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Youths for a Participatory Governance in Kenya. …

Youths for a Participatory Governance in Kenya.
E- Governance
E- democracy
Environment
Youth and Employment
Health

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  • 1. REPORT ONEMBAKASI YOUTHS AGENDA FOR GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT BY JIPANGE YOUTH ORGANIZATION Youths for Participatory Governance DECEMBER, 2010
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTSFOREWORD...............................................................................................................................5PREFACE ...................................................................................................................................6PREAMBLE ................................................................................................................................7ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................................................8EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..........................................................................................................10CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................111.0 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................11 1.1 Jipange Youth Organization Profile ........................................................................................ 11 1.2 Rationale of the exercise ......................................................................................................... 12 1.3 Methodology ............................................................................................................................. 13 1.4 Limitations ................................................................................................................................. 13CHAPTER TWO: LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE ...........................................................142.0 LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE ..................................................................................14 2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 14 2.1.1 Situation Analysis ........................................................................................................ 14 2.1.2 Causes of Poor Leadership and Governance ........................................................... 15 2.1.3 Effects of poor leadership and governance ............................................................... 15 2.2 Challenges ................................................................................................................................ 15 2.3 Interventions ............................................................................................................................. 16 2.4 Recommendations ................................................................................................................... 16 2.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 17CHAPTER THREE: EMPLOYMENT ........................................................................................173.0 EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES .....................................................................................17 3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 17 3.1.1 Causes of Unemployment ................................................................................................ 19 3.1.2 Effects of Unemployment.................................................................................................. 19 2 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 3. 3.2 Gaps and Challenges............................................................................................................... 21 3.3 Interventions ............................................................................................................................. 21 3.4 Recommendations ................................................................................................................... 23 3.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 24CHAPTER FOUR: HEALTH .....................................................................................................244.0 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND LIFE SKILLS..................................................................24 4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 24 4.2 Situational Analysis .................................................................................................................. 24 4.2.1 Causes of Poor Reproductive Health .............................................................................. 25 4.2.2 Challenges Faced by the Youth ....................................................................................... 25 4.3 Interventions ............................................................................................................................. 26 4.4 Recommendations ................................................................................................................... 27 4.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 27CHAPTER FIVE: ICT AND GOVERNANCE .............................................................................28 5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 28 5.2 Gaps and Challenges............................................................................................................... 28 5.3 Interventions ............................................................................................................................. 29 5.4 Milestones in ICT Development .............................................................................................. 29 5.5 Recommendations ................................................................................................................... 30 5.6 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 31CHAPTER SIX: ENVIRONMENT..............................................................................................316.0 WASTE MANAGEMENT AND SANITATION .....................................................................31 6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 31 6.2 Situation Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 31 6.3 Gaps and Challenges............................................................................................................... 34 6.4 Interventions ............................................................................................................................. 34 6.5 Policy and Legal Framework ................................................................................................... 35 3 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 4. 6.6 Recommendations ................................................................................................................... 35CHAPTER SEVEN: GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS ..........................................................37CHAPTER EIGHT: CONCLUSION ...........................................................................................38APPENDIXES ...........................................................................................................................40APPENDIX 1: REPORT PREPARATION TEAM .....................................................................40APPENDIX 2: LIST OF STAKEHOLDERS ...............................................................................41 4 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 5. FOREWORDYouths in Embakasi face a lot of challenges among them being poverty, unemployment,and lack of opportunities for participation in governance issues. The post electionviolence of 2008 exposed these issues and both the state and non state actors havetried to address them through the implementation of various interventions.Youth involvement is important in development and participatory governance withinEmbakasi. The governments through its line ministries provide various forms ofinformation related to MDG, Vision 2030, National Youth Policy and Youth EnterpriseDevelopment Fund among other policies. It is therefore the role of the youths to workclosely with the government in order to address issues that promote youth participationin decision making.Responsible youths keen on promoting good reproductive health, HIV/AIDS awarenesscampaigns and life skills are essential for community development and youthempowerment.The articulation of the condition and plight of youths in Embakasi should be useful tospur debate and provide direction for policies and programmes that promote youthparticipation and representation in decision making.This report should be of interest to Kenyans in all walks of life, including the donorcommunity. It should generate debate on cross cutting issues that affect youthdevelopment in Kenya and promote dialogue in the ways in which the untapped youthpotential can be utilized better.The report is timely in refocusing the attention of Kenyans, CBOs, Youth groups, FBOs,NGOs, government institutions and other stake holders on the plight of young people asthey look forward to a brighter future.MR. PETER MBUGIDISTRICT COMMISSIONEREMBAKASI DISTRICT 5 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 6. PREFACEYouth involvement in participatory governance is a key factor that affects developmentin Embakasi since they are the majority of the population.Full participation and inclusion of youths in governance structures will ensure fullrealization of their potentials in overall development. Our Ministry has taken steps inproviding leadership and support regarding initiatives of young people s participation inactivities that promote National development and economic empowerment.The National Youth Policy has set up a National Youth Council as a body through whichyouths can constructively engage government institutions on issues that affect youngpeople. The council provides assure way for youths to participate and effectively berepresented by their peers in governance and development programmes.The process of coming up with Embakasi Youths Agenda for Governance andDevelopment report was unique since young people (Jipange Youth Organization)facilitated and provided the perspectives and perceptions contained in this report.We are grateful to the young people for carrying out the exercise from conception,drafting and sharing with my ministry this final report that will help in policy formulationand project implementation in Embakasi District.JOHN MWANGI GITUDISTRICT YOUTH OFFICEREMBAKASI DISTRICT 6 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 7. PREAMBLEWe the Jipange Youth Organization determined to transform and improve theperspectives of the young people regarding their participation and representation ingovernance and development programmes,Hereby:Honour our almighty God for his care and guidance.Appreciate the youth who sacrificed their daily chores to make this report a success.Acknowledge the work done by Government of Kenya, non-state actors and our majorpartners in the support of youth initiatives.Exercising:Our fundamental and sovereign rights in promoting accountability on governance issueswithin our District,Therefore propose: I. Adequate participation and representation of the young people in all key institutions of decision making. II. That non-state actor to commit more support for youth projects and initiatives.III. Protection of the future our youths by ensuring accessibility of proper health services with youth friendly services.IV. Safeguarding of our environment for sustainable development. V. Proper implementation of employment policies and interventions for the benefit of the young people.VI. Accessibility of information to create opportunities for the youths. 7 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe acknowledge the support our members gave to the process of developing thisreport. We thank Mr. Kenyatta Maitha, Paul Ngumo, and Edwin Ochieng the leadfacilitators who provided technical support that guided decisions made in and out theworkshops. We also thank Tina Berwa, Area Manager Plan Kenya Nairobi DevelopmentArea for supporting the entire team in its work.Our gratitude also goes to Hon. Ferdinand Waititu Member of parliament for EmbakasiMr. Peter Mbugi, District Commissioner, Mr. John Mwangi Gitu, District Youth officer;Mr. Vincent O. Oketch, District Gender and Social Development Officer; Mrs. Mary A.Odhiambo, District Employment Officer; Mr. Pius Ondachi, District officer; Mr. OkeyoMbata, Councilor Kayole ward; and Mr. N.A.P.Mwangi the Constituency AIDs controlcoordinator who provided information and supported the whole process.In addition, we appreciate representatives from Ministry of Agriculture, livestock,Children, fisheries and other stakeholders for attending the forum and appreciating thecapability of the youths.Lastly, we thank all the youth groups who participated in this process and brought indifferent views that were incorporated in this report.Since we cannot appreciate every stakeholder by name, humbly do accept our heartfeltgratitude.GEORGE ODUOR OGUDACHAIRMANJIPANGE YOUTH ORGANIZATION 8 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 9. ACRONYMSAIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromeCACC Constituency Aids Control CouncilCBO Community Based OrganizationCCN City Council of NairobiCDF Constituency Development FundDC District CommissionerDGSDO District Gender and Social Development OfficerDO District OfficerDYO District Youth OfficerEYAGD Embakasi Youth Agenda for Governance and DevelopmentFBO Faith Based OrganizationGOK Government of KenyaHIV Human Immunodeficiency VirusICT Information Communication TechnologyIGAs Income Generating ActivitiesIIEC Interim Independent Electoral CommissionISWM Integrated Solid Waste ManagementJICA Japan International Corporation AgencyKACC Kenya Anti-Corruption CommissionKESSP Kenya Education Sector Support ProgrammeKKV Kazi Kwa VijanaKNHRC Kenya National Human Rights CommissionKRA Kenya Revenue AuthorityLASDAP Local Authority Service Delivery Action PlanLCA Life-Cycle ApproachMDGs Millennium Development GoalsMOYAS Ministry of Youth Affairs and SportsNACCSC National Anti-Corruption Campaign Steering CommitteeNGOs Non Governmental OrganizationNYC National Youth CouncilNYP National Youth PolicyNYS National Youth ServiceRRI Rapid Response InitiativeSTIs Sexually Transmitted InfectionsSWM Solid Waste ManagementTIVET Kenya Technical Industrial Vocational Education and TrainingUNDP United Nation s Development ProgrammesVCT Voluntary Counseling and Testing CentersYEDF Youth Enterprise Development Funds 9 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 10. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYJipange Youth Organization is an umbrella body of sixteen youth groups drawn fromEmbakasi District. The organization currently runs programs that seek to enhance youthparticipation in governance and development programmes.The organization conducted workshops and field activities to identify issues thatinfluence effective youth participation and representation in leadership and decisionmaking.The organization identified key thematic areas that if well addressed would enhanceyouth involvement in participatory governance as:- i. Health (Reproductive health and life skills) ii. Employment (employment opportunities) iii. Environment (Sanitation and waste management) iv. Leadership and Governance (accountability and transparency) v. ICT (Information and its accessibility)The youth population in Embakasi compares with the national trend which is 60% of thepopulation. Due to numerous challenges such as poverty, diseases, insecurity, andlimited job opportunities, the participation of young people in decision making is still verylow. However, the government has made tremendous efforts in developing programmesthat ensure youth participation in development projects. The existing gaps can still beaddressed if all stakeholders are involved and the youths identify with the opportunitiesavailable.The organization held series of workshops to brainstorm and identify issues influencingyouth participation in governance and development. A number of government policieswere reviewed to help understand what programmes are in existences that supportyouth agendas. The group also visited Key stakeholders such as government officialsand community leaders to get their opinion and perspective on current policies andprogrammes for the youths.This report is a summary of the outcome of this process and further makesrecommendations on the necessary interventions that could inform policy formulationand program implementation at both national and community levels. 10 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 11. CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION1.0 INTRODUCTION1.1 Jipange Youth Organization ProfileJipange Youth Organization is an umbrella body of 16 youth groups within Embakasi.It is registered with the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development. Theorganization advocates for participatory governance and youth empowerment at alllevels of development processes.Our Vision: A well governed society and an empowered youth population.Our Mission: Be the best coalition of youth groups, empowering the youth andpromoting the practice of participatory governance on community developmentprogrammes.1.1.1 Groups under Jipange Youth Organizationtable 1: groups under Jipange Youth Organization 1. Move on Afrika 10. Zindua Afrika Programs 2. Forward Ever, Backward 11. Cosmopolitan Never 12. Golden River 3. The Change Initiative 13. Rusalep 4. Mabadiliko Youth Group 14. Sunrise Progressive Youth 5. Robust Flora Group 6. The Green Movement 15. The real change in youths 7. Furaha Center for the Deaf 16. South Turks Association 8. Spine Youth Group 9. Voice of the Youth1.1.2 Programs I. Youth Resource centers II. Public accountability board III. Social Audit devolved funds projects IV. Youth Economic Empowerment V. Advocate for protection of rights of children VI. Advocacy Against Drug and Substance AbuseVII. Events management 11 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 12. 1.1.3 Our Partners a) Plan International b) Little Sports organization c) Ministry of provincial administration and internal security d) Ministry of Gender, children & Social Development e) Ministry of Youth and Sports f) Faith based Organizations g) CBO s and NGO s h) CACC1.2 Rationale of the exerciseJipange conducted this exercise to identify issues that influence youth participation andinvolvement in governance and development programmes. The issues identified weremainly in the areas of:- ü Health ü ICT ü Environment ü Leadership ü EmploymentYouths in Embakasi are faced with numerous challenges which undermine theirimmense potential to bring about transformative social and political changes in thecommunity. The most pressing problems include endemic poverty, high unemployment,poor governance and social exclusion often resulting from lack of opportunities forparticipation in decision making.While the above are general issues, there are specific ones sited in Embakasi. 1. Low status given to youth: Existing societal structures and prevailing attitudes do not provide an enabling environment for youth participation in decision making, planning and implementation processes. 2. Crime and defiant behavior: Involvement of youths in criminal activities is on the increase .Many remain idle for long periods of time, as a consequence they involve themselves in all manners of criminal undertakings. 3. Limited participation and lack of opportunities: Despite their numerical strengths, youth are the least represented in political and economic spheres due to societal attitudes, socio- cultural and economic barriers. 4. Mentors and role models for youths in area of good governance and civic engagement do not exist or are not known. 12 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 13. 1.3 MethodologyThe exercise was undertaken through workshops, field visits and community forums.A series of workshops to brainstorm on key thematic areas were carried out where theparticipants identified the key issues that needed to be addressed. The workshops wereimportant for policy reviews. They were also used as write shops to compile the report.The sessions also involved discussion with key government officials to help the youthsunderstand the programs in existence and which give opportunities to the young people.A stakeholders forum was held to validate and share on issues that were identified, andto gain further insight on what was to be expounded. The plenary went ahead andindentified some key points that could be added into the report.1.4 LimitationsSome of the challenges faced during the exercise included:- a) The expansive nature of Embakasi. b) Limited financial resources and materials. c) Minimum cooperation and support from some stakeholders.Despite these limitations the exercise was successful and the needed data wascollected, analyzed and a report compiled. Jipange youths conducting a social audit at Ruai Girls, Interviewing Mr. Macharia & Madam Susan the school Headmistress. 13 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 14. Jipange Youth Resource CentreCHAPTER TWO: LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE2.0 LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE2.1 IntroductionGovernance is the manner in which power is exercised in the management of thedifferent sectors of the society, be it in the social economic or political arenas forachievement of development initiatives.Leadership is the ability to organize and direct a group of people in an organization orinstitution in order to meet specific objectives of the institution through an all inclusivedecision making processes in an honest and transparent manner.2.1.1 Situation AnalysisThere is low level of awareness and involvement of the youths in most governmentinitiatives involving decision making at both national and devolved governance levels.Though there are national structures such as the NYC that guide youth participation ingovernance initiatives, there is still inadequate involvement and participation by youngpeople in decision making.From the opinion of stakeholders, the level of consultation is low; projects are initiatedwith little consultation and most community members are not well informed of the same.There are several gaps in accountability which have not been properly addressed. 14 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 15. 2.1.2 Causes of Poor Leadership and GovernanceA number of youths in the area lack information regarding the governance processesand the various programs in existence due to lack of proper channels in accessinginformation. Therefore they are left out in the decision making processes. Besides,some youths lack the will and interest to participate in the processes.Due to inadequate resources, equal distribution of available resources to all areas ofneed has been difficult. This has led to conflicts of interest between the leaders andleads to neglect of other areas in regard to overall development.Inadequate consultative forums between the leadership leads to development of sub-standard or irrelevant projects, which do not have any positive impact to the users in thearea resulting to ineffective use of public funds.There is the element of corruption in the running of youth centered projects whereembezzlement of funds causes the youths to lose confidence in their leaders.2.1.3 Effects of poor leadership and governanceConflicts of interest between the different segments of the community regarding theirneeds and opinions on projects; this affects the community s participation during theimplementation process.Poor leadership and governance leads to mismanagement and embezzlement ofresources. This limits the accessibility of public resources, hence lack of confidence inleaders.Projects that are not a priority of the community are common due to lack of consultationduring the initial stages. The community fails to identify with the projects and onlyappreciate them due to the fact that they have been put in place.Distorted public perception has led to loss of interest by several stakeholders ininvolving themselves with development processes.2.2 ChallengesLow levels of consultation among the various stakeholders in Embakasi mostly betweenthe political class and the provincial administration.Delayed implementation of existing initiatives for example, projects that could havetaken six months to complete end up taking longer periods of time and holding back theimmediate benefits to the society.Discrimination in terms of nepotism and tribalism, where by individuals find it easy toinvolve family, friends and those with tribal affiliation without necessarily considering thedynamics of the society. 15 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 16. Bureaucracy in leadership positions has led to delay in implementation of projects andloss of interest in productive ideas.2.3 InterventionsCreation of the National Youth Policy: - This was to improve participation of youths ingovernance and decision making processes. The NYP has created the national youthcouncil which will provide an organizational structure for youths to participate incommunity, civic and governance affairs.Social auditing by CBOs and NGOs: - Community based organizations e.g. Jipangeyouth organization, conducted social auditing to monitor and evaluate communityprojects. This has ensured that accountability is upheld, public funds are put in gooduse and the leadership is put in check on its activities.Introduction of Rapid Response Initiatives (RRIs):- Different ministries ingovernment introduced RRI programs to enhance service delivery, address immediateneeds and mid-term objectives.The passing of a new constitution: - Articles 55(b), and article 100, seek tomainstream the youth and the marginalized in order to foster representation andequality in all sectors of development. This will ensure that no one feels left out in thesociety.MDG no.3:- This ensures equal gender representation and women empowermenthence they are able to fully participate in decision making and developmentIn Embakasi the KKV initiative has been streamlined by the local administrative unit tocreate a data bank that helps in management of the initiative. With the help of the areaDC, together with the local youth groups different gaps in the initiative were identifiedand appropriately addressed.2.4 Recommendationsa) Stimulate debate on participatory governance across Embakasi.b) Provide viable criteria by which citizens can hold their leaders accountable.c) Support aspiring leaders in Embakasi who have the right leadership skills.d) Create youth forums in each quarter of the year to address development issues.e) Empower the youth to improve their participation in government initiatives.f) Improve financial management; streamline budgeting system and service provision. 16 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 17. 2.5 ConclusionThe discussions on leadership and governance is very important in any particularsetting, since it sets the pace for other thematic issues such as environment,Employment, reproductive health/life skills and ICT to be addressed. It also entails theprocess of putting the leadership of the day on task to be accountable.So there is need to sensitize the public on their rights and responsibilities, to improvetheir knowledge of key governing instruments such as the constitution and to increasetheir awareness of government programs and their roles as rights holders.CHAPTER THREE: EMPLOYMENT3.0 EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES3.1 IntroductionEmployment is the work in which one is engaged in active occupation to earn a living. Itcan also refer to a contract between two parties one being employer and the other onean employees.The youths aged 15-35 years constitute 60% percent of the total employable population.Of the youth between ages 15-35 years, 18.3 percent are female and 17.7 percent aremale1. Currently, the youth account for about 60 percent of the total active labour forcebut the majority is unemployed, a situation that is unlikely to change in the foreseeablefuture given the country s population pyramid. The youth unemployment estimated at75 % in Kenya2 is a concern, since it is a precursor to increasing poverty. The causeof the growing unemployment is partly attributable to lack of appropriate skills requiredin the labour industry.The youth population is estimated to stand at 60% of the entire population of Embakasi(the census report, 2009), of which 39% only being employed while 61% of the youthslanguish in unemployment. Most of these unemployed youth resort to crime and drugabuse.The high level of unemployment is evident through the increasing numbers of registeredCBOs and self Help Groups. Competition for temporal jobs such as IIEC referendum1 KIHBS, 2005 62 Kenya Vision 2030 17 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 18. and opting for odd jobs like touting and pushing carts regardless of their educationalqualifications, is a characteristics of the unemployment situation in Embakasi.Existing policies including Vision 2030, MDGs and GOK policies such as EmploymentAct 2007 do not seem to bring any change in this scenario. This can be blamed on poorimplementation or lack of commitment in leadership.The Kazi Kwa Vijana initiative was created to engage the youth in developmentalprojects, though there were no institutions put in place for moderation and streamliningthe process of hiring the youths. However the District administration estimates that morethan 2000 youth have benefited from the program. KKV tree for jobs initiativeThe Informal sector has created employment in Embakasi and includes activities suchas: street vending, maize roasting, shoe shinning, auto-repairers, cart pullers, kioskowners, street barbers, water vendors, building contractors, charcoal sellers andfurniture makers.Informal sector employment 18 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 19. 3.1.1 Causes of UnemploymentInadequate employment opportunities: mainly due to low economic growth and lackof investors willing to invest in Embakasi.Rural urban Migration: Due to the increase of people in the urban area, jobopportunities are becoming scarce as these areas are becoming overpopulated. YoungPeople are attracted to urban areas because their perceptions are that they will accessgreater opportunities.Inequality in employment and increased retirement age (55 to 60 years).Due to theincrease in the retirement age, young people are not able to access enoughemployment opportunities.Inadequate technical skills and knowledge required in most jobs. Illiteracy and lackof relevant technical skills make young people to lack the competency required in mostjobs.Corruption: lack of transparency and accountability in most organizations has made itdifficult for employable youth to get jobs.Difficulties in accessing funds from financial institutions: most institutions such asbanks demand collaterals and guarantors for them to extend loans to youths willing tostart up businesses, hence making it difficult for young people to participate inmeaningful economic activities.Drug and substance abuse: most youth engage in drug and substance abuse; makingthem loose focus on available employment opportunities.3.1.2 Effects of UnemploymentIncreased criminal activities: such as theft, mugging and extortion.Prostitution: leading to increased rate of HIV/AIDS and STIs is one of the mostadverse effects of unemployment.Resentment, anger and rowdiness among youths are common characteristics in thebehavior and general conduct of youth in this region.Increased levels of poverty, which is evident in slums that are found within Embakasi.The slums include among others the 3rd largest slum in Kenya (Mukuru), MohraMoldada Village, Kyang ombe Village, Embakasi/Sokoni Village, Kayole Soweto Village,and Matopeni Village which are hubs for criminal drewellers. Poverty is also attributed toincreased crime among the youth as they look for ways to fulfill different needs. 19 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 20. Illegal grouping and gangs are common in Embakasi as these groups extort residents and business operators such as shop owners, matatu operators and residents in pretence of providing security. Muggings and touting an outcome of unemployment Underemployment: Youths are taking up jobs that do not match their careers and end up doing small time jobs, which do not pay well even when they have relatively good skills compared to their counterparts in other parts of the world. This is demeaning and affects the general development of young people. Table 2: Crime Statistics 2010 for Embakasi Constituency (Police Crime Office) Murder Rape/ Assaults Robberies Breakings Stealing Drugs Other TOTA defilement offences LJan 1 2 7 8 6 17 3 25 69Feb 4 2 9 5 4 15 4 42 55March 4 2 9 5 2 5 1 14 42April 1 1 12 4 4 7 2 16 48May 1 2 10 6 3 8 5 26 61June 0 0 4 2 2 3 4 28 43July 1 3 8 5 1 7 6 13 44August 1 0 3 3 1 6 6 18 38Sept 0 2 2 6 7 10 1 12 40October 0 1 1 2 1 10 1 11 27TOTAL 13 16 65 46 31 88 33 17 5 467 20 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 21. 3.2 Gaps and ChallengesLack of accountability and effective implementation of policies Where theconcerned institution fail to implement the policies and plans set, a survey carried byPrice Water House Coopers noted that half of Kenya s biggest employers are yet toconvert casual workers into contract employees as provided under Employment Act2007. Apparently youths form a majority of these casual workers.Corruption which is institutionalized and on the increase in all sectors - Thisnotwithstanding the government s many policy and legal achievements in terms ofaddressing corruption, such as the enactment of the public officer Ethics Act, the KenyaAnti-corruption Commission (KACC) and the National Anti-Corruption CampaignSteering Committee (NACCSC).Bureaucratic red tapes that make it difficult for youths to access funds availableto them- This inhibits the ability of these youths to engage in self employment, or startincome generating activities.Tribalism and nepotism, inequality in employment, and favoritism discriminate againstthe youths rendering most of them unemployed.Illiteracy and lack of technical skills: Most youths drop out of school due to povertyand join unqualified colleges and training institutions that are offering substandardcourses that are not competitive in the job market.3.3 Interventionsa) Employment policy 2009: - This policy identifies the following strategies that will enhance youth development and participation:- i. Modalities for managing students transition from school to work, including measures to ensure that vocational training is relevant to industry needs. ii. Establishment of employment resource centres to disseminate knowledge about the labor market and to match available skills and opportunities. iii. Working with critical stakeholders to design common and synergetic strategies that foster growth and employment creation.b) The Millennium Development Goal no. 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger targets to reduce by half, people living on less than a dollar a day. The strategies include; i. Embracing entrepreneurship in job creation e.g. through allocation of YEDF. The YEDF was and is expected to provide credit to youth group projects and facilitate youths to obtain employment abroad. ii. Development of an integral system of education that will provide appropriate linkages between training institutions and labour market. 21 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 22. iii. Legislative reform and increased bilateral arrangements between Kenya and major destination countries for migrant labour in order to facilitate more of young people obtaining foreign employment.c) Vision 2030 looks at Equity and Poverty Reduction. Strategies to be employed in relation to creation of employment include i. Increase in the share of resources allocated towards priority development areas, provision of infrastructure and human development including core poverty programmes, to accelerate development and reduce inequality. ii. Improvements in public sector efficiency and effectiveness including removing administrative barriers to trade privatization and structuring key public entities and streamlining licenses in order to reduce the cost of doing business to make Kenya competitive.d) The New constitution details the specific application of rights to youth. Where the State shall take measures, including affirmative action programmes to ensure that the youth access relevant education and training, access employment, participate in political, social, economic and other spheres of life. The youth to be protected also from harmful cultural practices and exploitation. (article 55)e) Technical Industrial Vocational Education and Training (TIVET) - The TIVET component in Kenya Education Sector Support Programme (KESSP) enhances hands-on youth education and training for self reliance and entrepreneurship.f) Youth Employment Marshall Plan - The government through the Ministry of Youth has initiated a Youth Employment Marshall Plan which aims to create 500,000 jobs on both the formal and informal sectors beginning January 2009. A major component of the Marshall Plan is the Kazi Kwa Vijana programmes, which involves labour intensive initiatives to give jobs to youth. The government estimates that about 300,000 youth nationally will get jobs annually through the projects.g) The Trees for Jobs Initiative programme - The Trees for Jobs Initiative is an initiative of the Ministry of Youth Affairs. It is partly financed by UNDP and aims to have 90 million seedlings planted per year and employ over 29,000 youths in the first two years. The programme would contribute in addressing two problems facing Kenya - deforestation and youth unemployment. For the programme to benefit a large cross-section of youth, projects should be spread throughout the country.h) CBOs and NGOs interventions include: i. Creating opportunities to source for funds. ii. Engaging in Capacity building, training and economic empowerment projects. 22 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 23. iii. Rehabilitation and construction of youth empowerment centers aimed at offering a variety of services to young people including employment information, career development, HIV/AIDS education and counseling, and leisure and recreation.3.4 Recommendations 1. Focus by the government and other stakeholders on the seven core sustainable areas to improve livelihood for youths. These areas include: education, employment creation, employability of the youth, equity, entrepreneurship, environment sustainability and empowerment. 2. Enhancing the quality and effectiveness of youth participation. As such, strengthening capacity to access information about, analyze allocations and monitor the use of public funds by youth, improving the project design, monitoring and evaluation competencies of youth groups, and improving the advocacy capacity (including participation in civic action). 3. To improve youth awareness of their rights and responsibilities. It is the responsibility of the government of Kenya through the different sectors such as KACC, the ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs; as well as the civil society like KNHRC. This would enable them to effectively demand for their opportunities and achieve employment targets. 4. Scale up publicity and dissemination of information on available opportunities and external markets through exhibitions, catalogues, trade fairs, media and Websites. 5. Identify explicit linkages between demand and supply of various skills. More so, through ensuring productivity is appropriately remunerated. 6. Establishment of an employment centre to offer services for job seekers and employers with current information through conducting study, surveys and research. 7. Promotion of IGAs through promoting activities including sports and creative arts among the youth in Embakasi. 8. Government to support local industries in order to create more avenues for employment e.g. through tax waiver. 9. Various departments of government to encourage and sensitize the youths on available programs such as: National youth service. 10. The government to support youth programs funded by non-governmental organization, in any way possible for example, Jipange resource centre program. 23 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 24. 3.5 ConclusionUnemployment still stands as a major challenge facing the youths. Various sectorialplayers need to scale up their efforts to reduce the unemployment rate for the benefit ofour economy and political stability. Finally participatory governance must be practicedfor the process of employment to be transparent.Without meaningful employment the suppressed expectations of the youth create abreeding ground for poverty, diseases, crime, violence and civil unrest whichundermines political stability, international security and the effectiveness of capitalinvestment.. If young people are equipped and involved, tomorrow is assured and today is safe.CHAPTER FOUR: HEALTH4.0 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND LIFE SKILLS4.1 IntroductionHealth is the state of which a person is physically, psychologically and emotionally fit.One of the major components of health that affects the young people is reproductivehealth and life skills.Reproductive Health is the complete psychological, Emotional and physical well beingof an individual without the absence of disease or infirmity as regards to theirreproductive system.Components of reproductive health 1. Maternal Child Health Care. 2. Family Planning. 3. Urinary Tract Infections. 4. Youth 5. Life Skills 6. HIV/AIDS4.2 Situational AnalysisEmbakasi District is one of the largest districts in Kenya; the highest population consistsof young people between the ages of 15-30, approximately three quarter of thepopulation live below poverty line. 24 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 25. High school dropout rate has resulted to illiteracy amongst the youth. Failure to educatethem on the reproductive health and life skills contributes to the increase of teenagepregnancy, early marriages, HIV/AIDs infection, and involvement in crime, drugs abuseand commercial sex practices.There are minimal or no youth friendly facilities to encourage access to information onreproductive health and life skills for their social and economic empowerment.4.2.1 Causes of Poor Reproductive Health 1. Inadequate information and education on life skills and reproductive health, due to ignorance and bad influence. 2. Low self esteem and confidence among the youth 3. Beliefs in myths and cultural practices that are sometimes hazardous to our health e.g. female genital mutilation 4. poor parental upbringing 5. Increased poverty and unemployment level. 6. low level of awareness of the short and long term dangers of drug abuse 7. Easy availability of the drugs 8. Lack of enough role models in the society and youth empowerment sectors.4.2.2 Challenges Faced by the Youth I. Failure by the youth to demystify between myths and facts on reproductive health. II. Most of the youth are not able to adapt to their new environment hence some run away and go back to the streets.III. Most charitable homes lack community and financial support hence hindering their efficiency.IV. Poor parental upbringing during the early stages of life resulting to the negative vices of life.V. Lack of enough and qualified peer educators.VI. Ignorance of the youth on knowledge about their rights and importance to the society. 25 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 26. Hard life, which is caused by earlypregnancy. Drug and Substance Abuse4.3 InterventionsGovernment and policy makers endeavor to protect young people through training ofpeer educators who are sent to schools to educate them on dangers of unprotected sexand usage of drugs.The government has implemented acts to protect the sexually abused person s e.g.sexual offence act. The government has also come up with policies that addressreproductive health among the young people.CACC provides funds to support HIV/AIDS programmes to C.B.Os and youthorganizations.Adequate rehabilitation facilities such as Kayole 1 social hall are involved inrehabilitating street children. They provide vocational trainings such as, hair dressing,counseling, talent search, spiritual nourishment, medical needs and education.The government of Kenya has created the ministry of youth affairs,Labour and theministry of gender to address the youth issues such as unemployment and genderimbalance. 26 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 27. 4.4 Recommendations 1. Strengthening the capacity of teachers, parents and leaders within the community to provide appropriate information on H.I.V/A.I.DS, drugs and substance abuse. 2. Promote youth s involvement in planning, decision making, implementation and management of their sexual, reproductive and health programme at all levels. 3. Promote more youth friendly, voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) sites and link them to other programmes. 4. Advocate for behaviour change, non risky sexual behaviour to community programmes targeting youths in and out of schools, married, disabled and the displaced persons including street children. 5. Support programmes that encourage the youth to delay their sexual debut and practice abstinence. 6. Encourage youth to increase the spirit of teamwork and learn new skills from each other. 7. Decent social and moral religious values should be instilled in children early through training, discipline and counseling. 8. Promote the development of long term and holistic life skills curriculum in schools. 9. Prevent health and social problems including psychoactive substance use, HIV /AIDS, early pregnancy and violence. 10. There should be inter-agencies collaboration to accelerate programming, monitoring and education for life skills in and out of schools.4.5 ConclusionThough in recent years, more youths have been empowered and educated on issuesrelating to reproductive health and life skills.There are still gaps in reproductive health programmes and health institutions with mostyoung people still lacking skills on good reproductive health practices and life skills 27 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 28. CHAPTER FIVE: ICT AND GOVERNANCE5.0 ICT AND GOVERNANCE5.1 IntroductionInformation Communication Technology; is defined as knowledge communicated orreceived concerning a particular fact, through a process of transmitting thoughts andopinions from one person to another by creation and use of technical means to theirinterrelation with life, society and the environment.ICT is the world s fastest growing sector which has brought about globalization. It hasbecome a significant factor in development, having a profound impact on the political,economic and social pillars of governance for example, it provides structures for thedigitization of department records, improved service delivery and enhance collaboration.It also increases the speed and responsiveness of government institutions by enablingcitizens, including the poor, to participate in development issues. Census report on I.C.T. usage (2009)Inadequate ICT infrastructure in terms of limited equipment within existingempowerment centers, low internet speed, lack of access to information andcommunication technologies has remained a major challenge to youth development andparticipation in governance processes in Embakasi District.5.2 Gaps and Challenges 1. Low level of consultation among stakeholders on ICT development. 2. Vandalism of existing ICT infrastructure. 3. Establishment of ICT policies which are not responsive to aspirations of young people. 4. Lack of enough resources to implement quality ICT infrastructure. 5. Few empowerment centers for accessibility of information. 28 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 29. 5.3 Interventions 1. C B Os have built networks for the sake of sharing information and recruiting members via social networks i.e. face book, twitter, G-mail and Hotmail. 2. Establishment of resource centers in Embakasi for example, Plan International Kenya facilitated Jipange Youth Organization to establish a resource centre. Resource center equipment donated by Plan International Kenya 3. MOYAS partners with NGOs like the Navigators, Safaricom Foundation, Menengai Training Institute, Kariobangi Jua Kali Training Institute, among others to train youths on computer based technical and vocational skills. 4. The national I.C.T. policy, 2006 promotes the adoption of modern infrastructure such as under -sea fiber optic cable. 5. MDG no. 8 on global partnership for development, states that we should embrace ICT as it fuels globalization. It also encourages cooperation with private sector to make available the benefits of new technology. 6. Vision 2030 under Industrialization, talks of closing the existing gaps in telecommunication infrastructure and reducing the cost of communication. 7. The new Constitution of Kenya chapter four: article 33- 35, guarantees the freedom of speech, freedom of media and access to information respectively. 8. E-waste management regulations 2006 talks of collecting electrical and electronic waste for disposal, recycling and re-exporting.5.4 Milestones in ICT Development ICT has improved communication and coordination of youth movements andcontributed to a sense of e-solidarity among individuals and groups with differentagendas. There is a growing effort to promote social action and communitydevelopment among young people through electronic communications, "cyber 29 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 30. participation and "e-citizenship . ICT has helped in the improvement of communicationsystem from analog to digital, trade, politics, health, socio-economic development andeducation.In Education, technology has changed the way classrooms operate through integratingmultimedia textbooks, online research, and student presentations that make thelearning process more interactive and participatory.Government offices have adopted modern technologies that have improved their fillingand data storage systems, for example, E-governance where KRA Pin numbers, on-line service charters, on line Jobs applications, and tax compliant certificate are offeredthrough internet.In socio-economic environment, E-banking has effectively built a solid customer basefor banks and reduced their operational and transactions costs. More so, access to andeffective use of ICT has provided new and innovative communication channels thatempower people and give voices to those who previously had none, while allowing themto interact via networks.5.5 Recommendations 1. People should embrace the use of ICT in development to overcome geographical barriers. 2. Measures to improve access to the Internet and to increase information technology literacy at large should be encouraged since effective use of technology will help to strengthen various forms of youth engagement. 3. Youths should frequent public offices to access information that can help them strengthen their groups. 4. Stakeholders should organize more forums to empower youths on ICT skills. 5. The government should introduce ICT education in all schools as part of the curriculum. 6. The government should set up an E-waste center. 30 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 31. 5.6 ConclusionICT sector has a great impact to the modern society and all operators should empoweryouths with information and provide facilities which are accessible. Stakeholders shouldopen more training centers which are affordable so as to get rid of illiteracy in order tocope with the modern world. This is a responsibility for all and should not be left togovernment alone, let s all contribute to the development of ICT in our communities.CHAPTER SIX: ENVIRONMENT6.0 WASTE MANAGEMENT AND SANITATION6.1 IntroductionEnvironment is the physical surrounding of all living things. It is important that wemanage our environment sustainably for the future. The youth are key to enhancingenvironmental sustainability through participatory involvement in decision making,planning and policy formulation.Waste management and sanitation are key element in the environment. It is thusessential that youths be engaged in tackling issues related to them. Wastes are solid,liquid or gaseous and can be categorized as domestic, industrial, agricultural andmunicipal.6.2 Situation AnalysisIn Embakasi the management of both solid and liquid waste lies primarily with the localauthorities. The collection of waste is largely informal due to lack of waste disposalinfrastructure whereby there are practices of open dumping with little recovery activities.For instance the Dandora dumpsite is an area where uncontrolled dumping has led toaccumulation of garbage.Embakasi is largely overpopulated, leading to a strain in the drainage infrastructure dueto poor planning and maintenance e.g. a tarmacked road in Kayole Estate is renderedimpassable due to the blocked drainage system. 31 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 32. Waste collection is largely informal and is done by local CBOsTable 3: Causes and effects of poor waste management causes Effects Dilapidated infrastructure for Diseases and related health disposing the waste problems this include respiratory diseases Poor waste disposal methods by the Environmental degradation, residents such as open dumping in which has led to low quality residential areas environment (poor air quality) Poor planning by government on how Insecurity and poor safety waste should be disposed. conditions Poor co-ordination among Emission of green house gases stakeholders poor coordination by which leads to global warming the council giving room to unscrupulous youth groups Lack of a proper waste management Lack of clear objectives, policies system which can provide a blue print and information (Water Mills and guide to all the stakeholders in project 2008). waste management 32 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 33. Dilapidated poor drainage infrastructure (Atarmacked road in Kayole estate is rendered impassable due to the blocked drainagesystem)Water the perennial problem Waste disposal in opendumping, with little recovery activities 33 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 34. 6.3 Gaps and ChallengesThe area of waste management and sanitation has experienced major draw backs overthe years; the following are some of the challenges that have been identified: I. Weak enforcement of existing laws and regulations, unrealistic penalties, inadequate human resources to monitor and enforce regulations, and cumbersome procedures II. Absence of discharge standards and methods for measuring the quality and quantity of effluents. III. Inadequate incentives to encourage adoption of efficient waste management technologies. IV. Insensitivity of industry to the legal requirements for health and safety in the workplace. V. Low priority and status given to waste management and sanitation.VI. Inadequate training facilities for occupational health and safety services.VII. Absenteeism by the key players, that is, neglect of duty by the council workers and government.VIII. Inefficiency by the youth groups due to lack of proper system to guide activities. IX. Lack of capacity to undertake the required actions in response to waste management little empowerment efforts.6.4 InterventionsEven though there is lackluster performance in waste management and sanitation, thegovernments, through several institutions and various stakeholders have made severalefforts to improve waste management and sanitation. Some of these can bedocumented as indicated below: I. JICA master plan of 1999 which sought to Improve solid waste management II. Planting trees through the KKV initiative III. Kazi Kwa Vijana has also contributed in providing a clean environment by cleaning drainages. IV. Garbage collection by community based organization (CBOs) V. Trainings of community based organizations on environmental management by NGOs and government institutions. VI. National environmental management Authority (NEMA) has plans to open a recycling plant in Ruai by 2012. VII. Researches being conducted by various stakeholders like the CCN and government on better waste management. VIII. Provision of funds and equipments towards the sector by the government, Foreign missions and the NGOs. 34 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 35. 6.5 Policy and Legal FrameworkWaste management and sanitation is directly linked to most of the dimensions of theMDGs: reducing poverty (goal 1), avoiding disease (goals 4 and 6) and promotingenvironmental sustainability (goal 7). Target 9 calls for integration of the principles ofsustainable development into country policies and programs and the reverse of the lossof environmental resources. Target 10 aims at halving the proportion of people withoutsustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Target 11 aims atachieving a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers byyear 2020 (Sachs, 2005).Apart from the millennium development goals, other policy and legal frameworks thatguide waste management and sanitation include: a. Vision 2030. b. Statutes - Water Act (Cap 372); The Physical planning Act; the Public Health Act (Cap 242); the Pests Control Product Act (Cap 346); the Radiation Protection Act (Cap 243); the Mining Act (Cap 306) and the Factories and other Place of Work Act (Cap 514). c. The Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act 1999. d. The Local Authorities Act Cap 265. e. National Environmental Management Authority regulations on solid waste management. f. The City Council s By-laws on solid waste management. g. Sessional Paper no.6 of 1999, which addressed Environment and Development.6.6 RecommendationsTo have clear goals and objectives which must satisfy the social values and theeconomic aspirations of the community.We should use the most common approaches for SWM which are reuse, recycle,composting, sanitary land filling and Incineration.The Government will need to: a) Develop comprehensive waste management policy, guidelines and standards b) Review and harmonize existing laws on waste management c) Strengthen institutional capacities, including research and technologies for waste-minimization; d) Review legal penalties with a view of making them more deterrent; e) Encourage re-use and recycling of residues including used water and the use of low and non-waste technologies; and enhance implementation;Construction of a recycling plant at the Dandora dumpsite instead of relocation. 35 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 36. Adopt an ISWM system like the Italian approach whereby colour coded bins is used.Besides the above recommendations the following model can be used to educate thepublic on solid waste management:Figure 4: I. S. W. M SYSTEM (life cycle approach - L. C. A)6.7 ConclusionWaste management needs an extreme makeover; more conviction from stakeholders;youth participation; and appropriate use of technology. OUR ENVIRONMENT, OUR FUTURE, OUR LIFE 36 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 37. CHAPTER SEVEN: GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONSStakeholders should facilitate debates on participatory governance across Embakasi,for instance, by creating youth forums in every quarter of the year to addressdevelopment issues.Government and other stakeholders should prioritize on core sustainable areas ofeducation, employment creation, employability of youths, equity, entrepreneurship,environmental sustainability and empowerment to improve livelihood for youths.There is need to established a solid public/private/community partnership set up tosupporting the enterprising of young people so as to promote the formation and startupof youth enterprises. This can be achieved through such activities like: civic education toyouth enterprises necessary for small and medium enterprises development and/orharnessing youth talents into lucrative economic opportunities for the youth economy.The government should improve youth awareness on their rights and responsibilitiesthrough sectors such as KACC, Ministry of Justice and Constitutional affairs and civilsocieties like KNHRC. Youths involvement in planning, decision making, implementation and management ofhealth, employment and environmental programmes should be promoted at all levels, inorder to secure a positive and sustainable future for the youth through decisiveleadership, partnerships and the support of active and empowered young people.Stakeholders should engage the youth in spearheading good sewerage and sanitationin community particularly in our slums in order to foster safe garbage disposal methodand national tree planting culture. There is need to champion for social health i.e. fair treatment of the disabled and lessfortunate so as to facilitate decisive reproductive health and safe sex in tackling the HIVpandemic. There is also need for government to facilitate and device ways to achievehealth insurance for the youth in order to secure a brighter future for them.Measures to improve literacy and access to ICT nationally should be encouraged sinceeffective use of technology will help to strengthen various forms of youth engagement indevelopmental programmes. Clear goals and objectives, which must satisfy the social values and economicaspirations of the intended community needs to be adopted. Thus, there is need todevelop comprehensive policies, guidelines and standards, which involve allstakeholders and youths. 37 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 38. CHAPTER EIGHT: CONCLUSIONProviding information to the public on rights and responsibilities improves theirknowledge on key governing instruments such as the constitution and increasesawareness on government programmes including their roles as right holders.Effective civic education on the need for the youth to be at the forefront of thedevelopment agenda is an important tool of mobilizing them to shun from social ills suchas political violence and incitement and thus facilitating for a national framework forcomprehensive youth representation. This is achievable since many Government andnon state institutions are providing civic education.With effective participatory governance and youth involvement in development issuesimproved political stability, national security and capital instrument within local, counties,national levels will be enhanced. This would facilitate the inclusion of the youth agendain national policies and the fulfillment of already promised issues affecting the youth.Youths need to be empowered and educated on health, environmental, economic andsocial sustainability related issues. This will ensure youths participation in governancepractices is increased and enhanced.Lastly, youth should be empowered with information and provided with facilities that areaccessible. This is the responsibility of the entire society. 38 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 39. REFFRENCESAlder, G. 1995. Tackling Poverty in Nairobis Informal Settlements: Developing aninstitutional strategy. Environment and Urbanization, 7(2), 85-107.Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, Kenya 1999 Population and Housing Census,Volume V: Analytical Report on MortalityPlan-Kenya (2009). Baseline-survey Report on Youth and Governance program.Nairobi: Plan Head Office.Republic of Kenya (2005). Millennium Development Goals in Kenya. Needs and Costs.Nairobi: Government Printer.Republic of Kenya (2007), Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey (KIHBS)2005/08. Volume I Basic ReportRepublic of Kenya (2007), Kenya Vision 2030. A Globally Competitive and ProsperousKenya with high quality of life by 2030. Nairobi: Government Printer.Republic of Kenya (2010), Constitution of Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printer.Republic of Kenya (2010), Census Report for Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printer.The standard newspaper, 7th Oct 2010. Digital village development in constituencies.Nairobi: Standard group Centre.UNEP (Article), Developing Integrated Waste Management programme. Nairobi: UNEPKenyaUNDP (2010), Kenya human development report (2009): Youth and humandevelopment: Tapping on the untapped resource. Nairobi: UNDP Kenya Country OfficeUnited Nations Conference on Environment and Development (1992) Agenda 21:Program of Action for Sustainable Development. New York: UNCED.Undugu Society of Kenya (1991) Waste Recycling in Nairobi Report. Nairobi: UnduguSociety of Kenya. 39 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 40. APPENDIXESAPPENDIX 1: REPORT PREPARATION TEAM 1. REPORT COMPILATION TEAM - Martin Mureithi - Cynthia Ochola - Richard Patris - Innocent Heraniah 2. DATA COLLECTION AND DISCUSSION TEAMa) Governance and Leadership - Calvin Okeyo - Bernard Kalola - Diana Warigiab) Employment - Mary Tuyishimire - Innocent Heraniah - Martin Mureithic) Health - Lauryn Ochola - Charles Mutisya - Rose Kanyid) Information Community and Technology - Dan Ong injo - George Oduor Oguda - Margaret Mainae) Environment - Richard Okoth - Cynthia Ochola - Peter Nderitu - Mary Karuku 3. TECHNICAL SUPPORT BENCHEdwine Ochieng: Office of District Gender, Children and Social Development- EMBAKASIKenyatta Maitha: Youth and Governance Advisor Plan KenyaPaul Ngumo: Plan International Nairobi DA youth and governance programmeAnn Syokau: Plan International Nairobi DA youth and governance programme 40 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance
  • 41. APPENDIX 2: LIST OF STAKEHOLDERS 1. Plan International Kenya 2. Ministry of provincial Administration and Internal Security 3. Ministry of Gender, children & Social Development 4. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports 5. Office of Member of Parliament Embakasi constituency 6. Constituency Aids Control Council- Embakasi 7. Ministry of labour 8. Ministry of Agriculture 9. Ministry of Livestock 10. Ministry of Fisheries 11. Little Sports Organization 41 Embakasi Youth Agenda for Participatory Governance