Journey Of Man Luca Cavalli- Sforza initiated the idea that with blood- sampling, we could determine our human ancestry. Through the blood samples, Spencer Wells wants to find and explain how everyone on the earth today, came from a group of Africans who left the continent 50,000 years ago. San Bushmen A group in Africa from which all humans originate. They left the continent, in an effort to survive, and settled through different parts of the world. Some are expected to have traveled, during the ice age, along the coast of Africa and Asia to Australia (A walking path would be possible due to decreased ocean levels). Spencer Wells was searching for isolated populations because the gene markers would be easier to spot since there is virtually no outside blood line.
Those who settled in W. Europe would have
traveled through Central Asia which would have taken much longer than the coastline route to Australia.
The Central Asian Marker is the most
important point of Wells’ study as it shows up in the bloodline of populations around the world. -Wells found this Central Asian Marker in Europe, India, and Native Americans.
It was interesting to see the mixed reactions when Wells met certain people after he tested them and wanted to share his findings. For example, the Australian was basically disregarded Wells and said that it couldn’t be true because his religion teaches him different. The Native American group seemed more accepting of Wells’ findings and seemed to be very intrigued at the similarity of the features of the people in the pictures.
The Chuchki people are from Russia where they live in very small groups and travel regularly. The average temperature is around -40 degrees Celsius. They live off reindeer and must constantly move to allow them to feed. The lichens that grow under the snow are their primary food source. The Chuchki are believed to have been the first people to have come to North America. It is believed that a land-bridge was available with the sea level being so low, and that is what they used to come into N. America. It is believed that a relatively small group actually traveled and settled here of only about 10-20. Once they had settled in what is today the United States, they are believed to have traveled further south into Central America.
Catastrophe The film explains that from 536-540 AD, the conditions on earth were cold and a poor climate for trees to grow. They came to this realization by collecting tree samples from different parts of the world and analyzing the growth rings. They see that certain years will have very thin growth rings while the rings in other years are much thicker. The research teams were testing ice cores to find the amount of carbon dioxide present . The time periods with high CO2 levels corresponded with the time periods where the trees had small growth rings.
The three causes of the event presented in the film are either a comet, asteroid, or a volcano. - The big spike in the graph for carbon dioxide points to the culprit being a volcano. With activity levels and size, the volcano expected to have caused such a an effect was Krakatoa in Indonesia. For Krakatoa to have had the effect of cooling the earth, it would have needed to shoot enough ash and other debris high into the atmosphere where it would for a mushroom cloud which would have spread and blocked the sun for years, causing the earth to cool. When the team was searching for charcoal to test, they were struggling to find any. The cause of this is probably due to the fact that the cool temperatures would prohibit forests to grow andwood couldn’t fossilize.
This catastrophic event would not only affect the earth, but it would affect the people who inhabit the earth in these ways: This event is thought to have caused the bubonic plague as rat populations soared and spread the disease. The Avars, who had built their empire with the use of the horse, were defeated by the Turks. The new world climate stopped the vegetation from growing and the horses couldn’t feed which caused them to die off. With no horses in battle, the Avars were at a distinct disadvantage. England, France, Spain, and other nations were created because of the Eruption as people had to start settling in other places with sustainable climates. This event is said to be the division between the old world and new world, because it forced people to look to technology and new techniques for survival which started the advance toward modern techniques. Another eruption like this in the future could be disastrous in terms of supplies and possible warfare.
Columbus and The Age of Discovery The Columbian Exchange was used to transport Europeans and Africans. The transport of the Africans was for the purposes of slavery. When Columbus set out on another discovery excursion in an attempt to find gold, he headed more towards the equator. He ended up in Trinidad and eventually made it to the continent of South America. He thought this was the Garden of Eden because it sloped upward towards heaven. In later journeys, Columbus brought cattle and horses. The arrival of horses allowed the Plains Indians hunt more efficiently which helped them have more time. They created more art. The cattle also helped provide food.
The Spanish arrived in the Andes forty years after Columbus discovered South America. When they arrived there, they used farming to sustain themselves.
The potato was their main crop as it grew without much trouble in the high altitude and throughout all seasons.
Columbus took the potato back with him and it became a staple crop worldwide soon after. Its ability to grow in any weather and climate made it attractive and it was inexpensive which allowed lower class members of society to have ample amounts of food.
The availability of food led to a population boom in Europe.
When Irish Potato Famine hit in the mid-19th century, it shocked Ireland. Nearly one million people died. Many people decided to emigrate from Ireland due to the lack of food supply. Many of the Irish that left decided to go to America, where a fair amount settled in Boston. Their culture is still extremely visible in Boston today and many Irish-Americans still live in the city today.