or more of their income on monthly housing costs, 2010 SEFLA Region 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% Less than $20,000 to $35,000 to $50,000 to $75,000 or $20,000 $34,999 $49,999 $74,999 more Owner-occupied housing units Renter-occupied housing units Figure 35: Seve-50 SE Florida Region, Cost Burdened households by tenure, 2010 CARRASCOMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |37
  38. 38. Poverty This section summarizes both individual and family poverty rates within the 7 counties individually as well as for SEFLA as a whole. Poverty indicators show the percentage of individuals or families that are below poverty threshold. The Census Bureau identifies poverty thresholds according to the composition of the household; different types of households (by age and size) have different poverty thresholds. Since poverty is defined at the family level and not the household level, the poverty status of the household is determined by the poverty status of the householder. “Population below poverty level” refers to the sum of people in families and the number of unrelated individuals identified as poor. We summarize individual poverty rates by race/ethnicity and age. The family poverty rate distinguishes between families and families with children under the age of 18, which is then further divided into various household types including married couples below the poverty level and single female householders below the poverty level. For SEFLA poverty is a large concern. In total there are over 850,000 people below poverty level, 13% percent of the total population. 15% of all families with children under the age of 18 are below the poverty level and of the population under 18, one fifth are living below the poverty line. Miami-Dade has the highest proportion of individuals living in poverty at 17%. Furthermore, poverty is clearly linked to race and ethnicity throughout the region. While the predominant race throughout the region is white, proportionally there are about half as many white people in poverty in comparison to both African American and Hispanic populations. Finally, our analysis identifies single female householders with children as especially in need. As a region, one third of all single-female households with children are below poverty level. In St. Lucie County, the proportion reaches its highest at 37% and within other counties the lowest this percentage reaches is 27% in Broward. CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |38
  39. 39. Indian River 16,984 9,322 5,322 2,340 Population for Under 18 years 18 to 64 years 65 years and whom poverty over status is determined Figure 36: Indian River County, Individuals below poverty level, 2010% Female householders with no 7.50% 31% husband present below White 27% Poverty Level 18.20% % Married Couples below 9% Black or African Poverty Level 5% American Hispanic or Latino origin 16% 23.80% (of any race) % Families Below Poverty Level 9% With related children under 18 years Families Figure 37: Indian River County, Family Poverty Rates, 2010 Figure 38: Indian River County, Poverty Rate by Race and Ethnicity, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |39
  40. 40. St. Lucie County 36,457 19,513 12,725 4,219 Population for Under 18 years 18 to 64 years 65 years and whom poverty over status is determined Figure 39: St. Lucie County, Individuals below poverty level, 2010 37% 7.70% % Female householders with no husband present below White 27% Poverty Level 19.00% % Married Couples below 9% Black or African Poverty Level 6% American Hispanic or Latino origin % Families Below Poverty 17% (of any race) Level 10% 19.60% With related children under 18 years Families Figure 40: St. Lucie County, Family Poverty Rates, 2010 Figure 41: St. Lucie County, Poverty Rate by Race and Ethnicity, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |40
  41. 41. CARRASCOMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |41
  42. 42. Martin County 14,724 8,046 4,507 2,171 Population for Under 18 years 18 to 64 years 65 years and whom poverty over status is determined Figure 42: Martin County, Individuals below poverty level, 2010 4.80%% Female householders with no 34% husband present below White 25% Poverty Level % Married Couples below 7% Black or African Poverty Level 3% 17.30% American 30.90% Hispanic or Latino origin 13% (of any race) % Families Below Poverty Level 6% With related children under 18 years Families Figure 43: Martin County, Family Poverty Rates, 2010 Figure 44: Martin County, Poverty Rate by Race and Ethnicity, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |42
  43. 43. Palm Beach County 156,759 86,743 48,840 21,176 Population for Under 18 years 18 to 64 years 65 years and whom poverty over status is determined Figure 45: Palm Beach County, Individuals below poverty level, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |43
  44. 44. 6.00%% Female householders with no 31% husband present below White 24% Poverty Level 16.60% % Married Couples below 7% Black or African Poverty Level 5% American Hispanic or Latino origin 15% (of any race)% Families Below Poverty Level 19.80% 9% With related children under 18 years Families Figure 46: Palm Beach County, Family Poverty Rates, 2010 Figure 47: Palm Beach County, Poverty Rate by Race and Ethnicity, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |44
  45. 45. Broward County 210,964 118,477 63,164 29,323 Population for Under 18 years 18 to 64 years 65 years and whom poverty over status is determined Figure 48: Broward County, Individuals below poverty level, 2010 6.20%% Female householders with no 27% husband present below 9.40% White 21% Poverty Level % Married Couples below 6% Black or African Poverty Level 5% American Hispanic or Latino origin 13% (of any race) % Families Below Poverty Level 9% 16.20% With related children under 18 years Families Figure 49: Broward County, Family Poverty Rates, 2010 Figure 50: Broward County, Poverty Rate by Race and Ethnicity, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |45
  46. 46. CARRASCOMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |46
  47. 47. Miami-Dade County 410,093 217,985 118,792 73,316 Population for Under 18 years 18 to 64 years 65 years and whom poverty over status is determined Figure 51: Miami-Dade County, Individuals below poverty level, 2010% Female householders with no 35% 11.90% husband present below 13.90% White 26% Poverty Level % Married Couples below 10% Black or African Poverty Level 9% American Hispanic or Latino origin 18% (of any race) % Families Below Poverty Level 14% 22.10% With related children under 18 years Families Figure 52: Miami-Dade County, Family Poverty Rates, 2010 Figure 53: Miami-Dade County, Poverty Rate by Race and Ethnicity, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |47
  48. 48. CARRASCOMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |48
  49. 49. Monroe County 7,776 5,327 1,275 1,174 Population for Under 18 years 18 to 64 years 65 years and whom poverty over status is determined Figure 54: Monroe County, Individuals below poverty level, 2010 6.70%% Female householders with no 30% husband present below White 25% Poverty Level 12.60% % Married Couples below 3% Black or African Poverty Level 4% American Hispanic or Latino origin 10% (of any race) % Families Below Poverty Level 7% 12.40% With related children under 18 years Families Figure 55: Monroe County, Family Poverty Rates, 2010 Figure 56: Monroe County, Poverty Rate by Race and Ethnicity, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |49
  50. 50. SEFLA Region 853,757 465,413 254,625 133,719 Population for Under 18 years 18 to 64 years 65 years and whom poverty over status is determined Figure 57: SEFLA Region, Individuals below poverty level, 2010% Female householders with 7.26% 32%no husband present below 25% Poverty Level White % Married Couples below 7% 17.23% Poverty Level 5% Black or African American % Families Below Poverty 15% Level 9% Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race) 18.74% With related children under 18 years FamiliesFigure 58: SEFLA Region, Family Poverty Rates, 2010 Figure 59: SEFLA Region, Poverty Rate by Race and Ethnicity, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |50
  51. 51. 17% 14% 13% 12% 12% 10% 11% Figure 61: SEFLA Region, Percent Population below poverty level by county, 2010Figure 60: SEFLA Region, Percent Population below poverty level by census tract, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |51
  52. 52. Labor Force and Commuting This section examines the labor force participation rate as well as basic commuting trends by county and for the region. The labor force participation rate is a representation of the proportion of the area’s population in the labor force. This includes both employed and unemployed (job-seeking) civilians 16 years and over as well as members of the U.S. Armed Forces (people on active duty with the United States Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard). Conversely, those not in the labor force includes all people 16 years old and over who are not accounted for by the labor force participation rate. These are typically students, retired workers, homemakers, institutionalized people and people doing incidental unpaid family work. Of the 7 counties, Broward has the highest labor force participation rate at 68%. Both Martin and Indian River have the lowest at 55%. The region on average has a labor force participation of 60% compared to 65% in the United State. Commuting trends may seem out of place in a fair housing assessment but commuting patterns are directly reflective of the relationship between housing and jobs. To understand commuting trends in this section we summarize mean travel time to work by mode of travel, mode of travel by tenure, and mode of travel by race/ethnicity. Mean travel time to work is measured in minutes and represents the average travel time that workers usually took to get from home to work. The travel time also accounts for time spent waiting for public transportation, as well as for picking up carpool passengers. Mode of travel refers to the method of transportation used to get from home to work. High travel times may indicate an imbalance between jobs and housing. Similarly the relationship between tenure and transportation mode can inform the type of transportation options that should be readily available to certain demographics. CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |52
  53. 53. We find in the region that individuals utilizing public transportation options have higher average travel times to work.And in all counties more renters use public transit than homeowners. The same is true of minorities in comparison to whitepersons. Overall there is a staggering difference between those that drive alone (78% in the 7-county area) and thosethat use public transportation only (4%). This all indicates that efficient public transportation options are lackingthroughout the entire region—the development of which are especially essential near areas that are primarily minorityand renter-occupied when employment opportunities are not located near these areas. CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |53
  54. 54. Indian River 50 40 30 45.50% 20 10 54.50% 0 Total Drive Alone Carpool Public transportation In labor force Not in labor force Mean travel time to work (minutes) Figure 62: Indian River County, Labor Force, 2010 Figure 63: Indian River County, Mean Travel Time to Work by Travel Mode, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |54
  55. 55. 100.00% 90.00%80.00% 80.00%70.00% 70.00%60.00% 60.00%50.00% 50.00% 40.00%40.00% 30.00%30.00% 20.00%20.00% 10.00%10.00% 0.00% 0.00% White Black or African American Owner-occupied housing units Renter-occupied housing units Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race) Figure 64: Indian River County, Travel Mode by housing tenure, 2010 Figure 65: Indian River County, Travel Mode by race/ethnicity, 2010 CARRAS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT, INC. SEVEN50 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF IMPEDIMENTS TO FAIR HOUSING DRAFT |55

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