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2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
2013 cambridge  policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist
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2013 cambridge policy directions for innovation in lebanon’s industrial sector,omar bizri sti specialist

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  • 1. 7/17/2013 1 Policy directions for innovation in Lebanon’s industrial sector Omar Bizri Consultant for the Lebanese Council for Scientific Research (NCSR) How-to of Innovation, Technology and Entrepreneurship Cambridge, June 20-21, 2013
  • 2. Objectives This presentation will: - briefly report the results of a recent survey of industrial enterprises in Lebanon conducted by NCSR with support by the World bank during 2012-2013; - enumerate some of the main challenges facing innovation in Lebanon; - present a set of policy directives aimed at ensuring that Lebanon‟s enterprises are transformed into innovation driven entities within a viable national innovation system.
  • 3. Innovation in the Arab countries
  • 4. R² = 0.878 R² = 0.650 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 innovationindex GDP per capita in PPP Dollars (2007) Values of the KAM innivation index vs. GDP per capita for all countries for whaich data is available (blue), the Arab countries (red) and country groups (green) Source: World Bank KAM Database Aug 2011 Qatar UAE KuwaitLebanon Bahrain SA
  • 5. The Survey and its findings  The survey covered 479 enterprises;  Included 66 main sections and around 140 questions;  Most firms answered most questions.  Fairly representative in terms of subsectors & firm sizes;  Generated quite a few questions.  So, in many ways it was well worth doing!
  • 6. Lebanon’s industrial enterprises are mostly small / micro … Percentages of firms making sales within indicated brackets (US$ millions)… 10 to 50 3% 1 to 10 39% less than 1 58% Percentages of firms making sales within indicated brackets (US$ millions)
  • 7. Lebanese industrial enterprises are relatively youthful! 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Prior to 1950 1950-1959 1960-1969 1970-1979 1980-1989 1990-1999 2000-2009 2010-2011 Institution building over the period 1950-present and prior to 1950 (76% est. since 1980)
  • 8. Other characteristics of the industrial sector in Lebanon Predominance of family businesses, 13% of firms employing more than 60 workers (.. conservative, outdated decision making …); Limited foreign investments and partnerships (… limited access to innovative inputs …).
  • 9. Areas of specialisation (subsectors) Food products 16% Printing and publshing 14% Textile and garments 12% Plastics and rubber 8% Chemicals 8% Metal products and industrial eqpt. 20% Software development and computer services 8% Other industries 14% Distribution of surveyed enterprises across sub- sectors/segments
  • 10. Areas of specialisation (2) Four sub-sectors make up 62% of total* • metal products and industrial equipment (20%); • food products 16%; • printing and publishing 14%; • textiles and garments 12%. * In terms of numbers rather than sales)
  • 11. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Lebanon Gulf countries Other Arab countries Africa Europe United States Other countries Asia Countries and continents in which firms’ products were sold
  • 12. Track record of Lebanon’s industrial enterprises* Industrial exports per capita doubling between 2000 and 2007, from $600 million to $1.25 billion. As a percentage of GDP, industrial exports rose from 14 per cent in 2000 to 25 per cent in 2007. *Figures from sources other than the Survey.
  • 13. Awareness of the need for product and process innovations In answer to the question “ Do you believe that there is need to change anything in your products or production processes?” 29 per cent of the firms covered by the Survey did indeed believe there was need for considerable changes; 25 per cent believed there was need for small or limited changes; 46 per cent of all responding firms indicated they did NOT feel any changes in their products or production process were needed.
  • 14. New or significantly improved products introduced during 2010-2011 (1) A sizeable proportion of firms, 45 per cent of the total firms surveyed, introduced a number of new or significantly improved products, during 2010-2011. While 30 per cent of the total, indicated that they had introduced new or significantly improved services. (Four new products or services per firm)
  • 15. New or significantly improved products & processes introduced during 2010-2011 (2) - 24 per cent of responding firms, reported undertaking activities aimed at introducing product or process innovations that were abandoned during 2010 – 2011. - 29 per cent, reported development of product or process innovations that were still on-going by the end of 2011.
  • 16. Maximum and minimum values for spending on R&D by enterprises taking part in the survey (in US dollars) 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 Minimum value Maximum value Std. deviation 2010 2011
  • 17. through firm's own abilities 83.3% mainly by other enterprises/inst- itutions 3% with other enterprises/inst- itutions 14% Modalities utilised by innovative firms in developing new products. (From total of 216 responding firms)
  • 18. Were new product innovations achieved with foreign/national clients/providers or no one, during 2010-2011? 58 per cent of firms were able to introduce product innovations in cooperation with national clients and providers, which also indicates that significant innovation capabilities are nationally accessible. A significant number of firms relied on foreign partners or providers. It might be expected that involvement of foreign partners and technology providers would be expected to bring in innovative techniques.
  • 19. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 National Clients No One Foreign Clients Foreign providers National providers Other Numberofrespondingfirms Patterns of cooperation in the introduction of process innovations
  • 20. Innovation in manufacturing and auxiliary processes 44% 22% 35% 56% 78% 65% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 manufacturing processeslogistics, delivery or distribution methodsmaintenance, purchasing, accounting or computing system Summary of firm's responses regarding new or significantly improved production processes (pale blue) and auxiliary activities (cerulean blue) introduced during 2010-2011 New methods were introduced No new methods were introduced
  • 21. Cooperation in the introduction of new products and services (total of 119 enterprises) ALI 15% Chambers of Comm. & Indy. 24% Berytech 11% Kafalat 28% Lebanese Univ. & Res. Centres 3% Foreign Univ. & Res. Centres 8% Other institutions 11% Distribution of instances of cooperation in the introduction of new products and services across Lebanese and foreign institutions
  • 22. Sources of information on technology Answering the question: “During the years 2010 and 2011, how significant was the factor ‘Lack of information on technology’ in hampering your innovation activities or projects or influencing a decision not to innovate?” Around 77 per cent, did not view lack of information regarding new technologies and the market an obstacle in acquiring innovative inputs. Only 8 per cent of surveyed enterprises considered „lack of information on technology‟ of high or medium importance.
  • 23. Figures on instances of cooperation in introducing product and process innovations indicate that: significant capabilities exist in both product and process innovation within the country AND in certain cases within the industrial firm itself. a considerable proportion of firms have succeeded in establishing links with both national and foreign clients and providers. a miniscule role is played by both national and foreign research facilities and universities in cooperative activities aimed at product and process innovations.
  • 24. Some further comments … Only 47 per cent of the total number of enterprises surveyed were members of the Association of Lebanese Industrialists (ALI)! So ALI may not be truly representative of the widest desirable range of enterprises. Institutions such as Berytech and Kafalat (established a little more than a decade ago) seem to be doing very well in support of activities aimed at introducing innovative products and processes. BdL plays a crucial role in support of Kafalat and other innovative ventures
  • 25. Part II Many challenges stand out. Some are related to overall structure of the economic / political system! But, let’s focus on more specific issues:
  • 26. Prominent challenges High costs of production (energy paramount!); Limited control on the application of standards and norms in the sector (poor quality often limits ability to penetrate foreign markets); Limited range of products and process technologies; Inadequate support by government as well as technical and research institutions established with the express purpose of aiding the industrial sector.
  • 27. Part III A vital question is in need of in-depth consideration: How grand / modest should Lebanon‟s goals be? Are we simply seeking to enhance links between research centres, universities, on the one hand and industrial enterprises, on the other, or do we wish to transform the country into an innovation-driven economy?
  • 28. Lebanon ... Has the potential for playing a much larger role than many think possible. Just consider what its enterprises have done, with little or no support from various quarters: Exports per capita doubling between 2000 and 2007, from $600 million to $1.25 billion. As a percentage of GDP, exports rose from 14 per cent in 2000 to 25 per cent in 2007. Lebanon’s industrial sector is reported as having: enhanced its sophistication by around 36 per cent. introduced over 100 new products between 2000 and 2008, including some with significant innovative inputs, such as ceramics, glass pigments, self- adhesive plates, paper board, watches, among other goods.
  • 29. In Short Transforming Lebanon into a Levant or Middle Eastern Tiger is possible, given sound policies and adequate support.
  • 30. The way ahead … R&D by all means! But also look at non-R&D innovations, i.e. in areas that are not necessarily related to frontier science and technology inputs: assembling available innovative inputs, adopting new management, purchasing, marketing and distribution procedures; Create a better business environment through policy, legislative, institutional changes. Need a spedcialised national body to champion and monitor innovation, set policy goals, promote specific initiatives, evaluate progress … .
  • 31. To move ahead … Looking only at the supply side is never a good option! Doing what we are doing well even better is a good start! Facing up to international competition will open up opportunities that will eventually pay! Identifying priorities through considering the global rather than merely the national and regional scenes; Encourage alliances with overseas partners; Not easy but doable!
  • 32. The Future will be far brighter for Lebanon IF: Trade procedures are simplified, emphasising the export trade, through new technology; Support is provided for innovation by SMEs in selected priority / breakthrough sub-sectors; Clustering is encouraged for greater profitability; Greater participation is ensured by the private sector in building viable innovation infrastructures; Enterprises are enabled to break into global production networks; The national innovation system is radically overhauled!
  • 33. Thank You
  • 34. The Future will be far brighter if: (3) Better links and networking schemes are forged with Lebanon’s expatriate community active in promoting science, technology and innovation; Greater involvement is ensured in international research programs and intra-regional collaborative ventures; Collaboration and networking modalities between higher education and research centres, on the one hand, and private enterprises and their associations, on the other, is radically overhauled; Better access is ensured to foreign technology, know- how, skills, organizational and management practices; A set of key environmental issues are tackled.
  • 35. Radical revision of Lebanon’s science, technology and innovation policy is required. Comprehensive national industrial policy with clear cut implementation strategies, benchmarking and progress evaluation modalities has to be formulated. Planners and policy makers will have to get together with the doers with the former listening more attentively listen to the latter! Urgent Tasks
  • 36. Further Reference Material
  • 37. Networked Readiness Index Table (1); Networked Readiness Index (NRI): ICT use and technology adoption by business enterprises index values and world rankings Country Overall NRI index value; ranking Firm-level technology adoption Capacity for innovation PCT patents per million of population Extent of business Internet use Extent of staff training Impact of ICT on new services and products ICT PCT Patents per million of population Impact of ICT on new organizational models Knowledge- intensive jobs as per centage of workforce Bahrain 4.98 (27) 5.7 (20) 2.4 (117) 2.1 (51) 5.5 (40) 5.0 (11) 5.2 (30) 0.1 (71) 4.6 (42) 20.7 (68) Qatar 5.10 (28) 6.0 (7) 5.0 (11) 1.3 (61) 5.9 (19) 4.7 (24) 5.4 (18) 0.3 (54) 5.4 (6) 24.2 (55) UAE 5.07 (30) 5.9 (16) 3.8 (32) 4.5 (44) 5.5 (36) 4.7 (25) 5.4 (15) 1.2 (41) 5.1 (21) 36.1 (30) Saudi Arabia 4.82 (34) 5.7 (23) 4.3 (21) 2.1 (48) 5.3 (45) 4.6 (28) 5.1 (33) 0.7 (47) 5.2 (18) 22.9 (59) Oman 4.48 (40) 5.2 (49) 3.2 (57) 0.4 (78) 5.4 (42) 4.3 (42) 4.8 (47) 0.0 (82) 4.5 (44) 24.3 (54) Jordan 4.2 (47) 5.4 (37) 2.7 (92) 0.5 (75) 4.9 (76) 3.5 (103) 4.5 (67) 0.2 (60) 4.2 (67) na (-) Tunisia 4.12 (50) 5.1 (50) 3.4 (44) 0.8 (68) 4.8 (82) 4.4 (38) 4.8 (50) 0.2 (65) 4.6 (41) na (-) Kuwait 3.94 (62) 5.4 (39) 2.8 (90) 0.4 (82) 4.7 (91) 3.5 (102) 3.6 (120) 0.3 (55) 3.5 (114) 18.7 (78) Egypt 3.78 (79) 4.7 (78) 2.8 (83) 0.6 (73) 4.6 (96) 3.0 (131) 4.2 (86) 0.1 (78) 4.1 (74) 30.3 (43) Morocco 3.64 (91) 4.7 (74) 2.6 (108) 0.6 (74) 4.5 (102) 3.9 (74) 3.8 (113) 0.2 (64) 3.6 (102) 6.8 (104) Lebanon 3.53 (95) 4.8 (68) 2.6 (106) 0.9 (67) 4.7 (90) 3.6 (98) 3.6 (125) 0.4 (51) 3.1 (128) 31.9 (40) Syria 2.85 (129) 4.8 (70) 2.1 (134) 0.4 (80) 3.8 (132) 2.6 (140) 2.9 (139) 0.0 (81) 2.7 (137) 15.5 (90) Yemen 2.63 (141) 4.0 (123) 1.5 (142) 0.0 (105) 3.6 (137) 2.9 (135) 2.2 (142) 0.0 (96) 2.6 (139) 17.0 (86) Source: The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (UN-ESCWA). Information presented in this table quotes the Global Information Technology Report published by the World Economic Forum and INSEAD 2013. Contents of this table were downloaded on 16th May, 2013 from: http://css.escwa.org.lb/ictd/2094/1.pdf.Its contents tally with the Networked Readiness tables published on the Internet at:http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GITR/2013/GITR_OverallRankings_2013.pdf
  • 38. Networked Readiness Index Lebanon’s scores Lebanon‟s NRI rankings: 106th position among the countries included in the WEF report, and 8th position in comparison with the thirteen Arab countries included in table (1). With regard to business competitiveness among countries across the world Lebanon‟s ranking is: 95th and with only Syria and Yemen trailing behind; 11th among the thirteen Arab countries for which NRI values and world rankings are reported.
  • 39. R&D Spending Country Spending by private enterprise (Rank among 127 countries) Government spending as percentage of GDP( )2 Oman - Tunisia 1.03 Qatar - Saudi Arabia - UAE - Morocco 0.75 Egypt 0.2* Kuwait 0.2* Jordan 0.34 Algeria - Syria - Bahrain - Libya - Lebanon3 - Sudan - 0.3 1. Dutta S. & I. Mia, 2007; World Economic Forum, The Global Information Technology Report 2007-2009; 2. World Bank, 2008; Knowledge Assessment Methodology – KAM; 3. National Centre for Scientific Research (Lebanon)
  • 40. Patenting Activity Rank among 127 surveyed countries Annual average of patents granted during 2002-2006 Patents granted during 2005-2006 Saudi Arabia 14.8 UAE 4.6 Egypt 5.6 Kuwait 5.6 Syria 0.8 Oman 0.2 Jordan 1.4 Bahrain 0 Qatar 0.4 - Algeria 0.4 - Tunis 0.6 - Morocco 0.8 - Lebanon - 2.8 - 1- USPTO; 2- KAM 2008; 3- World Economic Forum, The Global Information: Technology Report 2007-2008
  • 41. Information and Communications Technologies ‫انعانم‬ ‫دول‬ ‫من‬ ‫منتقاة‬ ‫ومجموعاث‬ ‫انعربيت‬ ‫اندول‬ ‫في‬ ‫اندونيت‬ ‫اإلنترنج‬ ‫شبكت‬ ‫إنى‬ ‫اننفاذ‬ ‫حزمت‬ ‫عرض‬ ‫(6-4)؛‬ ‫انشكم‬ 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 ‫ر‬‫ط‬‫ق‬ ‫ث‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫م‬‫إل‬‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫ح‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ج‬‫ي‬‫ى‬‫ك‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ب‬‫ر‬‫غ‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ن‬‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ع‬ ‫ن‬‫ا‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ل‬ ‫س‬ ‫و‬‫ى‬‫ح‬ ‫ن‬‫د‬‫ر‬‫أل‬‫ا‬ ‫ي‬‫ح‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ي‬‫ج‬ ‫ر‬‫ص‬ ‫م‬ ‫ت‬‫ي‬‫د‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫س‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ي‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫خ‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫ى‬‫م‬ ‫ن‬‫ا‬‫د‬‫ى‬‫س‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ر‬‫ئ‬‫ا‬‫ز‬‫ج‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫ى‬‫س‬ ‫ه‬‫م‬‫ي‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬‫أ‬‫ط‬‫س‬‫ى‬‫خ‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫خ‬‫د‬ ‫ى‬‫و‬‫د‬‫أ‬‫ط‬‫س‬‫ى‬‫خ‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫خ‬‫د‬‫ض‬ ‫ف‬‫خ‬‫ى‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫خ‬‫د‬ )‫نسًت‬‫نكم‬‫(بخت‬‫انحسيت‬‫عرض‬ KAM 2008 ،‫الذولي‬ ‫البىك‬ ‫المعرفت؛‬ ‫حقييم‬ ‫مىهج‬ ‫معطياث‬ ‫قاعذة‬ :‫المصذر‬
  • 42. Information and Communications Technologies )‫بانذوالر‬ ً‫ا‬‫(شهري‬ ‫اإلنخرنج‬ ‫إنى‬ ‫اننفار‬ ‫أسعار‬ ‫سهت‬ ‫(6-5)؛‬ ‫انشكم‬ ‫يذاخيهها‬ ‫زير‬ ‫حسب‬ ‫انذول‬ ‫ين‬ ‫ينخقاة‬ ‫ونًجًىعاث‬ ‫ونهعانى‬ ‫انعربيت‬ ‫انذول‬ ‫بعط‬ ‫في‬ 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 ‫ن‬‫ا‬‫د‬‫ى‬‫س‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ي‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫خ‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫ى‬‫م‬ ‫ي‬‫ح‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ي‬‫ج‬ ‫ه‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫ح‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ر‬‫غ‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ي‬‫ى‬‫ك‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ي‬‫د‬‫ى‬‫ع‬‫س‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ر‬‫ط‬‫ق‬ ‫ن‬‫ا‬‫م‬ُ‫ع‬ ‫ت‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫ى‬‫س‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫م‬‫إل‬‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫و‬‫ى‬‫ح‬ ‫ن‬‫د‬‫ر‬‫أل‬‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫م‬‫ي‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ن‬‫ا‬‫ى‬‫ب‬‫ل‬ ‫ر‬‫ئ‬‫ا‬‫ز‬‫ج‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ر‬‫ص‬ ‫م‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ف‬‫خ‬‫ى‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫خ‬‫ذ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ع‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫و‬‫د‬‫أل‬‫ا‬‫ط‬‫س‬‫ى‬‫خ‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫خ‬‫ذ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ي‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ع‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫خ‬‫ذ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ع‬‫أل‬‫ا‬‫ط‬‫س‬‫ى‬‫خ‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫خ‬‫ذ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ )‫بانذوالر‬ً‫ا‬‫(شهري‬‫اإلنخرنج‬‫إنى‬‫اننفار‬ KAM 2008 ،‫انذوني‬ ‫انبنل‬ ‫انًعرفت؛‬ ‫حقييى‬ ‫ينهج‬ ‫يعطياث‬ ‫قاعذة‬ :‫انًصذر‬
  • 43. Information and Communications Technologies take to extra slides ‫انعربيت‬ ‫انذول‬ ‫وبعط‬ ‫انعانى‬ ‫دول‬ ‫في‬ ‫اإلنخرنج‬ ‫واسخخذاو‬ ‫انىرق‬ ‫اسخهالك‬ ‫(6-11)؛‬ ‫انشكم‬ R 2 = 0.7715 R 2 = 0.6853 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 (‫بانكيهوغرامات‬ ً‫ا‬‫سنوي‬ ‫)نهفرد‬ ‫انورق‬ ‫استهالك‬ ‫معذل‬ ‫نسمة‬‫أنف‬‫نكم‬‫اإلنترنث‬‫مستخذمي‬‫عذد‬ http://www.swivel.com/data_sets/columns/1000512:‫المىقع‬
  • 44. The Future will be far brighter for Lebanon IF: (2)
  • 45. Arab Research Institutions Ranking of Arab countries in terms of quality of their research institutions Source: Dutta S. and I. Mia, 2007; World Economic Forum, The Global Information Technology Report 2007- 2008 Country Rank among 127 surveyed countries Rank of within Arab countries Tunisia 36 1 Oman 38 2 Qatar 45 3 Kuwait 46 4 Saudi Arabia 52 5 Jordan 59 6 UAE 66 7 Morocco 79 8 Syria 89 9 Egypt 90 10 Algeria 91 11 Bahrain 113 12 Turkey 49 -- Malaysia 17 --
  • 46. Innovation Variation of Innovation Index with GDP/Cap; World trend and trend for selected Arab countries and country groups (Source: KAM 2008) R2 = 0.816 R2 = 0.261 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 45,000 GDP/Cap (PPP US$, 2005) InnovationIndex Lebanon Jordan Bahrain Oman Tunisia Kuw ait UAE Qatar Saudi Arabia Algeria Egypt Syria
  • 47. Information and Communications Technologies take to extra slides Computers per 1,000 People and Internet Users per 1,000 People, 2005 vs. Gross Tertiary Enrollment Rate R2 = 0.2253 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Gross Tertiary Enrollment Rate, 2005 Computersper1,000People,2005
  • 48. Patterns of cooperation that went into the development of new products 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 National Clients Foreign Clients No One Foreign providers National providers Other Numberofrespondingfirms

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