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PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION
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PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION

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PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION IN RUSSIAN EMPIRE, SOVIET UNION, and POST-SOVIET REGIMES. …

PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS and SOCIAL MODERNIZATION IN RUSSIAN EMPIRE, SOVIET UNION, and POST-SOVIET REGIMES.
Motivation: why study Modernity at all?
Purpose: what’s the aim of my research project?
Definitions: what is Modernity and modernization?
Methodology: how to study Modernity?
Findings so far

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  1. PHILOSOPHY, POLITICSand SOCIAL MODERNIZATIONIN RUSSIAN EMPIRE, SOVIET UNION, and POST-SOVIET REGIMES Mykhailo Minakov, Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine WWICS, Kennan Institute, Washington, DC 24 January 2013
  2. Plan of Today’s Report• Motivation: why study Modernity at all?• Purpose: what’s the aim of my research project?• Definitions: what is Modernity and modernization?• Methodology: how to study Modernity?• Findings so far
  3. Motivation• How thinking changes human environment• And… how thinking fails to change human environment in a happy way• There are always unpredictable impacts of rational interventions on culture and nature
  4. Motivation Change of values : from tradition to progress 0.65 + 0.60 1961-70 1971-80 0.55 afte r 1980 1951-60 1941-50 0.50Secular-Rational Values 1931-40 afte r 1980 0.45 be fore 1921 0.40 afte r 1980 afte r 1980 1971-80 1961-70 after 1980 0.35 be fore 1921 1951-60 1941-50 0.30 afte r 1980 1931-40 0.25 be fore 1921 1921-30 0.20 be fore 1921 be fore 1921 0.15 Africa _ 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 _ Self-Expression Values +
  5. MotivationRational Governance : Supremacy of Imperial Order
  6. MotivationRational Governance : League of Nations Order
  7. MotivationRational Governance : U.N. Charter Order
  8. MotivationUnified Understanding of Political Freedom
  9. MotivationRational Economics
  10. MotivationRational Economics and Industrial Revolution
  11. MotivationRational Economics and Global Warming
  12. Research FrameworkTerritory: Western Eurasia (Imperial Russia/Soviet Union/Post- Soviet Belarus, Russia and Ukraine)Time: XIX – XX centuriesMain question: How Modern philosophical concepts influenced social structures and political practices in territories that entered Modernity as part of the Russian Empire?Focus: Mutual impacts of philosophy and politics, as well as government practices
  13. Modernization• Dissociation with traditional way of life• Rationalization of a life-world• Universalization of norms of action• Socialization that formats abstract ego-identities• Strict separation of the public and private spheres
  14. Definitions• Modernization – cultural, socioeconomic, technical and political change leading to the situation of Modernity• Modernization is a part of Human Development at large, leading to ever broadening human choice• Modernity – society: rationalization, secularization, and bureaucratization – human: individual autonomy, self-expression, and free choice
  15. Definitions• Modernity – socioeconomic transformation – masses with new identities – special role of Reason in all spheres of human life
  16. Methodology• Phenomenological sociology (Schuetz, Berger and Luckmann) – social stock of knowledge – personal inquiry, habitualization, institutionalization• Modernization and human development theory (Inglehart and Welzel) – human development as a change of values and practices – social progress in terms of increase of individual choices• Dialectics of Modernity (Weber and Habermas) – structural transformation of public sphere – instrumental reason vs. life-world
  17. Methodology dialectics of Modernity• Structural transformation of public sphere – from traditional rule to public control over authority – constitutional separation of private and public
  18. Methodology dialectics of Modernity• structural transformation of public sphere
  19. Methodology dialectics of ModernityStructural transformation of public sphere• Free competition for power, “universal access” to rights• Idea of the law-based state: state as a system of norms• Legitimated by public opinion distinction between – legislative and executive power, – reason ordering (norm) and will acting (action)
  20. Methodology dialectics of ModernityModernity is a result of growing instrumental reason(system) separating from life-world – LIFE-WORLD is the realm of life, meaning and social relationships – system of instrumental rationality: use of rational argumentation to order large-scale societies – `disenchantment or the increasing instrumental rationality of contemporary society
  21. Methodology dialectics of Modernity Normative Public – Private DichotomySystem of Instrumental Reason Public Sphere government judiciary parliament privacy of individual parties family civil society religious organizations business Private Sphere Life-World
  22. Modernization and Philosophy• Modernity, in social, terms is being produced by autonomous collective agents legitimately opposed to power – request to limit the power – request for rational argumentation – request for legitimacy through rational conceptualization of authorities (rights, citizenship, political freedom etc)• Special role of philosophy as cultural institute responsible for – preservation of critical position – knowledge production promoting disenchantment of the world – impact on science and education: production of Modernities’ human resources
  23. Methodology dialectics of Modernity• Special role of philosophy and sciences: – philosophy: • production of rational concepts • critical position toward tradition and reason – social sciences: • articulation of theories and institutional models • impact on economic vision and political projects • ideas for civil society – hard sciences: • production of technologies • impact on economic vision and political projects – academic and educational institutes: production of new human
  24. but if philosophy and science fail
  25. Normal and Deviant ModernizationsHistorical Modernization often viewed as• normal: when rationalization takes place in economy, society, political sphere and science• deviant: when rationalization takes place in only one of these spheres, sharpening contradictions with the other spheres – Sonderweg of Nazi Germany – Chinese modernization (I in 1960-s, II – in 1990-2000-s) – Soviet modernization
  26. Deviant Modernities : pathologies of Modern society• Pathologies of Modern society: loss of guiding norms or values in society – Colonization of the life-world – `Iron cage of bureaucracy’ – Rule of intimacy in quasi-Modern societies (oligarchy, cleptocracy, systemic corruption, façade democracy)
  27. Methodology dialectics of Modernity Deviant Public – Private DichotomySystem of Instrumental Reason Public Sphere government judiciary parliament privacy of individual parties family civil society religious organizations business Private Sphere Life-World
  28. Main Theses• Western Eurasia in Deviant Modernity Cage – Russian Empire : dependence on Western European modernization models – Soviet Union – dominance of public over private – Post-Soviet regimes : inability to maintain the public – private dichotomy• Problematic Modernities in contemporary Ukraine, Russia and Belarus are connected with: – weak institutionalization of communities and practices responsible for rationalization of culture – colonization and intimacy as dominant tendencies in Western Eurasian modernization paths
  29. Transfer of ModernityDependence on Western European modernization models• In the non-Western contexts, transfer of development models / modern institutions was one of the ways of modernization• Case of the Imperial Russia: – traditional regime: created its own or transferred models from the Eurasian states in XV-XVII centuries – beginning of modernization: transfer of imperial institutions from the West in XVIII-XIX centuries – USSR hunting for technologies
  30. Dominance of public over private• Pro-Modern totalitarianism (Arendt)• Marxism as applied theory for social engineering of progress• Colonization of life-world – destruction of traditional ways of life (peasantry, language, calendar) – Big Brother: destruction of family and privacy• Intimacy structures – formal laws vs. one-party rule – nomenclature principle
  31. Post-Soviet Systemic CorruptionInability to maintain the public – private dichotomy• Political systems based on use of public instruments for private gain – Corruption as response to ineffective public institutes – Oligarchy as mechanism of preserving public institutes ineffective• Use of private instruments for public purposes – Populism as a core content of politics• De-modernization as a sum of all actors’ activities – invention of traditions (tribalism, ethno-nationalism) – irrational legitimation of power and property
  32. Public Reason without GuardianWeak institutionalization of communities and practicesresponsible for rationalization of life-world – Academy of sciences as governmental project – University as part of administration – Separation of Academy and University – Philosophy under permanent controlLocal production of technical modernization; socialmodernization depends on Western transferred models
  33. Path-Dependency : Conclusions• Problematic Modernities in contemporary Ukraine, Russia and Belarus are connected with the specific path of their Modernization and with the dysfunction of core institutes promoting rationality in societies at large• The point of long-term change – growth of autonomous groups in the public sphere that promote separation of public and private spheres, rational politics and responsive governance
  34. Thank you!

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